Survey of United States History I
Survey of United States History I HIST 2010
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History Notes Day 3 oJohn Demos coined the term a little commonwealth This described the Puritan family life People were allowed to divorce but only if one of the spouses greatly wronged another Puritan women had a little more rights than the English woman but legally they were nothing Two legal terms described them Femme Sole which means woman alone Either the woman was never married or widowed Femme Covert translates to a woman protected by her husband and no property rights outside of her husband s If women did have property as soon as she married it was her husband s If the husband died she could only take claim if he left it to her or he had no heirs 0 Parents treated their children as little adults They would go through a process of putting out their children The children would go live with neighbors or strangers so as to prevent spoiling The life expectancy rate was fairly high for a Puritan man reached age 65 That would be 13 years longer than the Englishmen Women lived up to 65 but it was 45 in England 8 out 10 infants survived to grow up and get married 0 Since the Puritans came in families there was an even gender ratio They had Natural Increase which is like a couple having 2 children to replace them when they died 0 Massachusetts was a corporate colony so it was now legal to leave your property to all your children and not the oldest oIn New England they turned to 3 ways to prosper Fishing lumbering and rum distilling They eventually employed about 15 on a regular season and more seasonly The Puritan children become more worldly and fewer and fewer become Saints By 1650 less than 50 of adults in Winthrop s church were full saints or full church members The second generation was reluctant to go through the conversionrelation Only babies born to Saints were allowed to be baptized so the 2nd generation was causing the Saints their parents to have unbaptized babies In 1662 a compromise was passed called the Halfway Covenant which allowed all babies to be baptized whether having Saintly parents or not oWhite colonists spread across New England without fight from Native Americans because they were killed from measles diphtheria and smallpox that the colonists brought In 1600 there were 125000 Native Americans In 1675 there were only 10000 Winthrop encountered the Massachusetts tribe who sold their land to him and even tried Christianity The Society for the Propogation of the Gospel in New England set up Praying Towns John Elliot who was interested in Native Americans learned their language so as to preach to them The Pequots lived in the Connecticut River Valley and were not excited about Christianity They were untouched by the diseases other tribes died from They are said to have attacked 2 ships and killed many White Englanders Puritans wanted revenge and tore up an Indian village The Pequots launched many raids in 1637 and killed about 30 Puritans This was the Peguot War John Mason and John Underhill cornered the Pequots at Mystic Fort and set fire to it They picked off the Indians and killed about 395 of the 400 in the fort This casued other small Indian tribes to seek peace with Whites This lasted until 1675 when King Phillip s War broke out As the whites moved westward they practically swallowed the Wampanag tribe The chief Metacomet was also known as King Phillip He didn t want to work with whites In 1675 Plymouth executed 3 Wampanags for the killing of a Christian Indian and threatened King Phillip This escalated when Indians were shot while burglarizing a country house By the fall of 1675 52 out of 90 frontiers were attacked by King Phillip In his war they burned down 1200 houses beheaded 8000 cattle etc By the end of it they were in sight of Boston They were finally defeated when their supplies and warriors started to dwindle Over 3000 Indians died and it is said a Praying Indian killed King Phillip This led to retaliation from the whites they boxed of Indians and shipped them to the West Indies The end of this war led to the end of Indian resistance everywhere in New England except between Maine and Canada The Praying Towns were soon dismantled and relations were still bad oThe Colonial Chesapeake officially is Virginia Maryland and Northeast North Carolina The actual original 2 colonies are Massachusetts and Virginia In 1622 there was an Indian massacre so bad that in 1624 their charter was revoked and Virginia became a crown colony King James threw out the legislative government and assigned a Royal governor The colonists petitioned so King Charles allowed them to have a Legislation as long as they levied a tax on tobacco In 1650 the legislature divided into a bicameral the House of Burgesses and the Governor s Council Many offices within counties were appointed by the royal government not elected These included leaders in the militia law enforcement officials and Justices of the Peace Judges set tax rates and public works They answered to Royal Governor who answered to the King em 1662 there were 10 ministers to serve all 45 church parishes in Virginia The Anglican church was prominent and Vestries governed the church parish Until 1662 all vestrymen were elected by popular vote since members tithed After 1662 they self recruited which means they picked the new vestrymen oThe Jamestown settlers mainly died out or married off The second generation was so busy amassing their wealth that they never had heirs A third wave came in and they became the founding fathers or first families of VA The Carters the Byrds the Lees and the Randolphs were some of the biggest families in VA The descendents of the First Families controlled the politics for 200 years oSisilious Calvert also known as Lord Baltimore was given Maryland named after Charles s queen Baltimore wanted it to be a catholic refuge and his was a proprietary colony The King could still control war and trade and an elected assembly had to approve all of the laws In 1634 they created a settlement on then Potomac called St Mary s Calvert created a feudal setting In the first 43 years he awarded 60 manners or large tracts of land Eventually this led to a Plantation system Calvert never came to America but instead lived in England He did his homework and so Maryland never had a starving time In 1642 The First Act for Religious Toleration was drafted in Maryland over an argument between Catholics and Protestants There was Religious Toleration for everyone except those who didn t believe in the Virgin Mary or Trinity Protestants were in control now until 1658 oTowns did not really develop in the Chesapeake Neighbors were far apart and only men had freedom to travel abroad and spent time with neighbors Life in the Chesapeake depended all on Tobacco prices When prices were high there was a boom etc Tobacco plantations had to be near a river 80 of the early Chesapeake population lived near the river The Ship captains would take the Tobacco over and bring back goods to be sold by the Wealthy plantation owners They needed workers to tend the field and got those in the form of indentured servants and later as slaves History Notes The puritans also came from England and settled in the Massachusetts Bay Colony In 1621 the Plymouth Company which had folded was reorganized by Sir Fernando Gorges When they reorganized it they renamed it The Council for New England They sold land grants for present day Maine and New Hampshire or then Mass Bay Colony oRoger Conant a minister approached the Council and asked for a land grant to establish a colony in Massachussetts later known as the town of Salem The first 400 sailors arrived there in 1629 It would be for religion and commercial venture The Puritans combined desires for success and business with religious freedom M Winthrop was the first governor of this colony oThere was a hierarchy of power in England Tier 1 had the rich priests Tier 2 was the yeoman which had 20 More than 50 of the population had no land material goods etc and were poor Winthrop believed this stratification was wrong and wanted to change this in the New World He wanted Salem to be The City on the w the eyes of all people would be on them and could set an example for other colonies Religion Society and Economics would be the goals of this lifestyle oThe Puritans wanted to purify the state church of Roman Catholic rituals They believed that the church could be purified from within They did not like Mass the vestments that priests wore Communion rails or the Bishops They did not like to separate the Congregation from the Clergy The Bishops made up about 25 of the House of Lords in Parliament so James would not do away with them oCharles I came to the Throne next and he brought more prosecution That with the hardships gave people the want to move to the New World In 1630 the Great Fleet led by John Winthrop arrived with 700 people By the end of 1630 there were already 7 towns in Massachusetts including Boston and Salem Ten years later there would be over 30 major towns From 1629 1642 consisted of The Great Migration which is when more than 20000 Puritans came to Mass Bay About 1 3 of them died during the first winter and other retumed to England but more came to replace those The 2nd Winter was not a 2nd Starving Time because they came in families and had to put down roots and provide They had a strong sense of community oWinthrop s Charter called for a govemor Winthrop and 18 assistants who would be elected annually by stockholders of the Massachusetts Bay Company They met in a Quarterly General Court and would pass laws Soon free men who didn t own stock got to participate oAfter the 1630s every year each town was allowed to send 2 deputies to participate in the Quarterly Court It became bicameral two houses within the government The deputies broke off and formed the House of Representatives So it changed from company run to government run Now it could levy or set taxes establish corporations set civil and criminal jurisdictions and could declare war or peace with the Indians The actual charter never said that every memberparticipant had to be a member of the Congregationalists Church but the colonists decreed it that in the Proclamation of 1631 It was a theocracy or a state run by the church but the church getting taxes from the state However a church official could NOT be a colonial government official Town Meetings were the primary means of local administration They are the lasting legacy of the New England government The legislature would award a land grant to several dozen leaders and they would then be able to form a town These family heads were allowed to organize and plan the town in any way they wanted and could levy their own taxes etc The Officers tax collectorsroad surveyorsConstablesetc were called Selectmen oThey organized the towns the same There would be a Court square with housed surrounding it Then you would have a Meadowland for grazing Plow land for Crops and Woodlands for hunting building more homes or for firewood oThe towns were successful because the Puritans were neighborly Secondly they had Social Cohesion they were there for a reason Thirdly Christian brotherhood and fourthly Protection from Indians Fifthly Fear of the Wilderness And lastly the Puritan llission of building a regulated and Godly society oNormally only a Full Saint held full citizenship but generally all males could vote and hold office The church and religious freedom ourished in Massachusetts and there were 23 separate churches They referred to themselves as the Congregationalists Church and they fused the ideas of a separating and non separating Puritan Church Separatist in that only a full saint could take communion and have their children Baptized But Non Separatist because all adults had to attend church and tithe to the church Few people were excused from church attendance and were branded as scandalously wicked A Full Saint was a person who had had a religious experience of a conversion relation he she had to relate how they converted to accepting Jesus There was a select group that listened to the conversion relation and decided whether it was valid or not It was a soul bearing examination You could only be a member if you were a saint The minister the Teacher the Elder and the Deacon were the positions within the church but sometimes there were only Ministers and Elders There were no bishops etc Believed theirs was the true Church of England Puritanism was a way of life and a religious movement They were committed and religious but not narrowminded Reverend John Cotton shaped American Congregationalism They believed the Bible was the ONLY divine book of God and channel to him They also believed that Scripture was the true way of worship but did not believe God spoke to anyone directly They thought that people who claimed to hear God could have been spoken to by Satan or a Witch They brought these ideas from England They lived by the Old Testament 0 Everyone needed to read the Bible for themselves and this was as far as girl s education went In 1647 Mass Bay passed the Old Deluder Act Satan was the Old Deluder and kept people ignorant of God This act centered on education and said that every town with 50 households was to appoint l father to whom all children could come to leam about the Bible If a town had 100 households then they were to have a Grammar School where students were prepared for University level work By O O O O O 1671 most other colonies followed their example as this was New England s first step to Public Education They believed that all mankind were determined to damnation but that some were predestined to go to heaven The Covenant of Works The Covenant of Redemption and then Covenant of Grace It also said mankind passed through 5 stages in life Election being chosen by God Vocation God offered his grace Justification A lost soul is redeemed Sanctification new state of doctrinebeing and Glorification came at 1 s death The Puritan way of life survived for a long time because they had blackwhite answers and ministers were educated Also the reform worked against the wrongs that they saw in the England Church But they were extremely interested in Science Education and Govemment They were the legacy for today s government and they cared about what their society would become Harvard was the first college established in the colonies by the Puritan s The Hivings Out the most extensive examples of dissention against the Puritan faith in colonial New England These problems began when individuals start to question first religious and then political issues Roger Williams was truly a separatist at heart and did not believe the Anglican Church could be purified nor that religion and government could go hand in hand He was afraid the state would corrupt the church and did not agree with the compulsory church agreement and was friends with the Indians He believed the King was giving away land that belonged to the Native Americans He was branded as a trouble maker and banished him from the colony in 1635 He relocated to the Narraganset Bay and established his colony Providence there Others with questions followed him and it eventually became Rhode Island In 1644 he got permission from the government to form a government Rhode Island would be the onlv New Engl jd colony that practiced religious toleration Anne Hutchinson posed an even greater threat to William s power She was smart witty and bold She had arrived with her merchant husband in 1634 She admired Minister John Cotton and Minister John Wheelwright her brotherinlaw who preached unadulterated sermons She believed with Cotton that the Saints of the church should be isolated from the nonelect She believed that just because a man lived a good life did not mean that they were saved and that the Holy Spirit was inside of everyone very pentecostal She began teaching these ideas in her home and told her followers that any minister besides Cotton and Wheelwright were only living in the Covenant of Works and NOT the Covenant of Grace Her followers were known as Antinomians or those opposed to the rule of the law By 1636 Mass Bay was divided into 2 That year the Antinomians nominated their own governor but Winthrop was reelected Winthrop gets all the other ministers to align themselves against Hutchison and try them for heresy They ban Wheelwright and Anne uses the Bible to defend herself However eventually her own words become her downfall and she was banished from Massachusetts She moves to Rhode Island to the community of Newport After she is widowed her and her 7 youngest children move to New York where she and 6 of her children were massacred by Indians One daughter Susan was raised by these Indians and eventually remarried in Boston Another threat to the Puritan way of life was in the way Connecticut came about It had economic and religious roots The most prominent of the group was Reverand Thomas Hooker from Cambridge and his biggest follower was John Winthrop Jr The three biggest towns were Windsor Hartford and Weathersfield In 1639 those 3 came together and adopted the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut It gave more weight to representation of government and did not require church membership to be in the government In the early 1660 s they became known just as Connecticut 0 There was the quarter of New Haven established by John Davenport It was its own colony in 1643 but joined Connecticut in the 1660 s Don t worry about dates gt Remember the events in order HISTORY NOTES Wood amp Gray said History is an event a record and a field of study 0 History is built of peoplepeople are people are peoplehuman nature shapes history 0 Those who don t study history repeat its mistakes Material Culture Looking at an object and looking deep into it Asking questions like Who What When Why How amp asking details about the persons involved CHAPTER 1 Explorers St Augustine was the first port in America in 1685 and it was controlled by the Spanish Spain also used it as their religion post In the first half of the 16th century English amp Spain were allied against France They broke up because of 1 Religion Spain was Catholic amp England was Protestant 2 England supported Dutch sailors while the Netherlands were revolting against Spain and 3 in 1588 the Spanish Armada invaded England From 15881604 they were ill at ease with one another Richard Hakluy Wrote amp Published the Principle Navigations to keep the English interested in settling the new world It said the new world was a great place to go Sir William Hawkins amp Sir John Hawkins the Sea Dogs were pirates with illegal trade England had 2 goals 1 find a new North West passage to the Orient and 2 Beat Spain in trade Another Sea Dog Sir Frances Drake seized great treasures from Spain sailed around the world in 1578 claimed California for England amp received Knighthood However he Singed the King s Beard and lost his knighthood 0 His success as a Sea Dog led to the Spanish Armada invasion of England The Greater Englanders supported expansion to the new world amp the establishment of colonies It would expand influence amp amp get profit from furs trades passage etc This interested Queen Elizabeth I Sir Humphrey Gilbert in 1578 was given a patent to colonize a new colony in the new world sailed to Newfoundland amp claimed it but he drowned on the return voyage 0 His goal in 1585 was to make a military colony Ralph Layne was the leader of 107 men at Roanoke Island but the men eventually returned home to England They tried the colony again but sent families instead of single men to make a permanent settlement This second group was led by John White an artist amp mathematician They were aiming for Chesapeake but ended up at Roanoke in 1587 White went back to England but could not return until 1590 because of the Armada invasion He left behind his family on Roanoke including his granddaughter named Virginia Dare the very first white American born on American soil When White returned to Roanoke the settlement was deserted Starvation They moved in with Indians Died in Hurricane or Winter No one knows The Lost Colony Queen Elizabeth wanted colonies but wouldn t support them with money from her treasury That money was for a possible war with Spain James I ascended the throne next and brought peace with Spain in 1604 amp was finally free to colonize In 1606 he granted charters to make mercantile colonies for business and the 2 companies couldn t settle within 100 miles of each other The Londoners o The Virginia Company o Authorized to settle from North Carolina to New York The West England Merchants o The Plymouth Company o Authorized to settle from Virginia to Maine There was a Royal Council in England amp a Subsidiary Council in colonies to make laws keep peace Virginia Company sent 144 men to Virginia but 39 died on the ship 0 This group was mostly second sons bc in England the 1St son was the heir to the family wealth so the 2nd sons had to set out and make a name for themselves 0 They moved 30 mi inland amp settled on James River and named the settlement Jamestown for King James They had to battle heat diseases Malaria amp mosquitoes They never knew how to use their hands for planting crops or building homes so 12 died that first winter of 1607 A 2nd group arrived in 1608 w John Smith He governed w military discipline negotiated w Powhatan Indian tribe amp got everyone to work for the good of everyone Chief Powhatan was going to bash in Smith s skull but Pocahontas the Chief s daughter saw his bravery amp saved him Chief spared his life amp claimed him as his son Smith was injured in a gun powder explosion amp he went back to England They turned leadership to someone new in 1609 After he left the settlers regressed to laziness amp winter of 16091610 was the Starving Time amp almost everyone died Accounts of cannibalism were rampant Lord Delawarr was sent to replace Smith and reached Jamestown in 1610 In 1611 Shakespeare wrote Tempest w the settlement in mind cannibals Delawarr amp Thomas Gates worked to keep everyone from leaving Gates and Thomas Dale came up w Marshall Law 0 O O O o Dale s Laws Respect Sabbath amp worship regularly The King was not to be slandered Company s Laws to be obeyed without question DO NOT trade with Indians without approval from Virginia Company Don t throw out wash water near the colony s water source Latrines to be built amp used 14 mile away from fort Men to keep households clean Corporal Punishment up to amp including death There was a massive Indian attack in 1622 Jamestown turned from a corporate to a royal colony when the Virginia Company crashed There were 3 types of colonies Corporate RoyalCrown amp Propietary Jamestown grew because John Rolfe brought Tobacco amp they grew it By 1620 s there was a Tobacco boom A vast amount of money supplies amp people came into the colony Pocahontas married Rolfe and went England where she took the Christian name Rebecca She got respiratory disorder from the foul air amp died For 6 pounds sterling a person could sail to Jamestown or it was paid by another person and you were indentured to them for 47 years as their workerservant Servants could not marry and if a woman became pregnant they had to pay a fine 2 years 0 When you arrived you could get 50 acres but if you brought more people or family with you you could get 100 a plantation The first Africans arrived in 1619 on a Dutch ship amp were either indentured or slaves 0 Representative Government with 22 Representatives metcreated in 1619 amp drafted laws that dealt with local matters In 1619 they got their 1St taste of self government Jamestown survived when they brought in 90 maidens for marriage Seasoning they were getting accustomed to newdifferent climate Powhatan dies amp his brother takes over He leads Indians on attack of Jamestown which killed 397 people but the Native American fight was crushed by 1625 by Wyatt ImgnfwNi n O OO O O OO Plymouth religion settledpilgrimsseparatists o This group was disgusted by the Church of England By 1607 they separated from the church amp held secret illegal meetings They relocated to Holland which was too permissive so 102 of them sailed to Plymouth in 1620 They intended to land near Hudson but the Mayflower landed in Massachusetts Bay All of the men had to sign a Compact Mayflower Compactfirst compact of its kind in the New World that formed men into civil government Their colony was named Plymouth Plantation o In the 1St winter or the 1St four months 12 of them died They were assisted by Squanto and Samoset of Wampanoag Tribe They taught them to plant corncrops This was very vital in relations This was the 1St harvest of 1621 The 1St Thanksgiving wasn t national holiday until 18005 0 William Bradford was 1St governor for 30 years