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General Psychology

by: Glen Hackett

General Psychology PSY 1410

Glen Hackett
GPA 3.8

Kimberly Ward

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Kimberly Ward
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Glen Hackett on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1410 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Kimberly Ward in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/213031/psy-1410-middle-tennessee-state-university in Psychology (PSYC) at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
0 Study Guide Exam 2 Uicich Ward Material Covered Chapters 3 omit pages 97101 106112 4 and 5 and class material Be familiar with the following individuals and concepts for the exam Ch 3 Sensation and Perception Peogle Weber German physiologist Ernst Weber describes the role of stimulus strength in our ability to detect differences Weber39s Law states that the smallest detectable difference in stimulus energy justnoticeable difference is a constant fraction of the intensity of the stimulus Fechner Founder of psychophysics He is credited with demonstrating the nonlinear relationship between psychological sensation and the physical intensity of a stimulus via the formula quot5 KLog Iquot Young Early 180039s proved that mixing pure versions of blue green and red light in different ratios could produce any other color Hemhotz confirmed Young39s findings 0 The YoungHelmholtz theory of color vision is called the trichromatic theory Hering founder of the theory of color vision called the opponentprocess theory oThis theory explains color after images stating that when one member of an opponent pair is no longer stimulated the other is activated 0 Huble amp Wiesel Studied feature detectors which are certain cells that specialize in responding to lines edges corners and stimuli that have specific orientations in space Concegts o Sensation vs perception Sensation is a message from the senses Perception is using sensations as a meaningful experience JND Just Noticeable Difference Refers to the smallest detectable difference Also known as quotdifference thresholdquot Threshodthe minimum amount of stimulation needed to start a neural impulse you know the electrical impulses that travel throughout your body carrying important information 0 Absolute thresholdabsolute threshold is the smallest amount of energy that can be detected 50 percent of the time Psychophysics The relationship between physical energy in the environment and your psychological experience of that energy Sensory adaptationreduced sensitivity to stimulation that results from repeated presentations of that stimulation Getting used to things 0 Selective attention Attending to some stimuli making one less able to attend to others Selecting specific information to further process Subimina perception Can sense somewhat experience sensation below our quotthresholdquot but cannot really cause changes in behavior cannot persuade us Taste buds Our receptors for taste There are about 200000 in a person39s mouth Primary tastes Sour sweet bitter and salty Taste preferenceschooslng certain types of foods versus others based on perception Top down processing Knowledge of the world and experience in perceiving allow people to make inferences about the identity of stimuli even when the quality of raw sensory information is low Bottom up processing Raw sensations from the eye or the ear are analyzed into basic features such as edges color or movement these features are then recombined at higher brain centers where they are compared with stored information about objects or sounds oTop down and bottom up processing work together to help us recognize the perceptual world Parts of the eye and how they work opupil an opening in the eye just behind the cornea through which light passes olris the part of the eye that gives it its color and adjusts the amount of light entering it oLens the part of the eye directly behind the pupil Curved so it bends light rays oRetina surface onto which the lens focuses light rays Light spectrum distribution of light energy versus wavelength interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors p Rods photoreceptors in the retina that allow sight even in dim light but that can t distinguish colors oCones photoreceptors that are less light sensitive than rods but can distinguish colors 0 Optic nerve bundle of fibers that carry visual information to the brain Trichromatic theory of color vision Theory of color vision stating that info from three types of visual elements combines to produce the sensation of color 0pponent process theory of color vision a theory of color vision stating that the visual elements that are sensitive to color are grouped into redgreen blueyellow and blackwhite pairs Gestalt principles of perceptual organization eg figureground proximity closure etc Proximity the closer objects or events are to one another the more likely they are to be perceived as belonging together Similarity similar elements are perceived to be part of a group Continuity sensations that appear to create a continuous form are perceived as belonging together Closure We tend to mentally fill in missing parts of incomplete objects Texture When basic features of stimuli have the same texture we tend to group those stimuli together Simplicity We tend to group features of a stimulus in a way that provides the simplest interpretation of the world Common fate Sets of objects that move in the same direction at the same speed are perceived together Ch 4 Mental States and Consciousness People 0 Freud Wish fulfillment model dreams are a disguised form of wish fulfillment suggested that unconscious activities especially those involving unacceptable sexual and aggressive urges are actively kept out of consciousness Cartwright problem solving information processing model believe that dreams give people a chance to review and address some of the problems they face during waking hours Crick and Mitchison mental housekeeping byproduct model sensory input is shutoff brain assimilates wanted and unwanted info dreams are part of scanningsorting Hobson and McCarley activation synthesis model Dream are the brain s attempt to llmake sense of random firing Concepts consciousness Our awareness of ourselves and our environment 0 External events OO O 0 Internal sensations and reactions Self as experiencing Thoughts about experience ls selective 0000 0 Biological tendency to show fluctuations or changes in physiological functioning across time o Humans have yearly monthly daily and 90 minute cycles 0 Daily cycle most influential I Circadian rhythm tendency towards 25 hour cycle I Seem most controlled by superchiasmatic nucleus the hypothalamus o lnfradian is a rhythm with a period longer than the period of a circadian rhythm ie with a frequency less than one cycle in 28 hours such as menstruation breeding tidal or seasonal rhythms o Ultradian sleep wake cycle happens more than 1x per day 0 Humans cycle through 5 stages of sleep every 90 min 0 Stages 14 NON REM I Progressively into deeper sleep I Varied brain wave activity I Very little if any dreaming 0 Stage 5 REM I Deep sleep with rapid eye movements I High frequency low amp Brain waves beta waves looks like you are awake on a brain scan I Vivid dreaming irregular heartbeat and breathing nearly paralyzed o Superchiasmatic nucleus a tiny region on the brain39s midline situated directly above the optic chiasm It is responsible for controlling circadian rhythms The neuronal and hormonal activities it generates regulate many different body functions in a 24hour cycle using around 20000 neurons Reticular activating system connects the lower parts of the brain which is the brain stem to the cerebral cortex through various neural paths The brain stem controls most of the involuntary functions as well as reflexes of the body while cerebral cortex is the seat of consciousness and thinking abilities So the reticular activating system forms a link between these two different regions It is a bridge between the upper brain and the lower brain 0 Jet lag fatigue irritability inattention and sleeping problems caused by air travel across several time zones 0 Abnormalities of sleep nightmares night terrors narcolepsy apnea insomnia Night mares frightening dreams that take place during REM sleep Night terrors the occurrence of horrific dream images during stage 4 sleep followed by rapid awakening and a state of intense fear Narcolepsy a daytime sleep disorder in which a person suddenly switches from an active waking state into REM sleep Apnea a sleep disorder in which a person briefly but repeatedly stops breathing during the night Insomnia a sleep disorder in which a person has trouble falling asleep or staying asleep at night 0 Beta looks like you are awake on a brain scan 0 Alpha wakeful relaxation with closed eyes 0 Theta A person who has taken time off from a task and begins to daydream is often in a theta brainwave state 0 Delta waves They never go down to zero because that would mean that you were brain dead But deep dreamless sleep would take you down to the lowest frequency O o 4 major theories of dreams Wish Ful llment Model 0 based on Freud 0 Claim dreams have manifest and latent content 0 little empirical evidence Problem Solving Information Processing Model 0 Cartwright and colleagues 0 Cognitive model 0 Dreams help organize and solidify daily experiences 0 some data to support REM sleep facilitates memory Mental Housekeeping Byproduct Model 0 Evans Crick Mitchison 0 Physiological model 0 Sensory input is llshut off 0 Brain assimilates wanted and unwanted info 0 Dreams are part of scanningsorting Activation Synthesis Model 0 Hobson and McCarley 0 Physiological model 0 Dream are the brain s attempt to llmake sense of random firing Ch 5 Learning People 0 Pavlov not a psychologist studied salivation in dogs identified processes in learning by association and method to do so I USlt URlt CSlt CR 0 Skinner father of behaviorism defined operant responses to quotoperatequot on the environment I Types of consequences reinforcement punishment I Stimulus control discrimitive stimuli 0 Watson and Rayner little Albert demonstrated CC in humans 0 Thorndike law of effect Hungry cats in maze showed learning curve demonstrated that consequences affect learning 0 Bandura bobo doll experiment observational learning is a powerful force in the socialization process through which children learn about which behaviors are and are not acceptable in their culture Concepts 0 Learning relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience 0 Classical type of learning by association between stimuli that precede a behavior antecedents o Operant type of learning in which behavior is altered primarily through consequences 0 Observational conditioning type of learning in which behavior is altered primarily through consequences 0 Unconditioned stimulus UCS a stimulus that triggers a response without conditioning o Unconditioned response UCR the automatic unlearned reflexive reaction to a stimulus Conditioned Stimulus CS an originally neutral stimulus that now triggers a conditioned response Extinction the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response Stimulus generalization a process in which a conditioned response is triggered by stimuli similar to the original conditioned stimulus Stimulus discrimination a process in which people learn to differentiate among similar stimuli and respond appropriately to each one Law of effect a law stating that if a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is rewarded the same response is more likely to occur when that stimulus is encountered again Positive reinforcement stimuli that strengthen a response if they follow that response Negative reinforcement the removal of unpleasant stimuli Punishment the presentation of an aversive stimulus or removal of a pleasant one following some behavior Taste aversion humans can develop classically conditioned taste aversions even to preferred foods


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