General Psychology PSY 1410
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Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Glen Hackett on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1410 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Catherine Crooks in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/213049/psy-1410-middle-tennessee-state-university in Psychology (PSYC) at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Psychology Notes 102611 MEMORY 3 Memory Processes Encoding lt Most IMPORTANT Storing Retrieval Long Term Memory Theory 1 everything is there but hard to retrieve Theory 2 memories fade after non use Episodic Memory memory of your personal experience Semantic Memory Procedural Memory Tasks Serial Position Effect 1 Primacy Usually recall first 5 or 6 items because we have time to rehearse them 2 Recency Recall last 5 or 6 items because they are still available in short term Schema Preexisting mental concept that helps us organize and interpret information Why do we forget Encoding Failure Motivated Forgetting Undesired memory held back from awareness Suppression decide not to remember it Repression unconscious process of forgetting Interference Theory Other memories interfere with memory Retroactive Interference New memory interferes with old information Proactive Interference Old memory interferes with remembering new information Inadequate Retrieval Cues Too few associations ConfeXfDependenf Memories are helped or hindered by similarities or differences between the context in which they are learned State Dependenf Memories are helped or hindered by similarities or differences in a person s internal state while learning Biological Memory Loss Amnesia Stroke Dementia Drugs Alcohol Psychological trauma Retrograde Amnesia Loss of memory for events prior to brain damage Anteragrade Amnesia Loss of memory for events or facts that occur after brain damage cant form new memories Crooks Psychology notes exam 1 011811 Empirical gaining information through observation or measurement Structuralists Analyzed and described consciousness in the basic elements Psychological perspectives Biological Bodily elements events affect thoughts feelings and behaviors Behavioral Or learning perspective How behavior is acquired and modified in response to environmental in uences Cognitive Chompsky How we process store and use information How our thoughts affect our feelings and behaviors Sociocultural Crosscultural How social and cultural forces in uence behavior They study things like social norms Psychodynamic Freudian How the unconscious in uences our personality motivations behaviors Humanistic Maslow and Rogers Focuses on free will We have control over what we do or don t do Everybody is basically good Things that the nervous system does receive information process that information Glial cells Keep the chemical environment stable enhance the speed of communication between neurons Neurons Individual cells in the nervous system that receive integrate and transmit information to from and within the nervous system Interneurons only communicate with other neurons Sensory neurons receive and transmit information from the receptor cells in the sense organs to the brain Motor neurons carry messages to the central nervous system to the muscles and glands Typical neuron Soma or cell body where the nucleus is provides fuel for neurons and manufactures chemicals Dendrites fibers that receive signals from the axons of other neurons and then they carry that information to the cell body Axon carries signals away from the cell body to other cells Terminal Buttons or vesicles where the chemicals are released Synapse A connection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another Acetylcholine attention and memory Dopamine responsible for movement attention learning and pleasurable or rewarding sensations Related to Parkinson s disease Serotonin Plays a roll in sleep and wakefulness pain suppression mood Norepinephrine regulates our fight or ight response Also regulates waking from sleep and tenses the muscles and sharpens the senses and regulates erections Endorphines Our body s natural pain killer Resemble opiates in structure and effects Crooks Exam 3 study guide 031511 Chapter 6 Memory ability to retain info over time through the process of encoding storing and retrieving Processes 1 Encoding placing new info into memory key process attention repetition use imagery link info with other info 2 Storing maintains the encoded info over time 3 Retrieval Recovering or remembering information that has been encoded and stored Kinds ofMemory 1 Sensory Memory holds info for a few seconds form automatically 2 Short Term Memory limited capacity 7 to 8 items short duration stays in memory 18 to 30 sec to increase chunkinfo and intentional repeating Three types oflong term memory Episodic Semantic Procedural Transferring info to long term memory Serial position effect occurs when you re transferring information from short term to long term Primacy More easily recalling the first five or siX items in a list because you have time to rehearse them Recency Recalling the last five or six items in a list because they are still available in short term memory Schema A preexisting mental concept that helps us organize and interpret information A collection about things that we already know that go together Like all the words below have to do with sleep Most ppl thought sleep was on the list when it wasn t Bed Silence Snoring Turning Quilt Night Night Night Rest Dream Why do we forget If the information is never encoded we can t retreat it from longterm memory Motivated forgetting if something traumatic happened that you didn t want to remember Suppression the motivated forgetting when we choose to suppress something because it s too painful or traumatic Repression the unconscious process of forgetting Interference theory memories interfering with memories Retroactive interference when a new memory interferes with an old memory Example ifyou have a new phone number and you re trying to remember your old phone number Proactive interference when an old memory interferes with remembering a new memory Inadequate retrieval cues Cue things like what it starts with where did it happen hints to help you remember Too few associations during encoding Maintenance rehearsal intentional repeating ofinformation so it retains longer in short term Elaborative rehearsal when you relate information to information already stored Context dependent Memories are helped or hindered by similarities or differences between the conteXt in which they were learned Like studying in the same room that you re gonna take the test State dependent memories are helped or hindered by similarities and differences in a person s internal state during learning We tend to remember more positive event when we re feeling good and negative events when we re depressed Biological basis ofmemory Amnesia severe memory loss Retrograde amnesia loss ofmemory for events prior to brain damage Anterograde amnesia loss of memory for events that occur after the brain damage The inability to form new memories 031711 Intelligence the ability to learn or understand new or challenging situations the ability to apply knowledge iq tests the result should be the same no matter how many time you take the test Mental ability tests Intelligence tests a measure of general mental ability designed to asses global aptitude or potential Aptitude Tests measures specific potential Achievement tests measure a person s mastery and knowledge ofa particular area Personality tests like to decide whether you re eXtraverted or introverted Standard deviation how far above or below the mean a score falls and how far apart they are from one another 11 u Charles Spearman g factor Intelligence is defined as a single measure of general cognitive ability Howard Gardner multiple intelligences Robert Sternberg analytic creative and practical intelligence 032211 Theories of Motivation Instinctecolutionary motivated to engage in certain behaviors because evolutionary programming Drive Behavior is motivated by the desire to reduce internal tension homeostasis maintain stability Incentive motivated by external rewards Humanistic motives are divided into levels from basic survival needs to psychological and selffulfillment 032411 Basal metabolic rate how efficiently bodies burn calories for energy Set point theory an interaction ofmetabolic rate fat cells and hormones that keep peoples bodies at a certain level of body weight despite efforts to change the levels SENSATION AND PERCEPTION Sensation stimulation of sensory organs or messages from the senses Perception selection organization and interpretation of sensory information The Major Senses Cornea light enters Pupil light passes through opening in iris lris muscle that controls the amount of light that comes in also controls pupil color Retina black of eye receptor cells neuron processing takes place Rods sensitivity 100 million Cones acuity and color 7 million Info from left is processed in right and right is left Neurosignals start to make connections at the optic nerve Optic nerve connected directly to the thalamus relay station in the brain Thalamus redistributes and sends to cortex that generates vision coo x Vision Stimulus light waves Humans only see a very narrow range Color Perception Trichromatic Theom 3 cone types red long green medium blue short Ratio of these wave lengths allow us to see colors Opponent Process 4 basic colors red green yellow blue Organized as pairs Each pair member opposes or inhibits each other Red and green are opposites blue and yellow are opposites and black and white are opposites Neurons process opponent pairs BottomUp Vs TopDown Processing Bottom up information ows from sensory receptors to brain Able to recognize objects based on nding a match between the pattern of sensations organized by the perceptual system and patters based in memory Ex Certain cells in cortex respond to different shapes Top down use of knowledge experience and expectations to guide perceptions Form Perception Gestalt Psychology the whole is more than the sum of its parts Gestalt grouping principles organize info according to certain rules 1 gure ground being able to idenitify a gure which has more detail standing out against a background with less detail 2 proximity things that are nearto each othertend to be grouped together 3 closure being able to ll in missing pieces ofa gure to see it as complete 4 similarity perceive objects as similar size shape or color as a unit or gure 5 continuity tend to group elements that appear to follow in the same direction as a single element or gure 6 common fate objects moving in the same direction and at the same speed are perceived as a group Influences on Perception 1 needs ex food commercials at night 2 beliefs ex virgin mary on side of a building 3 emotions ex fear after a scary movie 4 expectations ex disney characters Perceptual Constancy Tendency to see objects as unchanging despite changes to sensory input Important function ofthe perceptual system is to represent constancy in our environment even when the retinal image varies Shape constancy tendency to perceive objects as having a xed shape regardless of the image cast on the retina Size constancy objects remain same size despite changing retinal images Brightness constancy color ofobject remains constant despite changes in brightness Crooks Psych Exam 4 study guide 033111 Personality Definition distinctive behaviors thoughts motives and emotions that are typical of how we react and adapt to other people and different situations Traits that remain fairly consistent introversion and extraversion Psychoanalytic approach Psychodynamic theory conscious and unconscious are always fighting with each other Focused on the importance of early childhood experiences in explaining why we behave in certain ways Looked at the effects of conscious and unconscious effects on behavior A couple ofways that Freud and other theorists said you can tap into the conscious Dream analysis Free association talk about anything that comes to mind no matter how embarrassing Analyzing slips of the tongue Id operates according to the pleasure principle Totally unconscious Present at birth a very primitive instinctual part of the personality It wants immediate gratification of biological urges Ego operates according to the reality principle Partly conscious partly unconscious It s job is to seek to delay gratification of the id s urges until a socially acceptable outlet can be found Emerges shortly after birth Acts as a mediator between the id s desires and the superego s restrictions Superego moral component Last part to develop The superego applies the moral values and standards of one s parents or caregivers and society in satisfying one s wishes Our moral guardian Defense Mechanisms Unconscious mental processes employed by the ego to reduce anxiety Rationalizations making up acceptable excuses for behaviors that cause us to feel anxious I need a cigarette because I m stressed Repression pushing unacceptable or threatening ideas and memories into the unconscious A kid gets abused and forgets about it Denial refusing to recognize some anxiety provoking event or piece of information Death of someone close we deny that it happened Projection transferring your own unacceptable traits onto others You think your boss is angry when it s actually you who is angry Reaction formation Behaving in ways that are exactly opposite to one s true feelings Boy picks on girl and acts like he doesn t like her but he actually likes her Displacement Directing emotions towards objects animals or other people who are not the real object of your feelings Lashing out at your friends because your girlfriend is pissing you off Sublimation when you convert unacceptable impulses into socially acceptable actions Having a typical sexual behavior instead of acting it out you draw it or something 040311 Psychosexual Stages Fixation failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected Oral Stage Birth 18 months The mouth is associated with sexual pleasure The child is unconsciously receiving pleasure Fixation can lead to oral activities in adulthood Anal Stage 1 3 years Fixation can lead to anal retentive behaviors compulsive about neatness 0CD or anal expulsive behaviors extreme messy behaviors If the mother is over concerned with cleanliness or something and the child gets punished that could lead to fixation Or if the mother is messy then that could lead to anal expulsiveness Phallic Stage 3 5 years focus ofpleasure shifts to the genitals The Oedipal complex can occur unconsciously boys develops an erotic preference for his mother The Electra complex can occur unconsciously girls develops an erotic preference for her father Girls start to develop penis envy Fixation can lead to excessive masculinity in males and the need for attention or domination in females Latency Stage 5 puberty sexuality is repressed Children participate in hobbies school and samesex friendship Genital Stage puberty on sexual feelings reemerge and are oriented toward others Fixated adults have their energy tied up in earlier stages Humanistic Perspective Maslow Rogers Emphasis on selfconcept which in uences our behaviors feelings and thoughts Self concept the way one thinks of oneself We have an innate drive towards personal growth and becoming the best we can be Personality development is a gradual progression towards selfactualization Social Cognitive Perspective Social cognitive theory also called sociallearning approach Reciprocal Determinism Personality shaped by the ways in which thoughts behavior and the environment interact and in uence one another Selfefficacy learned expectation of success 0 Our belief that we can successfully perform a particular behavior 0 I ve observed cooking many times but my selfefficacy prevents me from trying to cook Trait amp Type Theory Trait Approach Trait A stable predisposition to behave in a certain way Source Trait A broad basic trait that may be universal 5 Source Traits o Extroverstion lt gt Introversion o Neuroticism worrying temperamental lt gt calm even tempered o Openness to Experience imaginative spontaneous lt gt routine 0 Agreeableness trusting open to suggestions lt gt suspicious antagonistic o Conscientiousness hard working ambitious lt gtlazy aimless Personality Assessment subjects respond to vague ambiguous questions Rorschach Ink Blot Test Thematic Apperception Test create story based on a series of pictures SelfReport Inventory well known MMPI 040711 Stress and health Stress any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one s well being and thereby tax one s coping abilities Causes of stress Frustration any situation in which the pursuit of some goal is blocked Con ict Approachapproach a choice between to attractive goals Do I want a bmw or a Mercedes Avoidanceavoidance a choice between two unattractive goals Would I rather lose my hearing or sight Approachavoidance a choice that has both attractive and unattractive aspects I d like to ask this person out but I m afraid of rejection Change Any change in living conditions even ifit s a positive change Pressure Expectations to behave in a certain way General Adaptation Syndrome A model of the body s stress response 3 stages Alarm the body s initial reaction to stress When the fight or ight response kicks in Resistance the body s reaction to continual stress Exhaustion when the stress is chronic Psychoneuroimmunology psychological processes neurological processes and the immune system 041411 Stress Relaxation training Progressive Relaxation relaxing each muscle group you go through the entire body in a certain order Biofeedback shows you how stressed or anxious you are and shows what it looks like when you re relaxed Meditation Guided imagery imagine that you re oating on a cloud or something deep breathing involved Psychological Disorders Mentalpsychological disorders are defined when they are prolonged and recurring and interferes with your life Just because you have some of those symptoms doesn t mean you have that disorder Monkey playful smart funnyhow others view you California sunny beautiful bustling how you view yourself Bored lonely frustrateddeath Lake spofford calm familiar and crispsex Anxiety disorders the most common of all psychological disorders Phobic disorder an intense and irrational fear of an object or situation that presents no real danger Panic disorder Recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that are usually sudden and unexpected Panic attacks limit you to a few safe places Agoraphobia type of panic disorder that s many specific fears the underlying fear is the fear ofbeing away from a safe place Can be very debilitating Generalized anxiety disorder continuous high level of anxiety or worry that is not tied to a specific event and is not caused by anything physically outside your body Obsessivecompulsive disorder Obsessions persistent recurring irrational thoughts Compulsions an irresistible urge to perform a repetitive ritualistic behavior Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD Follows some traumatic event or episode It s most common in the military Flash backs and nightmares of the event Increased physical arousal ie heart rate and blood pressure Causes of most anxiety disorders tend to be genetically based biological bases Phobias and panic disorder may also be classically conditioned Treatment can be cognitive behavior therapy or meditation or medication 041911 0CD falls under anxiety disorders She s going to ask what types of disorders fall under either psychological or anxiety disorders Mood disorders Major depression most common mood disorder more common in women than men Symptoms of major depression Emotional sadness despair and lack ofpleasure in usual activities Behavioral changes is appetite changes in sleep patterns start to distance themselves and isolate Cognitive trouble concentrating memory problems and agitation really overwhelmed Physical lethargy tiredness muscle weakness Bipolar disorder alternating periods of depression and mania Manic phase over creativity and productivity Personality Disorders Rigid maladaptive traits basically mean dysfunctional that cause distress or an inability to get along with others Paranoid Personality Disorder Pervasive unfounded suspiciousness and mistrust of others Extreme irrational jealousy and doubt about the loyalty of others Borderline Personality Disorder most common personality disorder most common in women instability in emotions selfimage and relationship problems Moods are very intense and uctuate quickly Selfdestructive behaviors Narcissistic personality disorder exaggerated sense of selfimportance Preoccupation with fantasies of success and brilliance demand constant attention and admiration Antisocial Personality disorder sociopath or psychopath lying cheating stealing killing without any feelings of remorse or regret Crooks Exam 2 study guide 020811 Sleeping dreaming and hypnosis Circadian rhythm your 24 hr biological clock Sleep cycles Each sleep cycle is about 90 mins Stage 1 transitional stage gradually disengaging from the world You can easily be awakened 17 mins Hypnogogic hallucinations vivid sensory sensations that make you feel as if you are dreaming but you are not Stage 2 Rapid high peaking brain waves sleep spindles considered the true onset of sleep last about 1025 mins Stage 3 Low frequency delta waves Difficult to awake the person Lasts about 30 mins Stage 4 Very deep sleep delta wave activity Sleep walking and sleep talking occurs in this stage 1020 mins About 70 mins into your first cycle REM stage associated with dreaming brain activity is the same as ifwe re awake Voluntary muscles are paralyzed 1020 mins Why we sleep Restoration theory we sleep to promote physiological processes that restore and rejuvenate the mind and body Circadian or Adaptive theory sleep is a result of evolutionary adaptation Sleep disorders Insomnia problems in getting adequate sleep Treatments exercise relaxation training Sleep apnea when the sleeper repeatedly stops breathing during the night Nightmares anxiety arousing dreams REM stage Night Terrors an abrubt awakening from nonREM sleep usually with feeling of panic or anxiety Sleep walking occurs during nonREM sleep Occurs during stage 4 Narcolepsy a neurological disorder characterized by excessive sleepiness during the day REM sleep disorder when your muscles don t paralyze during REM 021511 Psychoanalytic theory Freud believes We dream to express unconscious wishes con icts and desires Our behavior is primarily in uenced by the unconscious Every symbol in a dream is meaningful Problemfocused theory We dream to express concerns or to resolve problems that are occurring in waking life ActivationSynthesis theory dreams don t really mean anything they are the result ofneurons that spontaneously fire in the Pons Hypnosis not about mind control a heightened state of sensibility Two explanations Dissociation theory the hypnotized person is in a special state and consciousness is divided into two parts the hypnotized part and the unhypnotized part The unhypnotized part is called the hidden observer the part that s more aware Hypnotized part is the part that actually complies with the hypnotists suggestions Sociocognitive theory stage hypnosis hypnosis is a result of creating powerful pressures that make people want to conform 022211 Gestalt principles Figure ground identifying a figure which has more detail standing out against a background which has less detail Proximity things near to each other tend to be grouped together as a whole Like words Closure we re able to fill in missing parts of a figure to see it as complete Similarity elements that are similar of size shape or color tend to be grouped together Continuity the tendency to group elements that appear to follow in the same direction Following a curve Common fate objects moving in the same direction at the same speed are often seen as one group In uences on perception Needs when we need something we tend to notice that thing more Expectations if we expect to sense something we are more susceptible to perceive it Location constancy when we re driving in a car and objects are going past us but we know those objects aren t moving Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge that s due to experience Learning processes Classical conditioning has to do with pairing Stimulus and response Pavlov39s dog 022411 Operant conditioning a kind of learning in which the consequences that follow some behavior increase or decrease the likelihood of that behavior occurring in the future rat in the box reward or punishment Shaping reinforcing behaviors that lead up to the desired behavior Types of operant conditioning Positive reinforcement presentation of a pleasant stimulus that increases the likelihood of a response occurring in the future Negative reinforcement removal or avoidance of an unpleasant stimulus that increases the likelihood ofa behavior occurring in the future Punishment Punishment is a consequence that decreases the likelihood ofa behavior occurring in the future Positive punishment applying something like a fine or a spanking Negative punishment taking something away Cognitive learning Where you learn a behavior simply by observing others Model the person whose behavior you re observing or imitating 4 processes of cognitive learning attention if someone you look up to is afraid of something you will be retention retaining that information over a period of time Reproduction you will keep being afraid of that thing Motivation Crooks Psychology notes exam 1 011811 Empirical gaining information through observation or measurement Structuralists Analyzed and described consciousness in the basic elements Psychological perspectives Biological Bodily elements events affect thoughts feelings and behaviors Behavioral Or learning perspective How behavior is acquired and modified in response to environmental in uences Cognitive Chompsky How we process store and use information How our thoughts affect our feelings and behaviors Sociocultural Crosscultural How social and cultural forces in uence behavior They study things like social norms Psychodynamic Freudian How the unconscious in uences our personality motivations behaviors Humanistic Maslow and Rogers Focuses on free will We have control over what we do or don t do Everybody is basically good Things that the nervous system does receive information process that information Glial cells Keep the chemical environment stable enhance the speed of communication between neurons Neurons Individual cells in the nervous system that receive integrate and transmit information to from and within the nervous system Interneurons only communicate with other neurons Sensory neurons receive and transmit information from the receptor cells in the sense organs to the brain Motor neurons carry messages to the central nervous system to the muscles and glands Typical neuron Soma or cell body where the nucleus is provides fuel for neurons and manufactures chemicals Dendrites fibers that receive signals from the axons of other neurons and then they carry that information to the cell body Axon carries signals away from the cell body to other cells Terminal Buttons or vesicles where the chemicals are released Synapse A connection between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites of another Acetylcholine attention and memory Dopamine responsible for movement attention learning and pleasurable or rewarding sensations Related to Parkinson s disease Serotonin Plays a roll in sleep and wakefulness pain suppression mood Norepinephrine regulates our fight or ight response Also regulates waking from sleep and tenses the muscles and sharpens the senses and regulates erections Endorphines Our body s natural pain killer Resemble opiates in structure and effects
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