General Psychology PSY 1410
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Glen Hackett on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1410 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Mary Fromuth in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/213043/psy-1410-middle-tennessee-state-university in Psychology (PSYC) at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
What is Psychology gt Psychology is the science that seeks to understand behavior and mental processes and to apply that understanding in the service of human welfare Bernstein 2001 page 3 x Areas in Psychology 1 Physiological PsychologyBiologicalNeuroscience Perspective Behavioral Genetics Naturebio vs Nurtureenv Kindling gradual change in the reactivity of the brain tissue Evolutionary Psychology Neuropsychology amp Areas in Psychology 2 Sensation and Perception 3 LearningBehavioralConditioning 4 CognitiveThinking 5 Developmental how people change when they get older 6 Social how something in the environment may trigger it 7 IndustrialOrganizationallO amp Areas in Psychology 8 Clinical Personality Freud how you develop personality Abnormal Behavior Assessment what test are used Treatment to treat mental disorders 9 Psychometrics devising ways to measure medication human personality and ability how to develop test that work amp Founding of Scientific Psychology A Wilhelm Wundt 1832 1920 lSt person to call himself a psychologist Introduction Laboratory 1879 Leipzig Germany lntrospection noticing your mental processes as or immediately after they occur self observation lSt major accomplishment est a laboratory People in NAmerica amp7 Europe went there to study Structuralism Studying human conscienous Have people experience something then report observation Trying to structure of conscienous building blocks of conSCIenous Founding of Scientific Psychology gt B Functionalism William James 1842 191 0 Stream of conscienous Heavily influenced by Darwin function of behavior What s the purpose of behavior Thinking is more of a process x Founding of Scientific Psychology C Psychoanalysis Freud 1856 1939 World War II was going on when he died Unconscious psychodynamic broader theory Doesn t accept everything Freud said Focused on unconscious Behavior is influenced by unconscious Addicted to cocaine helped him cope with pain Nazi Germany may have influenced his theories Founding of Scientific Psychology gt D Behaviorism Watson 1878 1958 little albert Pavlov 1849 1936 clogs Skinner 1904 1990 rats Observable behavior Skinner believed that freewill is an illusion everything you do is determined by the environment amp Founding of Scientific Psychology E Humanism Rogers 1902 1987 Maslow 1908 1970 F Cognitive deals with thinking G Cognitive Neuroscience treatment Develop a revolt against other schools Makes changes in behavior freewill Cognitive compared human to a computer amp Psychology as a Profession gt American Psychological Association APA quot Accredits PhD programs in applied areas quot develops ethical standards quot advocates for psychology and mental health quot educated the public American Psychology Society APA State Licensing Boards Psychologist are licensed at state level Have to pass various test to be licensed amp What Psychologist o gt Academic Psychologist Teaching and research gt Applied psychology eg private practice business gt Research gt Combination of these gt lO application of psychology in the business world amp gt Clinical PhD Psy D gt Counseling Psychologist PhD Ed D r Psychiatrist MD gt Other Licensed Professional Counselor LPC Licensed Social Worker LSW amp 2 Design a study a select variables something that can be measured b construct operational definition it is a precise definition that specifies the procedures used to observe and measure some variable 1 example 2 reliability 3 validity the test measures what its suppose to measure Perform the study Analyze the results Communicate the results Statistics A Descriptive Statistics describe a data set 1 Measures of Central Tendency a Mean arithmetic average of the scored b Median midpoint of a set of values arranged in numerical order c Mode score that occurs most frequently 2 Measures of variability tells you about the spread of scores a Statistic that describes the degree to which scores in a sample differ from the mean score b Standard deviation an index of the amount of variability in a data set based on the distance of each score from the mean Research Strategies A Experimental Method Only method cause ampamp effect Dependent measure aspects of subjects behavior which changes as a result of the independent measure Independent measure that which experimental manipulates amp Types of Control gt Intro In doing experiments you want to make sure that the only difference between the exp And control group is the independent varia Extraneas Variables variables other than the independent variable that may effect dependent measure r If not controlled you fhav I what is having the ef ec 1 Environmental control testing env Is constructed to remove extraneous stimuli 2 Procedural Control All subjects treated the same standard instructions and so often use double blind procedure in which neither subject nor experiment know what group he is in e confounding variablequot and it is possible to determine 7 Single bllnd either subject or experiment does not know generally it is the subject that does not know what group he is in 7 Control for Controls for experimental bias and experiences amp experimenter effects the effect the experimenters expectations have on the experiment 3 Seuction Control Are subjects in each group 3 Selection Control Randomization 4 Control Croup Placebo 5 Control for demand Characteristics Factors in an experiment that cause participants to behave in a manner consistent with what they believe the study is about Type of consent form and how it s set up 6 Control for Reactivity changes in behavior that occur when participants know they are being observed Research Strategies B Correlational Method Introduction cannot conclude cause and effect Interpretation of r r 10to 10 Absolute value tells you the strength of the relationship Sign or tells you how they are related Positive correlations Negative correlations one variable increases the other variable decreases amp Methods to collect data gt Questionnaires gt Interviews gt Observation amp gt C Case Studies history gt Study one or few people on great depth gt Indepth information gt Rare complex new amp
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