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General Psychology

by: Glen Hackett

General Psychology PSY 1410

Glen Hackett
GPA 3.8

Christopher Quarto

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Christopher Quarto
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Glen Hackett on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1410 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Christopher Quarto in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 96 views. For similar materials see /class/213050/psy-1410-middle-tennessee-state-university in Psychology (PSYC) at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
General Psychology Exam 3 Study Questions Learning Chapter 5 Memory Chapter 6 amp Intelligence Chapter 7 Learning Chapter 5 1 What is the definition of learning 2 What is meant by classical conditioning Provide an example of how you might learn something based on the classical conditioning approach What is the difference between an unconditioned and conditioned stimulus Unconditioned and conditioned response 3 How is a conditioned response usually acquired How is it extinguished 4 What is the difference between stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination Provide your own examples 5 What is the quotlaw of effect How is operant conditioning different than classical conditioning 6 What is the difference between reinforcement and punishment Explain what is meant by quotnegative reinforcement Is it the same as punishment Provide an example 7 Describe how you can make conditioning stronger andor occur faster ie timing and size of reinforcers 8 What is the difference between continuous and intermittent reinforcement Which one establishes a behavior more quickly and which one better maintains a behavior once it is established 9 What is the difference between a fixed and variable ratio schedule of reinforcement What about a fixed and variable interval schedule of reinforcement 10Describe the process of shaping as it applies to learning a new behavior such as say teaching your roommate how to leave the television remote control in the same location whenever it is used so it can easily found the next day 11What is the difference between generalization and discrimination as it applies to operant conditioning 12What is the difference between vicarious conditioning and observational learning 13 If kids watch television shows with a great deal of violenceaggressive activity does that increase the probability they will display similar behavior or does it depend If it depends on something what does it depend upon Questions answers found at end of study guide 1 Baby Joey was playing with his favorite toy rattle when his mom dropped an armful of pots and pans behind him The loud noise made him startle and cry Now whenever he sees his favorite toy rattle he cries Here the rattle is the a unconditioned stimulus b conditioned stimulus c unconditioned response d conditioned response 2 Baby Joey s crying behavior which occurs whenever he sees what used to be his favorite toy rattle is now referred to as the a unconditioned stimulus b conditioned stimulus c unconditioned response d conditioned response 3 A child who has a conditioned fear response toward Santa Claus reacts with fear toward any man with a white beard This phenomenon is known as a acquisition b stimulus discrimination c stimulus generalization d reconditioning 4 A dog in a classical conditioning experiment salivates to a buzzer but not to a bell This is an example of a stimulus generalization b partial reinforcement extinction effect c secondary reinforcement d stimulus discrimination 5 ln operant conditioning an is associated with an a unconditioned response conditioned response b behavior consequence c conditioned response unconditioned response d behavior cause 6 After Nadia spills water all over her painting her first grade art teacher gives her some MampMs to make her feel better The next time art class meets Nadia promptly and purposefully spills water The MampMs acted as a negative reinforce rs b positive reinforcers c extinction devices d classical reinforcers 7 Drew and Kathy want their children Ryan and Colin to clean up their bedrooms They decide to use the technique of negative reinforcement This means they should a spank the children whenever they make a mess in their rooms b excuse the children from a daily chore they dislike whenever they clean up their rooms c give the children ice cream treats if they clean up their rooms d explain to the children the benefits of cleanliness 8 In order to get her roommate to start cleaning her side of the room Kathy starts complimenting her on the smallest efforts she makes to keep her side tidy Kathy then withholds complimenting her roommate until she does more extensive cleaning tasks This type of strategy is known as a shaping b stimulus generalization c classical training d operant discrimination 9 Teaching assistants are paid a sum of money once a month whether they work hard or not This type of payment plan demonstrates a reinforcement schedule a fixed ratio b fixed interval c variable ratio d variable interval 10Because John broke his curfew his parents told him that he could not use the car for a month This is an example of a reinforcement b punishment l c negative reinforcement d punishment ll 11Kelly was watching her mother get ready for work by putting on makeup and fixing her hair Then Kelly s mother left the room and told Kelly to get ready for school Kelly began to imitate her mother by smearing makeup on her face and fluffing her hair This is an example of a vicarious learningconditioning b observational learning c mock learning Memory Chapter 6 1 Name and describe the three memory processes Don t forget to describe the different ways we encode information as part of one of these processes 2 What is llsensory memory How long does a sensory memory last 3 What is the difference between lliconic memory and llechoic memory What did Sperling find in his 1960 study using the partial report technique 4 How long does information last in iconic memory as opposed to echoic memory 5 What is the difference between quoteffortfulquot and quotautomaticquot processing Provide examples 6 Why is shortterm memory also called llworking memory 7 How many individual bits of information can we hold in shortterm memory on the average What is a strategy we use to increase the amount of information we retain in shortterm memory Provide an example of how you might use this strategy in everyday life 8 Although encoding in shortterm memory can take place visually or auditorily auditory representation is the most effective ie repeating information over and over keeps information active in shortterm memory There have been numerous studies which have shown how auditory representation tends to dominate encoding in shortterm memory Conrad conducted a study where he showed subjects strings of letters and asked them to repeat the letters immediately Their mistakes tended to involve replacing the correct letter say quot3 with another than sounded like it B D or P These mistakes occurred even though the letters were presented visually without any sound 9 What is meant by the concept of lldepth of processing Provide examples 10Encoding in longterm memory is based primarily on a code Describe what this means 11What is a llnatural language mediator and the llmethod of loci Describe how you might use these to remember information for your next psychology exam 12What is the llselfreference effect How might this be of use when you study for your next psychology exam 13Describe the llconnectionist approach to storage of information in longterm memory 14What is the difference between an llimplicit memory and an llexplicit memory Provide examples 15What are the two ways in which we retrieve information from longterm memory 16Describe the possible reasons that we forget information What is the difference between llretroactive interference and llproactive interference 17Describe four ways you can improve memory Questions answers found at end of study guide 1 If you can picture the image of your school s mascot then you have most likely used an code to put that information into memory a acoustic b semantic c episodic d visual 2 When Alyssa is asked a trivia question she relies ll think I know the answer to that one but I m having trouble recalling it from memory In other words Alyssa is having difficulty with the memory process known as a encoding b retrieval c storage d rehearsal 3 Remembering what the word summer means requires memory while remembering what you did on July 4 th requires memory a episodic semantic b episodic procedural c procedural episodic d semantic episodic 4 As you are taking notes in class you repeat to yourself what your professor just said so that you can write it down word for word This is an example of a maintenance rehearsal b elaborative rehearsal c mental imagery d using mnemonics 5 Tammy lights a sparkler and hands it to her young son Jacob She tells Jacob to write his name in the air with the sparkler They can see this quotwritingquot because the light from the sparkler is briefly held in their memory a sensory b working c shortterm d longterm 6 The variable that largely determines whether information is moved from sensory memory to shortterm memory is a selective attention b rehearsal c chunking d serial search 7 Elaine calls her husband Jerry at the office to ask him to pick up a few things at the store on his way home She then rattles off a list of twentyfive items Only after they say goodbye and hang up does Jerry write down the list Jerry should be able to remember approximately items without chunking a2 c 14 d 20 8 Which of the following memory systems has the greatest storage capacity a Sensory b Shortterm c Longterm d Episodic 9 Fred calls his wife Wilma at work and asks her to stop on her way home and pick up bread butter bananas light bulbs laundry detergent pencils sugar salt flour cinnamon and brontosaurus steaks Wilma remembers the bread butter and bananas but forgets the rest This is an example of a the recency effect b encoding specificity c state dependence d the primacy effect 10Sandra is very excited about studying for her General Psychology exam and she remains excited and happy when she studies All other factors being equal she is most likely to remember the material she studied if she is when she takes the test a nervous b calm and relaxed c happy and excited d slightly intoxicated 11After being hit on the head Frank has a memory problem He cannot learn the names of new people that he meets Fortunately he can still remember details of his life prior to the head injury Frank is most likely demonstrating a proactive interference b anterograde amnesia c retrograde amnesia d The recency effect Intelligence Chapter 7 1 What is the llpractical definition of intelligence 2 What did Sir Francis Galton think intelligence was 3 How was Alfred Binet s concept of intelligence different than Galton s concept 4 What is meant by llmental age 5 Lewis Terman derived the llintelligence quotient or quotQquot What was the problem with the Q formula 6 In 1912 the US Immigration office asked Henry Goddard to develop a test which would assess which immigrants were llmentally defective and should be deported On the basis of Goddard s results congress passed the Immigration Act of 1924 What was the purpose of this act 7 What is the difference between verbal and quotperformance I scales on the Wechsler intelligence test 8 Describe what is measured by the individual subscales ie Information Similarities Picture Arrangement Object Assembly etc on the Wechsler intelligence test 9 What is the quotaveragequot Q score on most intelligence tests 10 In what three ways are retardedquotmentally challenged individuals different from intellectually quotnormalquot individuals 11What are some possible reasons that people are retarded 12What are some advantages of using tests to measure different characteristics of people 13With regard to psychological testing what is meant by the concept of quotreliabilityquot What is the difference between testretest and splithalf reliability What is the difference between alternative forms and interjudge reliability 14What is meant by the concept of quotvalidityquot Is it possible for a test to be reliable but not valid If so provide an example 15Describe the differences between content criterion and construct validity Provide examples 16Why did African American psychologists in the 1960 s develop intelligence tests such as the Black Intelligence Test for Cultural Homogeneity and the Dove Counterbalance Intelligence Test 17What is the best evidence that supports the heredity argument for intelligence Describe the Skeels study as it applies to the quotenvironment I argument for intelligence Questions answers found at end of study guide 1 Alfred Binet was primarily interested in a developing a theory of intelligence b developing an intelligence test for American immigrants c proving that intelligence is inherited d developing a screening device to identify children who may be in need of special schooling 2 Laura is taking the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS She is currently being asked to place in order the frames of a Peanuts cartoon that contain only pictures no dialogue So Laura is currently working on a subtest that would be part of the scale of the WAIS a verbal b performance c IQ d Standard 3 An IQ score of 100 or less on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is achieved by about percent of the test takers in any particular age group d1OO 4 Researchers are in the process of developing a new college entrance exam They want to ensure that wherever the test is given it will be administered scored and interpreted in the same manner In other words the researchers are concerned with a standardization b reliability c validity 5 John weighs himself on his bathroom scale every morning The scale indicates the same weight each time Assuming the John has not changed his diet or exercise habits the scale could be said to have a high validity b high reliability c low validity d low reliability 6 Zeke and Zach are identical twins raised in the same house Peter and Paul are identical twins raised apart Tim and Tom are brothers not twins who are raised together Laverne and Shirley are nonidentical ie fraternal twins raised together Which of these pairs will have the LEAST similar IQ scores a Zeke and Zach b Peter and Paul c Tim and Tom d Laverne and Shirley 7 Which of the following is the best example of a culturefair test item a Outlining geometric figures that are embedded in a pattern of dots b Defining common words c Describing similarities between concepts eg quotteachingquot and llbusiness 8 Natasha was attending the opening performance of llThe Nutcracker As she watched Nina the critically acclaimed Russian ballerina gliding effortlessly across the stage and floating gracefully in the air Natasha turned to her husband and whispered llYou know I learned about people like Nina in my General Psychology class According to the theory Nina is high in intelligence a multiple intelligences bodykinesthetic b multiple intelligences spatial c triarchical bodykinesthetic d triarchical spatial Answers to questions Learning Chapter 5 1 Baby Joey b N Baby Joey d W Child c 4 Dog d U39I Operant b 0 Nadia b N Drew b 8 Kathy a 9 Teaching b 10 John d 11 Kelly b Memory Chapter 6 1 Mascot d 2 Alyssa b 3 Remembering d 4 Taking notes a 5 Tammy a 6 Variable a 7 Elaine b 8 Memory system c 9 Fred d 10 Sandra c 11 Frank b Intelligence Chapter 7 1 Binet d 2 Laura b 3 IQ c 4 Researchers a 5 John b 6 Tim ampTom c 7 Culturefair a 8 Natasha a


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