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Survey of United States History I

by: Roxanne Reinger

Survey of United States History I HIST 2010

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > History > HIST 2010 > Survey of United States History I
Roxanne Reinger
GPA 3.53

Craig Kaplowitz

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Craig Kaplowitz
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Roxanne Reinger on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2010 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Craig Kaplowitz in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/213088/hist-2010-middle-tennessee-state-university in History at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
3rd Midterm 1 Slavery Cotton from Carolinas into TexasSugar Cotton Exports rose to 57 of all US exports in 1860 Upper South relies less on cash crops Low industrial output onetenth ofthe North Little incentive to invest into industry when cash crops promised good returns Lagging in education Reluctance to tax to support schools High illiteracy in the South 60 of North Carolinians enlisting in the US Army versus 30 of northern enlistees Predominantly private universities A crime to educate slaves Largely rural versus the northern urbanization 1860 One fourth of whites owned slaves Ofthese only 12 owned more than 20 slaves Moving into the Old Southwest Alabama Mississippi and East Texas disrupted social bonds People lived in isolation Fluctuating cotton prices often forced planters to live humble lives or sell slaves their sign of social status Yeomen Nonslave holders In East Tennessee much hog raising Pine Barren people Squatted on land Planting corn among the stumps grazing hogs and cattle During the Civil War many thought they would be slave holders Others accepted the racial assumption of slavery Rejected claim to social equality even the possibility of intermarriage Many Southern pastors defended slavery drawing on St Paul claiming it helped Blacks to develop traits such as humility and selfcontrol Christian responsibility to slaves 1845 The Baptists split into the Southern Convention The Methodists break apart too Slaves worked typically longer hours under supervision than any other worker in the US Malnutrition in the early stages Only 55 of all slaves from Africa taken to the US whereas 33 to Brazil By 1823 however 36 of all slaves lived in the US to 31 in Brazil Food worse for slaves than for whites but better than eastern European peasants High mortality in the lowlands Violence embedded in society Murder rate as much as 10 times higher than in the North Dueling on the rise in the South Seen as refined in comparison with wanton violence Eyegouging and extremity biting Southern Code of Honor High sensitivity about reputation while the north emphasized character unfazed by others thoughts Armed Resistance Nat Turner s 1831 insurrection in Virginia only significant slave rebellion Denmark Vesey bought his freedom after winning in lottery In 1822 worked to seize city s arms but was executed Compared to the West Indies Haiti 1804 with many absentee landlords fewer uprisings in the South Nowhere to go after Florida became US territory Significant presence of whites able to quickly muster a militia and patrols Indians routinely returned fugitives to owners for a reward Escape Many forged passes or papers declaring themselves as free Henry Box Brown escaped in a box from Richmond to Philadelphia Frederick Douglas borrowed a sailor s papers to escape from Baltimore to NYC in 1838 Underground Railroad largely legendary Several gave safe haven but these houses were known to patrols Slaves would feign sickness or refuse to work Tools had to be kept under lock Worries that they commit arson or poison whites Make slavery bearable as possible Language Pidgin simplified English spoken by people who used African language Often no to be form in them and confusion of gender Therefore Mary he no in Cabin Banjo Goober from Kimbundu N guba Religion Most slaves brought as young men with superficial knowledge of African faiths Similar significance of water Inseparability of sacred and secular of direct divine intervention emphasized by US revivalists Whites especially endorsed conversion after Churches split Gospels Spirituals Slaves sing most when they are unhappy 2 The West 1 Texas AdamsOnis Treaty of 1819 Russia cedes claims south of Alaska Britain and USAjoint administration of Oregon American merchants in California traded hides sea otter fur tallow Conflict between Californios and Mexico Santa Fe trail Silver and mules Beaver fur hunting in western Colorado and eastern Utah Originally the Spanish missions and presidios Some success but revolts as well Secularization of missions Steven Austin obtained land grants Slaves although abolished in Mexico 1836 30000 white Texans 4000 black Texans versus 4000 Tejanos Anonio LOpez de Santa Anna restricted autonomy of CoahuilaTexas Americans rebel Santa Anna crushes revolt In February 1836 Alamo in San AntonioBejar defended by 200 Texans Executions among them Davy Crockett Goliad Sam Houston San Jacinto Texan Independence US debate over annexation Slavery James K Polk from Columbia TN first dark horse Manifest Destiny Both Jefferson and John Quincy Adams Americans displace both uncivilized people and Europeans 2 MexicanAmerican War 18461848 1845 Annexation of Texas Rio Grande or Rio Bravo del Norte Nueces River Zachary Taylor moves to Brownsville Blockade John Slidell offered 25 Millions for California and New Mexico Polk American blood has been shed on American soil Taylor s success Winfield Scott to Veracruz Battles at Chapultepec Mexico City surrenders The Ninos Heroes West Point Artillery and Organization Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 Mexico cedes California New Mexico and Texas but retains Baja California American law introduced and many Mexicans lost their land 3 Oregon Increasing American settlements 54 40 or Fight British Columbia River Agreement 49 Parallel but Vancouver Island remains British Wilmot Proviso Zach Taylor presidency 3 From Compromise to Secession Compromise of 1850 Free Soil doctrine Missouri Compromise Line Henry Clay presents omnibus bill that 1 California admitted as free state 2 Remainder of Mexican Cession divided into Utah and New Mexico territories without federal stipulation on slavery 3 Texas gives up claims on Santa Fe 4 US government assumes Texan debt 5 DC ends slave trade but continues slavery 6 a more effective slave fugitive law In 1850 Congress passes these as single bills Fugitive Law Denied fugitives trial byjury Cannot testify on their own behalf Mere testimony of claimant suffices Court appointed commissioners get 10 ifthey ruled for slaveholder but 5 ifthey ruled for slave The return of Anthony Burns Personalliberty laws in the North forbade the use of state jails for fugitives Uncle Tom s Cabin Filibusters Cuba attempt to seize it scuttled Slave Power conspiracy Ostend Manifesto Seize Cuba by any means possible William Walker Shot in Honduras in 1860 Nativism KnowNothing Party Rid the US of Catholic and immigrant influence Broke apart the Whig party Birth of the Republican Party in mid 1850s KansasNebraska Act In March 1855 election in Kansas thousands of border ruffians from Missouri went to Kansas to vote Rival government in Topeka Charles Sumner Preston Brooks Dred Scott vs Sandford Lecompton Constitution Popular sovereignty Freestaters boycotted election Lecompton Constitution Less than 10 voted Two referenda Lecompton approved The other rejected New referendum Lecompton Constitution voted Debate between Abraham Lincoln Republican and Stephen Douglas Northern Democrat Douglas defended popular sovereignty while Lincoln called for free soil slavery a moral evil yet rejected abolition No right to intervene in the South over slavery John Brown s raid on Harper s Ferry in Virginia on October 16 1859 Emerson Brown s execution would make the gallows as glorious as the cross Lincoln William H Seward irrepressible conflict Northern Democrats Douglas while the proslavery John C Breckinridge Lincoln wins election 20 December 1860 South Carolina convention voted for secession Then Alabama Mississippi Florida Georgia Louisiana and Texas On 4 February they establish the Confederate States of America The upper South however incl Virginia Arkansas Tennessee and North Carolina Fort Sumter12 April 1861 South Carolina bombarded the fort Lincoln calls for 75000 volunteersThe Upper South seceded 4 The Civil War unprepared 16000 men The Confederacy no tax structure no navy two small gunpowder factories rickety railroad By war s end 2 million fought on the Union side and 800000 for the Confederacy Troops elected officers up to colonel 2 April 1861 the South enacted Conscription 1835 to serve in the military for three years Subsequently raised to 1750 State sovereignty Exemptions 1864 All men in the Confederate army stay until war s end North Conscription in March 1863 2045 Confederate stopgap measures of supply Josiah Gorgas head of ordnance lmpressment Act of 1863 allowed to seize food and slaves at set prices Southern War bonds of 1861 15 million Tax raised only 5 of war expenses inflation of 9000 North Legal Tender Act of 1862 issuing 150 million of greenbacks Accepted for public and private debt Lincoln coopted critics into cabinet Seward and Treasury Secretary Salmon Chase Jefferson Davis A jaw sawed in steel had a knack for making enemies Sought to secure independence from North His vice president Alexander Stephens and followers insisted on slavery and states sovereignty No tariffs or internal improvements by central government Lincoln suspended habeas corpus show cause for detention in court in Maryland to cow secessionists Kentucky Unionist legislature but secessionist governor Lincoln stationed troops across the Ohio in Illinois Missouri stayed with Union despite heavy bushwhacker activity West Virginia joined Union in 1863 railroads telegraph massproduced weapons ironplated warships trench warfare rifled guns Since 1863 Enfield rifles Cavalry North had 22 million but needed to subdue South South merely 9 million people Va ofthe them slaves Anaconda Plan Blockade East First Battle of Bull Run or Manassas in May 1861 Beauregard repelled Union troops en route to Richmond George McClellan shipped army south to attack Richmond Thomas Stonewall Jackson held off reinforcements in the Shenandoah Valley Robert E Lee attacked McClellan who withdrew Then Lee wins 2nd Bull Run In September 1862 he invades Maryland September 17 Antietam Draw between Lee and McClellan but Lee has to withdraw Emancipation Proclamation Southern commerce raiders lronclad Merrimac fought Monitor in March 1862 Ulysses S Grant moved down Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers capturing Fort Henry and Confederate surrender at Fort Donelson Nashville falls Shiloh early April 1862 Confederates under Beauregard and Albert Johnston surprised Grant before breakfast New Orleans in late April Baton Rouge and Natchez Memphis taken in June In 1863 July 13 Lee encountered Union cavalry at Gettysburg George Meade held off Lee Pickett s charge Grant captures Vicksburg Mississippi in July as well Chattanooga blockade is brokenn September 1864 William Sherman took Atlanta South Carolina Grant is in Richmond on April 3 1865 In Appomattox Court House Lee surrendered on April 9 Davis caught on May 10 14 April John Wilkes Booth shot Lincoln Sic semper tyrannis 620000 fallen soldiers The south lost 60 of its wealth Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln the war is about secession After Antietam he declared all slaves under rebel control free of January 1 1863 But expanded by end of war over 180000 blacks had served in the Union army Equal pay in 1864 Freedmen s Bureau set up in March 1865 The Law gave every freedman 40 acres of land Nathan Bedford Forrest executed many at Fort Pillow TN 1865 Thirteenth Amendment abolish slavery 5 Reconstruction Radical Republicans for black enfranchisement December 1863 Lincoln issued


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