New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Survey of United States History II

by: Roxanne Reinger

Survey of United States History II HIST 2020

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > History > HIST 2020 > Survey of United States History II
Roxanne Reinger
GPA 3.53

Paul Lubotina

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Paul Lubotina
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in History

This 44 page Class Notes was uploaded by Roxanne Reinger on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2020 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Paul Lubotina in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/213089/hist-2020-middle-tennessee-state-university in History at Middle Tennessee State University.


Reviews for Survey of United States History II


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/23/15
Nation of Nations Chapter 27 How did the diplomatic relationship between United States and the Soviet Union transform from allies to sworn enemies in the 1940s and 1950s NP WPQN Cold War Origins Wartime Relations Occupied Germany Iron Curtain Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade NATONVarsaw Pact Wartime Relations Moscow Conference December 1944 Churchill and Stalin divided Europe into spheres of influence Romania 90 Soviet Greece 90 British Hungary 50 Yugoslavia 50 and Roosevelt objected Yalta Conference February 1945 Churchill Roosevelt and Stalin agree to form the United Nations ensure free elections in occupied Europe attack Japan and allow a free Poland Potsdam Conference July 1945 Truman Attlee and Stalin agree on free elections in occupied Europe and Truman informed Stalin about the atomic bomb Occupied Germany When the second World War ended the Allies divided Germany into zones of occupation while the Soviet 39 f N Union moved the border 100 miles west The Allies held the Nuremburg Trials to punish Nazi war criminals and eventually executed 800 officials and soldiers The Soviets wanted 10 billion in reparations and stripped all the industrial infrastructure out of their zone for compensation The Soviets planned to reduce Germany to an agrarian society POLDGNE YCHECGSLOVADUIE Iron Curtain Between 19441946 the Soviet Union engineered elections in Poland Czechoslovakia Romania Bulgaria and the Baltic States The new Communist governments in Central Europe protected the Soviet Union from another German invasion On March 5 1946 Winston Churchill gave a speech where he pointed out that democracy ended on the German border The speech marked the clear political division of Europe Iron Curtain From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe Warsaw Berlin Prague Vienna Budapest Belgrade Bucharest and Sofia all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere and all are subject in one form or another not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in many cases increasing measure of control from Moscow Athens aloneGreece with its immortal gloriesis free to decide its future at an election under British American and French observation The Russiandominated Polish Government has been encouraged to make enormous and wrongful inroads upon Germany and mass expulsions of millions of Germans on a scale grievous and undreamedof are now taking place The Communist parties which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe have been raised to preeminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control Police governments are prevailing in nearly every case and so far except in Czechoslovakia there is no true democracy Truman Doctrine George Kennan an American diplomat who served in Central Europe and the Soviet Union formulated the American foreign policy of Containment Kennan argued that Communist influence should be contained within existing territorial limits either by armed intervention or more often by economic and technical assistance Harry Truman adopted Kennan s ideas and made them policy in 1947 Marshall Plan The United States provided funds to rebuild 16 Western European nations and 270 million people with over 12 billion in aid The United States invited the Soviet Union to participate but they refused along with occupied Central Europe for fear of becoming economically dependent on America A strong European economy helped to prevent the spread of Communism MARSHALL PLAN AID To EURODE 1948 1952 Berlin Blockade Political tensions increased in Europe as the Marshall Plan began to rebuild nations destroyed in the war The Soviets reacted by introducing their own currency and blockading all roads leading to Berlin Instead of war Truman had the Air Force fly in supplies to the city Flights continued until 1949 when Stalin lifted travel restrictions NATONVarsaw Pact at quot ZS 1 NATO formed in 1949 to provide for the mutual defense of Europe after the Berlin Blockade crisis 2 The United States Canada Belgium Denmark France Germany Greece Iceland Italy Luxembourg the Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Turkey and the United Kingdom 3 The Soviet Union responded with the creation of the WARSAW PACT that combined the military strength of Romania Bulgaria Hungary Czechoslovakia and Poland 99590 Nuclear War Deterrence Klaus Fuchs Soviet Nuclear Development Hydrogen Bomb NSC68 Mutually Assured Destruction Deterrence Between 1945 and 1949 the United States possessed the only nuclear arsenal in the world Joseph Stalin reacted by enlarging the Soviet Army for a possible invasion of Europe He believed that atomic bombs could not kill everyone America responded by planning to destroy 77 Soviet cities sparing Moscow and Leningrad so the government could surrender Klaus Fuchs A German scientist from England enlisted to work the atomic bomb in 1943 Fuchs began to pass on detailed notes to the Soviets By 1948 Fuchs was implicated by decoded messages sent from the Soviet officials in Washington When confronted in 1950 Fuchs confessed and spent nine years in prison before emigrating to East Germany Soviet Nuclear Development In 1949 the Soviet Union exploded their first atomic bomb ve years earlier than the United States predicted Stalin received plans for the bomb from spies in America The event set off a nuclear arms race as the Soviet Union and the United States created additional and more powerful weapons Hydrogen Bomb Both the Soviets and Americans began to work on ways to increase the destructive force The Soviets built the largest bomb that exploded with 50 megatons of power or 100 billion pounds of TNT Scientists could increase radiation fallout by inserting cobalt into the bomb Americans decided to improve current fission weapons to fusion weapons The new bombs had higher explosive yield and less radioactive fallout NSC68 By 1949 Truman wanted a more aggressive foreign policy to win the Cold War The CIA began to advise the president on foreign policy and support anti communist movements in Greece Turkey and Korea Military spending increased from 13 to 50 billion each year Opponents to the plan felt it was too expensive simplistic and militaristic 439 SGVIE T IHTENH I DHS MID EAPABILITLEEE Mutually Assured Destruction As both sides built up their arsenals the number and size of the weapons could totally destroy America and Russia Mutually Assured Destruction MAD prevented both sides attacking the other directly As a cornerstone of Cold War tactics both side began to fight the other in various countries around the world 9959 American Home Front Society Civil Rights TaftHartley Act Harry Truman 1948 Election Fair Deal Society Once the Second World War ended Americans began to demobilize the military and send men home Women and minorities lost their factory jobs as white workers returned quot to take their place A series of strikes erupted as workers sought to improve their wages after inflation reduced wages Civil Rights Minorities and returning AfricanAmerican soldiers resented the loss of jobs and returning to a segregated society after fighting for freedom President Truman began to address Civil rights issues by desegregating the military in 1948 AfricanAmericans began to organize their own Civil rights movement through organizations such as NAACP and CORE Congress of Racial Equality k 5 IL r CHOOL JACK TaftHartley Act The act passed by Congress over Truman s Veto Modified the Wagner Labor Relations Act to favor business in strikes The 1947 TaftHartley Act Enlarged National Labor Relations Board unions and employees had to noti government when negotiations broke down government could obtain an 80 day injunction against strike that threatened the government prohibited jurisdictional strikes secondary boycotts closed shops and political contributions l The quotPERFECT CRIMEquot a m Mm 7m 71m a M 4 was m 0 1 Harry Truman Harry Truman became president in 1945 after Franklin Roosevelt died in office He continued the New Deal platform of Roosevelt as he sought to create a prosperous and peaceful nation Truman s stance on civil rights angered many white voters in America a JMQVE ms 5 Di swim a Mam 51mm A m wanna mu m mam Io Em E emu mam 74551 grow mu szm wvm sloum IIIII M5454 1948 Election A three way race among Truman D Thomas Dewe R and Strom q MINgm y mm WE Thurman I Dewey gained fame as governor of New York and led in all the poles leading up to the election Strom Thurman ran on a States rights ticket of segregation Truman won the final vote count after many predicted that Dewey won the election Fair Deal Truman modified Roosevelt39s New Deal with his own Fair eal The program featured a full employment law a national health insurance plan extended social security aid to education civil rights legislation public housing universal military training an increase in the minimum wage and a fair employment practices committee The Fair Deal and the Marshall Plan stimulated massive industrial activity in the United States The Federal Haurly Sin a at Assam 2 Minimum Wage ne Its Inne tian as was PS9 American Communism Loyalty Crusade HUAC Hollywood 10 Joseph McCarthy Loyalty Crusade After the Soviets occupied Eastern Europe and exploded an atomic bombs Americans became fearful of communist subversives who might destroy the nation The federal government passed new laws to ensure the loyalty of government employees and stop communist propaganda in America Federal officials began to search the nation for Soviet spies arrest known communists and blackball any suspects from labor movements HUAC The House UnAmerican Activities Committee was founded in 1937 to prevent Fascist propaganda out of American movies After VWVII the FBI reported Communists were making movies in Hollywood House UnAmerican Activities Commission asked to investigate if the Screen Writers guild had Communist members whether these writers were able to insert subversive propaganda into Hollywood films and if President Roosevelt had encouraged proSoviet films during the war Hollywood 10 HUAC began to investigate communist infiltration of Hollywood by calling 11 actors and writers suspected of leftists activities One person testified and then fled the country while the other five refused to answer any questions by asserting their Fifth Amendment Rights All ten were held in Contempt of Congress and jailed for six months to a Alvah BeSSIe Herbert Blberman year Lester Cole Edward Dmytryk Ring Larder Jr John Lawson After HUAC Hollywood actors producers and screenwriters Nbquot Ma39u39 samue39 39quotquotZ39 were blacklisted or barred from A quotaquot 5mm and Damquot working on movies numbquot Joseph McCarthy In 1950 McCarthy was a Republican Senator from Wisconsin who needed an issue to retain his seat In 1950 he gave speech In Virginia where he accused the State Department of having 205 Communist employees McCarthy had no proof but he became an instant u 5 celebrity and led the most Sill llll virulent antiCommunist crusade in Congress Hangman r JOSEPH ii A txfiu Miii 4 FOR Joseph McCarthy McCarthy rocketed to prominence as the nation s chief Red Hunter and appointed to chair a subcommittee on investigations McCarthy worked in conjunction with HUAC and for four years became the most feared man in America He ruined many careers but found no Communists McCarthy and Republicans accused Truman and Democrats of being soft on Communism Joseph McCarthy When Eisenhower entered office with the Republican Party McCarty accused the army of Communist infiltration By 1954 the Korean War ended Stalin died and the worst fears of Communist domination ended The Senate censured McCarthy for bringing the body into dishonor and disrepute McCarthy died of Alcoholism in 1957 99590 Asian Wars Chinese Civil War Communist China Korea Korean War Chinese Intervention Douglass MacArthur Chinese Civil War In the 1930 s China had a Nationalist government led by Chiang Kaishek and a Communist government led by Mao Tsetung During the Second World War the governments cooperated to defeat the Japanese invaders Once the Japanese left the Civil War resumed America supported Chiang Kaishek with massive military and financial aid to stop communism in the country Communist China 1 By 1949 fighting had peaked as Mao Tse tung led Communist forces to victory in China 2 Chiang Kaishek fled to Taiwan and set up a new Chinese government 3 Communist expansion in Asia raised anxiety in America as more people feared a Soviet dominated world Korea At the end of the Second World War the Soviet Union liberated Korea from Japanese occupation The United States and Soviet Union split the country in two with the Soviets in the North and Americans in the South North Korean dictator Kim H Sung received military aid from the Soviet Union and Communist China to overthrow the South Korean government of Syngman Rhee The North Korean army then prepared for the invasion to reunite the country Korean War In June 1950 a North Korean army of 150000 men crossed into South Korea The invasion surprised American officials who quickly called on the UN to provide a coalition army to defend South Korea The South Korean and American army retreated to the Pusan perimeter and waited for relief Chinese Intervention In September 1950 Gen MacArthur landed an army behind North Korean line at Inchon and quickly pushed the North Koreans back to the Chinese border China feared an American invasion and attacked MacArthur s forces with over 300000 soldiers and pushed UN forces into South Korea MacArthur counterattacked and pushed the back the Chinese The armies reached a stalemate near the NorthSouth Korean border where fighting continued until muwunll g 7 mums Nuvmaznquso I uovsuam a use JANUARY 24 1951 I 1 Wm u u macs mqu um mm mm w Douglass MacArthur During the Second World War Douglass MacArthur commanded the army fighting in the Pacific In 1950 President Truman appointed MacArthur commander of forces in Korea MacArthur exercised a great deal of autonomy and did not follow the president s instructions After MacArthur demanded nuclear strikes against China and refused to obey orders Truman fired him Peace Joseph Stalin Dwight D Eisenhower 1952 Election Am stice 1 Joseph Stalin Joseph Stalin ruled the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953 Stalin was responsible for nearly 48 million deaths in his country and expanding communism in Europe and Asia When Stalin died in 1953 Soviet support for China and Korea declined The situation led to peace talks to end the war in Korea Dwight D Eisenhower During the Second World War Eisenhower commanded Allied armies ghting in Europe He gained fame as a person who could lead coalitions to victory in war By the 1950s Eisenhower emerged as a leader in the Republican Party and his stance on peace in Korea made him very popular 1952 Election President Truman refused to run Dwight David Eisenhower R was the former commander of Allied armies in Europe a s eh as a man w could lead the country Adlai Stevenson D was an Illinois governor who worked with Roosevelt s eal Eisenhower ran with the slogan I Like Ike and unpopular war in Korea Armistice In 1952 President Truman lost the election to Eisenhower who promised to end the Korean War After nearly three years and 158000 American casualties the Korean War ended in July 1953 The American government concluded that direct military action could stop Communist expansion and paved the way for American involvement in Vietnam Conclusion The United States and Soviet Union emerged from the Second World War as the only powers able to support an active foreign policy around the globe Mutual distrust from wartime experiences and congigting ideologies led to animosity and then con l Both powers used surrogates to ght their battles As a result the world divided into two camps capitalistic and communist


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.