Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology PSY 3320
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Industrial and Organizational Psychology Introduction to the World of Work Copyright Paul E Spector All rights reserved March 15 2005 What Is IO Psychology Psychology is the science of human behavior IO psychology is the science of human behavior at work Dual focus Ef ciencyproductivity of organizations I Healthwellbeing of employees 0 Dual nature Development and application of the science of psychology to the workplace Activities and Settings of IO Psychologists Practice Consulting rms government private corporations Major focus is application of eld to real world workplaces Research Most are college professors Much of time spent teaching and doing research Considerable overlap between the two settings and most IO psychologists do both to some extent Percentage of IO Psychologists Who Work in Various Settings a 39k vi x x a Universities Consulting iirms 25 Source Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology 2006 Member Survey Overall Report 10 as a Profession Graduate degree helpful MA or PhD Basic psychology research methods amp IO content necessary IO Professional Associations Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychologists SIOP Comprised entirely of IO psychologists 0 About 6000 members 38 are student af liates Academy of Management AoM Very large majority of members are not psychologists European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology EAWOP Society of Occupational Health Psychology SOHP Newest addition relevant to IO Those interested in issues of employee health safety and wellbeing IO Psychology as a Science Research is one of the major activities for IO psychologists Develop new methods and procedures for activities like selection and training Results shared through Meetings held by associations like SIOP Journals such as the Journal of Applied Psychology Publication of research papers is dif cult and competitive The History of IO Psychology According to Dr Frame Why Do We Care realize the contributions and actions of people that came before comprehend how past situations and circumstances led to current scenarios advancements and predicaments gain an understanding of the direction that they are headed learn from preVious successes while hopefully avoiding the mistakes of the past Before 1800 In 1491 BC Jethro a Midianite priest In 500 BC The Art of War by Sun Tzu In 400 BC Socrates In 370 BC Xenophon In The Republic Plato In 360 BC Aristotle In 260 BC through 220 AD Han Dynasty The Disclosures 1513 Machiavelli In 1776 Adam Smith Before 1900 In 1813 Robert Owen In 1832 Charles Babbage In 1855 Daniel McCallum in 1885 Captain Henry Metealf In 1886 Henry R Towne WWI WWII CRA 1964 CRA 1991 ADA ADEA After 1900 Timeline of Major Events Americans with disabilities Act passes APA adopts the name Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology Civil Flights Act passes World War II war elfon begins Hawthorne studies begin First IO PhD is awarded Psychological Corporation is founded Mental tests for job placement are developed First llO textbook is published IO Psychology Around the World IO interest has exploded over the past 1015 years and accelerating American consulting rms have become international re ected in names DDIDevelopmenta1 Decisions Inc to International PDIPersonne1 Decisions Inc to International Research focus varies by country Number of graduate programs increasing rapidly around the world The Most Popular IO Research Topics in Eight Countries Country Topics Canada Career development Employee selection a job stress leadership England Employee selection job stress leadership turnover gender Germany Job Stress motivation training work env1ronment India Job satisfaction job stress motivation Liorganizatiopalileviel Israel Career development job satisfaction motivation performance appraisal values Japan Career development job stress leadership 7 I motivation Scandinavia Gender job stress shift work I unemployment United Career development employee selection States 7 leadership performance appraisal From Erez M 1994 Countries With the Most lO Graduate Programs Country Number of Country Number of programs programs US 124 France 4 Germany 11 New Zealand 4 Australia 7 Spain 4 Canada 7 Turkey 4 England 7 Korea 3 Belgium 5 Nigeria 3 China 5 Puerto Rico 3 Netherlands 5 Median Salaries of IO Psychologists in the US in 2000 MA 72000 PhD 98500 Applied starting 73750 Academic starting 55600 Men 100000 Women 85000 Note Gender difference mostly accounted for by women being more likely to be MA level and being younger Source Khanna amp Medsker 2007 6 Ethical Principles from American Psychological Association Code Competence Integrity Professional and Scienti c Responsibility Respect for People s Rights and Dignity Concern for Others Welfare Social Responsibility Industrial and Organizational Psychology Training Employees at Copyright Paul E Spector All rights reserved March 15 2005 Selection Vs Training Selection Training Find person with KSAOs Train KSAOs Typically American Typically European Presumes supply of Presumes supply of capable applicants trainable applicants Find right person Develop right person The Role of Training Money Spent of Training Organizations spend 514 billion each year on training Dolezalek 2005 Training costs ASTD 2005 2 of payroll 955 per employee Need to consider Direct costs Indirect costs Hidden costs The Role of Training Goals Improve performance by increasing Selfawareness Knowledge Skill Motivation The Role of Training Global Types of Training Basic skills Technical skills Interpersonal skills Personal effectiveness Organizational maneuvering Training Steps 0 Determine training needs 0 Develop training program Establish goals and objectives Choose the best training design Prepare the training Conduct the training 0 Evaluate training Steps of a Training Program Set Des gn Deliver Evaluate lamecuves uammg 39 lralmng quot i39 umnmg Needs Assessment What is a Training Need Discrepancy between actual performance and An ideal A norm A minimum A desired state An expected state Analysis of Need Four Key Questions What are we trying to accomplish Why do we think there is a need for our training program Is there an actual need for our training program Is our idea for a training program practical Needs Assessment Determining which employees need training and What the content should be Should focus on three levels Organization JobTask Person Training resources are often wasted if needs assessment is not done Organizational Analysis Goals and objectives Economic analysis Organizational climate Employee readiness Attitudes Time 0 Commitment Management support Resource analysis J ob Task Analysis Job analysis identi es Tasks Conditions under which tasks are performed KSAOs needed to perform tasks under those conditions Task analysis identi es how tasks are learned Expected at timeof hire Easily taught on thejob Current training program No training Example of a Task Analysis Task How task is learned Answer customer questions about rates Basic rate charts Process customer transactions Basic teller training Calm irate customers Check loan applications for accuracy Loan processing course Ask customers to complete VISA applications Input customer transactions into the computer Basic teller training Answer customer questions about services Basic teller training Person Analysis Performance appraisal scores Surveys Interviews Skill and knowledge tests Critical incidents Analysis of Need Is the Program Practical Will people participate in the program Are the barriers insurmountable Do we have the expertise Do we have the funding Resource Analysis Funding How much Staff Number Skills Availability 0 Physical resources Of ce space Phones Computers Vehicles Developing a Training Program Trainee characteristics Training design Feedback General principles Identical elements Overleaming Sequencing Work environment Transfer of training to the job Training Objectives amp Design Must be clear on purpose of training De ne the criteria of good training success 0 Transfer of Training can employees apply skills and abilities learned in training to their job Trainee characteristics 0 Ability amp motivation Design factors Work environment Developing a Training Program Setting Goals and Objectives What Do You Want to Accomplish Knowledge general V expert narrow V Broad Skill What level of pro ciency Motivation How much and for how long Appreciation eg diversity 21 Developing a Training Program Setting Goals and Objectives Goals should state What learners are expected to do The conditions under which they are expected to do it The level at which they are expected to do it Goals should be Concrete Attainable Can you accomplish your obj ectives 22 Developing a Training Program Setting Goals and Objectives Properly written objective statements include Kroehnert 2000 Action word Item Condition Standard 23 Example By the end of this training session you will be able to answer customer questions about loan rates action word item Without asking others 90 of the time condition standard 24 Example By the end of this training session you Will be able to balance the teller drawer Without assistance action word item condition in 30 minutes with no errors standard 25 Example By the end of this training session you Will be able to compute adverse impact levels using a calculator action word item condition with no errors standard 26 Choosing the Best Training Method Classroom Training Lecture to acquire knowledge live or video Case studies to apply knowledge Simulation exercises to practice new skills Role play and behavioral modeling to learn interpersonal skills Distance Learning Books Videos Interactive video Programmed instruction Webbased instruction elearning Computerbased instruction 27 Choosing the Best Training Method Onthe Job Training Modeling Job rotation Apprentice training Coaching Mentoring Performance appraisal 28 Conducting Classroom Training 29 Initial Decisions Who will conduct the training Inhouse trainers 750 per seminar hour to develop External trainers 1005 00 per seminar hour Videos 200 900 to purchase 0 2000 per nished minute to produce Local universities Where will it be held Onsite Offsite Local hotel 0 Resort area 30 How long should the training be Considerations Ef ciency 0 Attention span 0 Time away from work 0 Massed vs distributed practice Options 0 12 hours 0 Half day 0 Full day 0 Several days 31 Individual Training Through Distance Learning Concept of programmed instruction Selfpaced Trainee is actively involved in the learning Material is presented in small units Formats Books Video Interactive video Computer based training CBT Web based elearning 32 OntheJob Training 33 Learning by Modeling Others Characteristics of the model Successful Status Similarity Characteristics of the observer Attention Retention Reproduction skills 34 Learning Through Job Rotation Job rotation Cross training Volunteerism Learning through Apprentice Training Used in crafts and trades 144 hours of formal class work each year Work with an expert usually 4 years 35 Learning through Coaching Experience employee works with new employee Problems 0 Not all employees are good coaches 0 Coaching can lower the coach s work productivity Pass through programs and corporate coaches can alleviate problems Learning through Mentoring Mentoring is less formal than coaching Good mentors can be difficult to find 0 Learning through Performance Appraisal 36 WEE LE Tl At aamttmes Ill Ellj llTlitllll llj Methods Method Advantagea Audioviaoal instruction Presents material that could not otherwise he heard or seen Can train many people at once Autoinstruction Gives immediate feedback to trainees Individualized pacing Conference Allows for feedback to trainees High level of trainee involvement Lecture Economical Good information giving method Modeling High level of feedback Provides practice of new skills Un thejob training Exposure to actual job High level of transfer Role playing High level of feedback Provides piactice of new skills Simulation High level of transfer Provides practice of new skills Source Adapted from Selection Training and Development of Peraozmel by VJ C Barman N 3 Peterson and T L Rousell 1992 in G Salvendy Edi Handbook of Industrial Engineering 211d ed New York John N ey EXAM 1 INFORMATION Exam 1 will consist of 100 or so multiplechoice items 1 pt each You must bring a pencil more than one would be better and a Scantron sheet form number 4521 The BLUE one Be able to de ne describe and explain all of the important terms and concepts in the text and those covered in the lecture Students are strongly encouraged to use the textbook publishers companion website which can be found at wwwwileycomcollegeSpector Evaluation of Training Results Evaluation Did the Training Work Set criteria Training criteria 0 Reactions 0 Learning Performance criteria 0 Behavior 0 Results Design of evaluation studies Pretestposttest Control group Choose measures and collect data Analyze and interpret data Choose 1 de gn Deyelpp Collect daxa Analyze and omena Interpret results Choose measu res Evaluation of Training Results Research Designs gt gt 42 Evaluation of Training Results Solomon fourgroups design a i 9 Group 1 Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 43 Industrial and Organizational Psychology Assessment Methods For Selection amp Placement Copyright Paul E Spector All rights reserved March 15 2005 Validity De nition The degree to Which inferences from scores on tests or assessments are justi ed by the evidence Common Ways to Measure Content Validity Criterion Validity Construct Validity I Q Content Validity The extent to which test items sample the content that they are supposed to measure In industry the appropriate content of a test of test battery is determined by a job analysis Criterion Validity Criterion validity refers to the extent to which a test score is related to some measure of job performance called a criterion Established using one of the following research designs Concurrent Validity Predictive Validity Validity Generalization Criterion Validity Concurrent Validity Uses current employees Range restriction can be a problem Criterion Validity Predictive Validity Correlates test scores with future behavior Reduces the problem of range restriction May not be practical Criterion Validity Validity Generalization Validity Generalization is the extent to which a test found valid for a job in one location is valid for the same job in a different location The key to establishing validity generalization is metaanalysis and job analysis Typical Corrected Criterion Validity Coef cients for Selection Techniques Method Validity Method Validity Structured Interview 57 College grades 32 Cognitive ability 51 References 29 Job knowledge 48 Experience 27 Work samples 39 Conscientiousness 24 Assessment centers 38 Unstructured interviews 20 Biodata 34 Interest inventories 10 Integrity tests 34 Handwriting analysis 02 Situational judgment 34 Proj ective personality tests 00 Construct Validity The extent to which a test actually measures the construct that it purports to measure ls concerned with inferences about test scores Determined by correlating scores on a test with scores from other test Face Validity The extent to which a test appears to be job related Reduces the chance of legal challenge Increasing face validity Psychological Test Characteristics A standardized series of problems or questions that assess a particular individual characteristic Group vs individual Objective vs openended Paper and pencil vs performance Power vs speed Test Types Ability tests Cognitive ability Psychomotor ability Knowledge and skill tests Knowledge what one knows Skill what one is able to do Personality Personality is a predisposition to behave in a particular way Problems 0 Faking 0 Job relevance I Inductive reasoning Spatial orientation Verbal meaning Word fluency a Number skill Pe ormance 25 32 39 4G 53 60 67 T4 8 1 58 Age in Years 92am sunMum mumquot Extraversion Agreeableness The Conscientiousness Big Five Personality Model Emotional Stability Openness to Experience ozone Wanmam Thumsan 16 Personality Factor Test 16PF Factor AWarmth C001 vs Warm Factor BIntelligence Concrete Thinking vs Abstract Thinking Factor CEmotional Stability Easily Upset vs Calm Factor EDominance Not Assertive vs Dominant Factor FImpulsiveness Sober vs Enthusiastic Factor G Conformity Expedient vs Conscientious Factor H Boldness Shy vs Venturesome Factor I Sensitivity ToughMinded vs Sensitive Factor LSuspiciousness Trusting vs Suspicious Factor MImagination Practical vs Imaginative Factor N Shrewdness Forthright vs Shrewd Factor OInsecurity SelfAssured vs SelfDoubting Factor QlRadicalism Conservative vs Experimenting Factor Q2Self Suf ciency GroupOriented vs SelfSuf cient Factor Q3Self Discipline Undisciplined vs SelfDisciplined California Psychological Inventory CPI Scales Psychologicalmindednesses Dominance Capacity for status Communality Sociability Achievement via conformity Achievement via independence Social Presence Intellectual ef ciency Selfacceptance Flexibility F emininity Selfcontrol Good impression Sense of wellbeing Responsibility Socialization Tolerance Example of a Psychomotor Ability Test Stromberg Dexterity Test Reproduced by permission 1981 by the Psychological Corporation All rights reserved More Test Types Emotional Intelligence Ability to control and recognize emotions Trait vs information processing Integrity Predict Whether person will engage in dishonest behaviors Overt vs personality Vocational interest Drug testing Biographical Information Simply asks people What you Wish to know Biographical inventory More detailed background information Empirical vs rational Predictive of job performance Interviews Facetoface meeting with one or more interviewers Used in almost every hiring situation Structured vs unstructured Structured much more valid in predicting performance Used to gather information about applicant and interpersonal behavior Interviewer can affect answers of interviewee Can now be conducted remotely CCFun99 examples of reasoning test items Insight 39 How could you reareange the words new door to make one word ONE WORD Insight It is impossible for anyone to survive longer than one week without drinking yet TeX managed a ten day desert crossing without nding water or bringing any along How was this possible 39 A desert is a place so arid that no vegetation grows This includes frozen deserts 39 What is so unusual about the sentence below Jackdaws love my big sphinx of quartz Insight Awell known fashion designer wanting to escape the city decided to spend a few days in a rural resort She went for a stroll to get some fresh air that was the last time she was seen alive The autopsy revealed that her death was caused by a pack on her back What was so deadly about the pack It was a pack of wolves Insight 39 How can you stand behind your father if he is standing behind you 39 Stand back to back 39 Starving Artic Natives will Never eat a penguin s eggs Why 39 There are no penguins in the artic Insight 39 l was once on vacation and decided to take a walk I walked one 1 mile South I stopped and looked around I saw a bear to the West of me so I decided to head East I walked one 1 mile toward the East I then turned and walked North for 1 one mile I stopped when I realized that l was right back where I started from 39 What color was the bear Inductive Reasoning THU ITII 3 L 5 I 3quot BquotJ11 IIHH M1I1F1E391Em li 1li T111191 lt gt D O Z l l W A C E Wm I Heart Q Calculating with Symbols Radanalgma 39i won 15 W El Em Waiterm Raven Progressive Matrices m1 Matri eeeeee ts Raven Progressive Matrices r l 39 3934 u L r M It A 1 I Sample item from the 93 l 39ZF Raven Progressive 1 5 I m gg F I 5 Ifl F W A test that mimics Raven39s Advanced Progressive Matrices Work Samples Simulation of actual job tasks Good predictors of future job performance Acceptability by applicants because of obvious job relevance High face validity Assessment Centers Simulation of management and other White collar jobs In US used mainly for promotion and selection of managers Tasks of Assessment centers Inbasket exercise Leaderless group exercise Problemsolving simulation Roleplay exercise Overall scores valid predictors of performance Dimension scores often not valid Rater training improved validity of dimensions Electronic Assessment Electronic administration of psychological test Scored automatically Allows for access all over world Via the web Must take steps to avoid cheating Skill and problemsolving tests also possible Tailored testing Computer adaptive testing Trend or wave of the future Industrial and Organizational Psychology Performance Appraisal Copyright Paul E Spector All rights reserved March 15 2005 Why Do We Appraise Employees Administrative decisions Rewards amp punishments Union amp legal issues Employee development and feedback Criteria for research Characteristics of Criteria Criterion a standard by which you can judge the performance of anything including a person Theoretical vs actual criterion Contamination Actual measures something other than the theoretical De ciency Actual fails to capture the theoretical Relevance Actual assesses the theoretical Levels of speci city Theoretical Criterion Relevance Contamination Actual Criterion Performance Criteria Cont Criterion complexity Quality vs quantity Composite criterion approach Multidimensional approach Dynamic criteria Variability of performance over time Contextual performance Extra voluntary task to help coworkers amp organization Objective Methods Counts of behaviors or outcomes of behaviors EX of accidents per year of units produced Advantages Consistent standards Within jobs Not biased by judgment Easily quanti ed Face validitybottom line oriented Disadvantages Not always applicable Performance not always under individual39s control Too simplistic can be de cient Performance unreliable dynamic criterion Subjective Methods People s judgments about performance Graphic rating form Behavior based Critical incidents Mixed Standard Scale Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale Behavior Observation Scale Development of behaviorfocused forms Models of the rating process Content of subordinate effectiveness Diganize cnal ekille A good construmbnal order of material elldee smoothly fren39i EII39lE tqaic 0 another deeign efceuree opiirnizee lntereet studante can eaeily lcllcrw nrgenize ienel Strategy couree UL lin fallowed Fdldwe a murde ejdlebusi presents latturee in a bgieal crder ee eech lecture int5 the previous one Prepares a muree ayllehue but only follows it eccaeidnelly premnta Eturea in ne partisular elder although does tie hem together Halters no use at a nurse ayllehue lectures on maids randame with no tgicel Cfd l 10 39 This instutter muizl be emanated 11 aeeimilete the previous lecture into 1he present ene before A beginning the lecture This instructor muld be expected 11 ennmnee err the end of each lezture the material that will be watered duringthe rem Ghee perm 39 This instmcter mulcl be maimed 1 0 be aideteem t least once a week in lecmre and not carver the intended material 39 This instructor could Ice lambasted to lecture a gated deal at thetime steam BLbjeme ether than the amjeetaihe is supgeeed L to lectune m Rater Error 0 Rater Error amp Bias Halo errors Distributional errors Research shows that behaviorfocused ratings alone do not eliminate errors Rater training Rater error training instructs raters in how to avoid errors Reduces halo and leniency error Less accuracy in some studies Frame of reference training Give raters examples of performance and correct ratings Initial research promising in reducing errors Day amp Sulsky 1995 Examples of Rater Errors TAE Li M Ennr Pnllnnl Dimansinn Empmyee 1 Emplavae 2 Empmye 3 Emplnyce 4 A nldantz S 3 4 n manna J 3 l 4 Fnuuwing chmlm i 3 1 4 Wm quality 3 3 1 4 ank gummy 5 3 1 4 nu a a Jan Penummuce IImgs In rum Emplnyxes on Five nunensan llllslmnuu 3 Lamech mu Pmlanl Dxmmzmu Employee 1 Emplnyre 2 Enplnyu 3 Employee J Humans J S S f Cmmuummuml I w i runumng dmcnuns 5 4 4 J w may 4 i 4 Wax quann lt 4 5 5 More Performance Appraisal Other factors that in uence ratings Liking of subordinates Mood of rater Views of subordinate s motivation Subordinate race 360 Degree feedback more on Thursday Technology Monitoring of objective productivity Performance management systems 0 Webbased Automates process and noti es raters Legally Defensible Performance Appraisal Performance appraisals can be legally challenged Organizations lost 41 of cases Werner amp Bolino 1997 Practices that minimize legal challenges Job analysis to de ne dimensions of performance Develop rating form to assess dimensions from prior point Train raters in how to assess performance Management review ratings and allow employee appeal Document performance and maintain detailed records Provide assistance and counseling Future Issues amp Challenges Rater training Use of computers in performance appraisal Convince employers the importance of completeunbiased performance appraisal system Appraisal systems across countries Steps in Developing the System Create a taskforce that includes all levels in the organization Determine Why you are evaluating performance your goal Most systems have no goal 90 of systems do not work SHRM survey Will improving individual performance improve organizational performance Identify environmental and cultural variables that could affect the system Steps in Developing the System Determine the sources to be used in appraising performance Assumptions Coens amp Jenkins 2000 0 Supervisors and raters are fair objective and unbiased Supervisors and employees Will not try to manipulate performance ratings to get desired outcomes 0 Raters can adequately distinguish an individual s performance from the situational constraints the system Determine the best method to accomplish your goal 1 Determine Purlljuse of the nnnraisal What is the Purpose of the Appraisal Feedback and training 65 Personnel decisions Raises 86 Promotions 45 termination decisions 30 I Research Legal or certi cation reasons Iquot 2163 73 m J y it x era 7 i is a g 2 Identity Environmental and Cultural limitations We ll talk more about this later in the semester D39eterlnine who will evaluate nertornlance 20 Who Will Appraise Performance Upper management Direct supervisor Peers Subordinates Support staff Customersthe public Vendors S 61f 21 360 Feedback Use 28 of organizations Mercer Consulting 2005 65 William Mercer survey SHRM Survey 0 18 for nonexempt positions 29 for exempt positions 0 32 for executive level positions Suggestions 4 10 raters 15 minutes to complete Provide feedback Within 6 weeks of evaluation 22 Agreement Among Raters Conway and Huffoutt 1997 Meta Analysis Agreement Between Correlation Two supervisors 50 Two peers 37 Two subordinates 30 Supervisor and peer 34 Supervisor and subordinate 22 Supervisor and self 22 Peer and subordinate 22 Peer and self 19 23 4 SBIBCI Annraisal Blll ll 24 What will be the focus of the dimensions 25 What Will be the Focus Goal Focus Results Prevent crimes from occurring Finish shift without personal injury Have arrests and citations stand up in court Task focus Crime prevention Arrest procedures Court testimony Use of vehicle Trait Focus Honesty Courtesy Responsibility Dependability Cooperation Competency Focus Report writing skills Driving skills Public speaking skills Knowledge of the law 26 How Will Performance be Appraised 0 Employee Comparisons Rank order Paired comparison Forced distribution Results Quantity Accidents Absenteeism Tardiness Subjective Ratings 27 Decision 2 Should we use employee comparisons objective measures or ratings 28 Employee Comparison Methods Rank Order Paired Comparison Forced Distribution 29 Example of a Ranking Method Rating Dimension Employee Knowledge Dependability Quality Total Clark 1 1 1 100 Cochran 2 3 2 233 Bailey 3 2 3 267 Darden 4 5 4 433 Shapiro 5 4 5 467 30 Example of PairedComparison Method Employees Green Briscoe Rey Logan Ceretta Paired Comparisons Green Green Green Green Briscoe Briscoe Briscoe Rey Rey Logan Briscoe Rey Logan Ceretta Rey Logan Ceretta Logan Ceretta Ceretta Scoring Green Briscoe Rey Logan Ceretta ONr KUJb 31 Example of a Forced Distribution Roberts Winslet Tilly Basinger Paltrow Spelling Stone Silverstone Ryan Hunt 10 20 40 20 10 Terrible Below Average Above Excellent Average Average 32 Objective Measures Quantity of work Quality of work Attendance Absenteeism Tardiness Time theft Safety 33 Ratings of Performance Graphic Rating Scales BehaviorBased Methods Behavioral checklists Behaviorally anchored rating scales BARS Behavioral observation scales BOS Behavioral expectation scales BES Mixedstandard scales Forced choice scales 34 Graphic Rating Scale Example Job knowledge Patrol activity Decision making Use of weapons Poor Poor Poor Poor HHHH NNNN UJUJUJUJ 4gtgt 5 Excellent 5 Excellent 5 Excellent 5 Excellent 35 A customer wanted to deposit a large amount of money The teller explained to the customer that he could earn more interest on a money market account than with a savings account A customer applied for a new auto loan and had and EI too high for approval The employee suggested a lowerpriced auto with a lower payment to reduce his EI When a customer called this employee accurately answered her question about nance charges When a customer came to the bank for a loan this employee had to search for instructions and kept the customer waiting A customer wanted to cash a large check The teller said that it could not be cashed but did not realize that it was all right as long as the customer had that amount in her account 36 Radio Procedures Behavioral Elements Always uses proper codes and signals when sending information Always understands codes and signals when receiving information Voice is clear and easy to understand in normal situations Voice is clear easy to understand and does not indicate panic in high stress situations Always follows proper radio procedures Always monitors the proper channels Always knows the location of all district officers Never communicates improper information over the radio Keeps control informed of current status Treats communications officers with respect and courtesy Dimension Rating 5 Consistently exceed requirements no improvements needed 4 Exceeds most requirements 3 Usually meets requirements acceptable performance 2 Usually meets most requirements but needs much improvement 1 Does not meet minimum requirements needs immediate and extensive improvement 37 Example of a ForcedChoice Scale Most Least a Teller is always on time neutral b Teller is never short at end of the day poor c Teller smiles at each customer excellent a Teller usually crosssells excellent b Teller keeps work area neat and orderly poor c Teller is friendly to other employees neutral 38 Example of a MixedStandard Scale Rating 1 Teller constantly argues With other employees P 2 Teller smiles at customers A 3 Teller asks customers how their families are doing E 4 Teller helps other employees When possible A 5 Teller is always friendly to other employees E 6 Teller asks customers What they want P Items 1 4 and 5 are from the Employee Relations dimension Items 2 3 and 6 and from the Customer Relations dimension 39 Example of a Behavioral Observation Scale BOS Job Knowledge 1 Is aware of current interest rates 2 Offers suggestions to customers about how they can make the most interest 3 Knows various strategies for converting IRAs Employee Relations 1 Offers to help other employees when own workload is down 2 Praises other employee when they do well 40 Types of Rating Scales Performance based Extent to which expectations have been met exceeds expectations meets expectations Normative based Comparison to other employees above average average 0 Frequency based always sometimes 41 Example of Scale Types Comparison to Other Employees Dimension Refers to Customers by Name Much better than other tellers Better than other tellers The same as other tellers Worse than other tellers Much worse than other tellers 42 Example of Scale Types Frequency Dimension Refers to Customers by Name Always Almost always Often Seldom Never 43 Example of Scale Types Extent to Which Expectations were Met Dimension Refers to Customers by Name Greatly exceeds expectations Exceeds expectations Meets expectations Falls below expectations Falls well below expectations 44 I l 5 I ram Raters Recall training techniques discussed in class on Tuesday 45 60hserveannnocumanermrmance a r KAN KJ 9amp4 v Jr j a Why Document Performance Forces supervisor to look for behaviors Aids in recall during evaluation Provides examples to use when reviewing performance Provides concrete data to support personnel decisions 1 Behavior Stored 47 What We Tend To Remember First impressions Recent behaviors Unusual behaviors 00 Extreme behaviors Behavior consistent With opinion 48 What We Tend to Forget Details 0 The source of the information 49 Critical Incidents Are examples of poor or excellent performance Provide behavioral examples Are usually collected through logs Employee performance record can be used 50 7 E aluae Pertormanc 51 Evaluating Performance Read critical incident logs Obtain and review objective data traf c citations arrests complaints commendations accidents 52 Low Rater Reliability Raters often don t agree Why Common rating errors Different standards and comparisons Observation of different behaviors m Consider Sources of Contamination Shift Geographic area Supervisor Peers Equipment Incentives 0 Training Seasontime of year 54 Other Rating Issues Evaluation Frequency semiannual annual more frequent during probation 0 Formal V informal 55 I g Quotes From Actual Performance Evaluations Since my last report this employee has reached rockbottom and shows signs of starting to dig His men would follow him anywhere but only out of morbid curiosity Iwould not allow this employee to breed This associate is really not so much of a hasbeen but more of a definitely won t be He would be out of his depth in a parking lot puddle This young lady has delusions of adequacy This employee should go far 7 and the sooner the better This employee is depriving a village somewhere of an idiot He sets low personal standards and then consistently fails to achieve them 56 8 communicate Aunraisal Results In Emnlovees 57 Effective Performance Appraisal Review Interviews Employee input prior Identi cation of to the meeting solutions to problems High level of Mutual setting of employee participation specific goals Helpful supervisor Consistent application attitude of standards Focus on behaviors Rater is familiar with rather than traits the employee s work 58 Prior to the Interview Employee Preparation Give blank copy of forms to employee Have the employee rate himherself Scheduling Schedule at least an hour for the performance review Schedule the review in a private neutral location Supervisor Preparation Review ratings and reasons for the ratings Determine goals for the review 59 Home Work Complete the tutorial at httplibrariesutaeduebarker ashPlag Check your email for information on Web Quiz 1 Log into Desire to Learn DZL httpselearnmtsuedu Complete Web Quiz 1 before 800 am on Thursday morning Industrial and Organizational Psychology Methods For lO Research O if B i E a 5 QB an Copyright Paul E Spector All rights reserved March 15 2005 Purposes of Research Solve an organizational problem Answer a scienti c question Exploratory research Theorytesting research Research Question Every study begins with a research question Can be general or speci c Speci c leads to hypotheses that are easy to test Hypothesis Researcher s best guess about What the results of a study Will be Most research questions and hypotheses are based off prior research Research Design Concepts Variables Independent vs dependent Research Setting Field vs Laboratory Generalizability Control Randomization Random assignment Random selection Confounding How Do I Know What to Research Ideas Hypotheses well thoughtout suggestions or ideas Theories systematic sets of assumptions regarding the nature and cause of particular events It seems that people don t work as hard in a group as when they are alone When pulling on a rope a person working by himself will exert more force than a person working in a group pA Sucker effect Freerider Individual effort will not be noticed Social Loa ng Example Does all this noise affect my employees performance High levels of noise will increase the number of errors made in assembling electronic components Noise causes a distraction making it difficult to concentrate Noise Example What employee recruitment source is best Employee referrals will result in employees who stay with the company longer than will the other recruitment methods l Realistic job preview 2 Differential source 3 Personality similarity 4 Socialization Recruitm e nt Example It seems that poor people are more Violent than rich people There will be a correlation between income and the number of times arrested for being Violent P FS JN Aggression Example How Do I Find Previous Research Written sources Journals 41 Twatrebkw e g 4 1 9 g5 turd I8quot Trade Magazines Bridge publications Magazines Books Electronic Resources First Search Psych Info Info Trac The Web Where Will 1 Conduct Research Locations Laboratory Field Of ce Issues External validity generalizability Control Research Designs Design Basic structure of a scienti c study 0 Experiment 0 independent variable is manipulated and 0 Subjects are randomly assigned to conditions 0 dependent variable Ability to draw causal conclusions Quasiexperiment Independent variable is not manipulated or 0 Subjects are not randomly assigned to conditions Research Designs Design Basic structure of a scienti c study Survey design 0 Crosssectional 0 Longitudinal Response rate Observational design 0 Natural observation Unobtrusive method Qualitative study 0 Case study 0 Interview Independent and Dependent Variables Independent Variable Experimental group Control group Dependent Variable Cohesiveness rating A researcher thinks that setting goals will increase the number of orders that are upsized at McBurger King Independent variable Setting of goals yes or no Dependent variable of upsized orders of upsized 18 79 orders Are employees in large organizations more likely to miss work than those in small organizations Will taking a practice test increase scores on the an employment test Will making to do lists decrease the stress of managers A researcher found that employees with customer service training have fewer customer complaints than employees who haven t been trained A researcher found that employees on the night shift make more errors than those on the day shift A researcher found that employees paid on commission were more productive but less satisfied than employees paid an hourly rate QuasiExperiments Used when experiments are not practical or when manipulating a variable may not be ethical A study is a quasiexperiment rather than an eXperiment when gt The independent variable is not manipulated or gt Subjects are not randomly assigned to conditions Can not determine causeeffect relationships 20 Mail Phone FacetOface Magazine Email Internet Call in FaX Surveys 21 Does Method Matter Roanoke Times 1998 Survey of Best Motion Pictures Mail Responses Email Responses Gone with the Wind 1 Gone with the Wind Sound of Music 2 Star Wars Wizard of Oz 3 Schindler s List It s a Wonderful Life 4 Wizard of Oz To Kill a Mockingbird 5 Shawshank Redemption RPJNE 22 Increasing Response Rates Mail Surveys Include a small token of appreciation 25 or a pen Precontact participants Use a firstclass stamp 15 more likely to be opened Send followup letters These factors don t affect response rates Survey length Personalization Deadlines Promising anonymity 23 Increasing Response Rates Email Surveys Compared to regular mail email Faster Cheaper 520 of regular mail cost Results in longer more candid openended responses Has similar response rates about 30 Survey length does not affect response rates 24 Increasing Response Rates Phone Surveys Immediately identify self and affiliation Provide a phone number if participant is susp1c10us Stress the importance of the information Keep the interview short Limit the number of response options Speak clearly 25 Question Considerations Will the participant understand the question Will the question itself change the way a person thinks Do the response options cover the construct What are we going to do with the data What question are we trying to answer How much time effort and money are we willing to spend in coding and analyzing responses Does the format increase or decrease the probability of responding 26 Question Types Openended items Provide richer quality Dif cult to analyze Restricted items Easier to analyze May limit responses 27 Open V Categorical Questions Age Age a Under21 b 21 25 c 26 30 1 3140 e 41 50 f Over 50 28 What is Wrong With These Questions In the past year how many times did you play golf How many times per week do you drink alcohol 29 STOP HERE MY Email Mframemtsuedu Do NOT send me emails Via D2L Running the Study Informed consent Instructions Task completion Deception Debrie ng 31 Where Do I Get My Subjects Sampling Types of Samples Random Representative Nonrandomrepresentative Sampling Methods Random selection Convenience Random assignment 32 Where Do I Get My Subjects Inducements to Participate Extra credit Money Intrinsic reasons Ordered to participate Does it Matter Would the inducement used affect the type of person agreeing to participate In what ways 33 A researcher has the students in her classes ll out a questionnaire A researcher gives 6 to people who will participate in his study As the people arrive he ips a coin to see if they will be in the experimental or the control condition A manager wants to see if a training program will increase performance She selects every third name from the company roster to participate Employees with an odd number at the end of their social security number are given one training program and those with an even number are given another 34 Where Do I Get My Subjects Informed Consent Ethically required Can be waived when Research involves minimal risk Waiver will not adversely affect rights of participants Research could not be done without the waiver 35 An experimenter wants to study the effects of electric shock on reducing patients depression levels A researcher wants to conduct a telephone survey in which she asks people their five favorite TV shows She will then determine if males and females like different shows A researcher wants to determine the types of people who litter He plans to hide above a road and record information about the people who litter or don t litter eg age seX type of car 36 How Do I Analyze My Data Concept Numbers Will always be different Are they different by chance or by something true Probability leyels p lt 05 37 HOW DO I Analyze My Data Types of Statistics Descriptive Statistics Statistics showing Mean differences Median ttests Mode Analysis of variance Frequencies Chisquare Standard deviation 38 Analyzing and Interpreting Data Statistics Mathematical methods used to report data Descriptive Statistics Describe and summarize data Inferential Statistics Draw conclusions about data Measurement Categorical vs continuous Classical measurement theory Observed True Error Reliability Internal consistency Interrater Testretest Validity Face Content Criterionrelated Construct Types of Validity lll tElllLE an BFntn Twee tit Walltlity Fm 1a l lt39lengttte and What Earn the Means Type Meanmg Face Measure looks like what it assesses Content Measure assesses entire variable Criterionrelated Measure relates to what is expected Construct Interpretation of a measures meaning Statistics Descriptives Most IO research uses statistical methods Measures of central tendency Mean Median and Mode Measures of variability Variance and standard deviation Correlation Relationship between two variables Direction and strength of relationship Regression Mathematical function relating two variables Measures of Central Tendency Central tendency most typical or common score a Mode b Median 0 Mean Measures of Central Tendency 1 Mode most frequently occurring score 10 20 30 40 40 50 6O 10 20 30 40 40 50 60 H H I Mode 40 Measures of Central Tendency 2 Median the value at which 12 of the ordered scores fall above and 12 of the scores fall below 12345 1234 l l Median 3 Median 25 Measures of Central Tendency 3 Mean The balancing point of a set x 2 an indiVidual of scores the average 800m N the number of 1 scores X M E V x Sigma or 2 take N the sum Note Equivalent to saying sum all the scores and divide that sum by the total number of scores Measures of Central Tendency 3 When the distribution of scores is normal the mode C E I median mean A B D H J 1 2 3I 4 5 Mean Median Mode Measures of Central Tendency E Mode 2 D H C G Median 25 A B F I J Mean 27 1 2 3 4 5 When scores are When scores are positively skewed negatively skewed mean is dragged in mean is dragged in direction of skew and direction of skew and mode lt median lt mean mode gt median gt mean Measures of Central Tendency The most commonly used measure of central tendency is the mean 0 Why It uses all the information in the scores Can be algebraically manipulated with ease Measures of Spread What is spread or 3quot dispersion The degree to which scores are clumped around the mean 02 01 00 SCORES Variability Variability How much the scores in a set differ from one another Example Two classes might have the same average exam score but one set of scores might be much more spread out Standard deviation Average distance of scores from the mean Range Difference between the lowest score and the highest score The area under a normal curve 04 03 02 01 00 50 34 34 14 2 l i 2 Inferential Statistics Statistical analysis of two or more sets of numerical data to determine statistical significance of results in research 0 lnferential statistics indicate how con dent one can be in drawing conclusions or inferences about a population based on ndings obtained from a sample When one nds a statistical signi cance it means that it is unlikely that the particular ndings of an experiment occurred by chance alone Inferential Statistics Based on laws of probability Example Does a gender difference in scores mean there s a real gender difference in the population What is the likelihood of getting a difference of a certain size or greater by chance alone Researchers calculate probability that results could have happened by chance Statistical significance In oMen score 10 p01nts above the I Men mean quot Women score is 10 points 2 below the mean i 0We must 1nterpret the score of V men relatlve t0 the score of H women u x u k v o 20 40 so so mo GRADE Mean Women 40 Mean Men 60 Mean Women 40 Mean Men 60 Case 1 50 m Women r Women Men 1 X f quot one SD above the mean 1 Men 39 w 50 6010 1 I one SD below the mean o V 6 a0 2 40 50 2 30 1 00 GRADE Case 2 30 I 25 I Person X Both distributions have the same mean 40 but different standard deviations 10 vs 20 01f Person X is a woman she is performing better than almost 95 of the women If Person X is a man he is performing better than approximately 68 of the men oThus how we evaluate a person s performance depends on how much m there is in the scores Statistics Showing Relationships Correlation Does not show causation Correlation coef cient Direction 0 Positive 0 Negative Magnitude 0 Distance from zero 0 Comparison to norms Type of Relationship 0 Linear Curvilinear 58 Plot of Two Variables Correlated At 50 High Low High Salary Correlation of 50 Time in Job 60 Salary Correlation of 20 Time in Job 61 Correlational Research Correlation coef cient r lOO S r S 100 Strength of relationship Direction of relationship