Survey of United States History I
Survey of United States History I HIST 2010
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Aaron Burr Jr February 6 1756 September 14 1836 was the third Vice President of the United States under President Thomas Jefferson After serving as a Continental Army officer in the Revolutionary War Burr became a successful lawyer and politician He was elected twice to the New York State Assembly 1784 1785 1798 1799l1l was appointed New York State Attorney General 1789 1791 was chosen as a United States Senator 1791 1797 from the state of New York and reached the apex of his career as Vice President of the United States 1801 1805 The highlight of Burr39s tenure as President of the Senate one of his few official duties as Vice President was the Senate39s first impeachment trial of Supreme Court Justice Samuel Chase In 1804 the last full year of his single term as Vice President Burr killed his political rival Alexander Hamilton in a duel Burr was never tried for the illegal duel and all charges against him were eventually dropped The death of Hamilton however ended Burr39s political career President Jefferson dropped him from the ticket for the 1804 presidential election and he never held office again After leaving Washington Burr traveled west seeking new opportunities both economic and political His activities eventually led to his arrest on charges of treason in 1807 Although the subsequent trial resulted in acquittal Burr39s western schemes had left him with large debts and few influential friends In a final quest for grand opportunities he left the United States for Europe He remained overseas until 1812 when he returned to the United States and to the practice of law in New York City There he spent the remainder of his long life in relative obscurity Federalist No 10 Federalist Number 10 is an essay written by James Madison and the tenth of the Federalist Papers a series arguing for the ratification of the United States Constitution It was published on Friday November 22 1787 under the pseudonym Publius the name under which all the Federalist Papers were published The essay is the most famous of the Federalist Papers along with Federalist No 51 also by Madison and is among the most highly regarded ofall American political writings1l No 10 addresses the question of how to guard against quotfactionsquot or groups of citizens with interests contrary to the rights of others or the interests of the whole community Madison argued that a strong large republic would be a better guard against those dangers than smaller republics for instance the individual states Opponents of the Constitution offered counterarguments to his position which were substantially derived from the commentary of Montesquieu on this subject Federalist No 10 continues a theme begun in Federalist No 9 it is titled quotThe Same Subject Continued The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrectionquot The whole series is cited by scholars and jurists as an authoritative interpretation and explication of the meaning of the Constitution Jurists have frequently read No 10 to mean that the Founding Fathers did not intend the United States government to be partisan George Washington February 22 1732 05 February 11 1731 1731 in Annunciation Style of enumerating years December 14 1799 was the firstPresident of the United States of America serving from 1789 to 1797 and the dominant military and political leader of the United States from 1775 to 1799 He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commanderinchief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783 and presided over the writing of the Constitution in 1787 Washington became the first president by unanimous choice and oversaw the creation ofa strong wellfinanced national government that maintained neutrality in the wars raging in Europe suppressed rebellion and won acceptance among Americans of all types His leadership style established many forms and rituals of government that have been used since such as using a cabinet system and delivering an inaugural address Washington is universally regarded as the quotFather of his countryquot Washington was born into the provincial gentry of the Colonial Virginia slave societylzl his wealthy planter family owned tobacco plantations and slaves After both his father and older brother died when he was young Washington became personally and professionally attached to the powerful William Fairfax who promoted his career as a surveyor and soldier Washington quickly became a senior officer in the colonial forces during the first stages of the French and Indian War Chosen by the Second Continental Congress in 1775 to be commanderinchief of the Continental Army in the American Revolution Washington managed to force the British out of Boston in 1776 but was defeated and almost captured later that year when he lost New York City After crossing the Delaware River in the dead of winter he defeated the British in two battles retook New Jersey and restored momentum to the Patriot cause Because of his strategy Revolutionary forces captured two major British armies at Saratoga in 1777 and Yorktown in 1781 Historians laud Washington for his selection and supervision of his generals encouragement of morale and ability to hold together the army coordination with the state governors and state militia units relations with Congress and attention to supplies logistics and training In battle however 39 39 U was r quot Iby British generals with larger armies After victory had been finalized in 1783 Washington resigned rather than seize power proving his opposition to dictatorship and his commitment to American republicanism He retired from the presidency in 1797 and returned to his home Mount Vernon and his domestic life where he managed a variety of enterprises He freed all his slaves by his final 1799 will Dissatisfied with the weaknesses of Articles of Confederation in 1787 Washington presided over the Constitutional Convention that drafted the United States Constitution Elected as the first President of the United States in 1789 he attempted to bring rival factions together to unify the nation He supported Alexander Hamilton39s programs to pay off all state and national debt to implement an effective tax system and to create a national bank despite opposition from Thomas Jefferson Washington proclaimed the US neutral in the wars raging in Europe after 1793 He avoided war with Great Britain and guaranteed a decade of peace and profitable trade by securing the Jay Treaty in 1795 despite intense opposition from the Jeffersonians Although never officiallyjoining the Federalist Party he supported its programs Washington39s quot Farewell Addressquot was an influential primer on republican virtue and a warning against partisanship sectionalism and involvement in foreign wars Washington had a vision ofa great and powerful nation that would be built on republican lines using federal power He sought to use the national government to preserve liberty improve infrastructure open the western lands promote commerce found a permanent capital reduce regional tensions and promote a spirit of American nationalisml3l At his death Washington was hailed as quotfirst in war first in peace and first in the hearts of his countrymenquotl4l The Federalists made him the symbol of their party but for many years the Jeffersonians continued to distrust his influence and delayed building the Washington Monument As the leader of the first successful revolution against a colonial empire in world history Washington became an international icon for liberation and nationalism especially in France and Latin Americal5 He is consistently ranked among the top three presidents of the United States according to polls of both scholars and the general public John Marshall September 24 1755 July 6 1835 was the Chief Justice of the United States 1801 1835 whose court opinions helped lay the basis for American constitutional law and made the Supreme Court of the United States a coequal branch of government along with the legislative and executive branches Previously Marshall had been a leader of the Federalist Party in Virginia and served in the United States House of Representatives from 1799 to 1800 He was Secretary of State under President John Adams from 1800 to 1801 The longestserving ChiefJustice of the United States Marshall dominated the Court for over three decades and played a significant role in the development of the American legal system Most notably he reinforced the principle that federal courts are obligated to exercise judicial review by disregarding purported laws if they violate the Constitution Thus Marshall cemented the position of the American judiciary as an independent and influential branch of government Furthermore the Marshall Court made several important decisions relating to federalism affecting the balance of power between the federal government and the states during the early years of the republic In particular he repeatedly confirmed the supremacy of federal law over state law and supported an expansive reading of the enumerated powers Some of his decisions were unpopular Nevertheless Marshall built up the third branch of the federal government and augmented federal power in the name of the Constitution and the rule of lawzl Marshall along with Daniel Webster who argued some of the cases was the leading Federalist of the day pursuing Federalist Party approaches to build a stronger federal government over the opposition of the Jeffersonian Republicans who wanted stronger state governments Meriwether Lewis August 18 1774 October 11 1809 was an American explorer soldier and public administrator best known for his role as the leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition also known as the Corps of Discovery with William Clark Their mission was to explore the territory of the Louisiana Purchase establish trade and sovereignty over the natives near the Missouri River and claim the Pacific Northwest and Oregon territory for the United States before European nations They also collected scientific data and information on indigenous nationslil President Thomas Jefferson appointed him Governor of Upper Louisiana in 18063 ll The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed in 1798 by the Federalists in the 5th United States Congress in the aftermath of theFrench Revolution and during an undeclared naval war with Britain and France later known as the QuasiWar They were signed into law by President John Adams Opposition to Federalists among DemocraticRepublicans reached new heights at this time since the Democratic Republicans had supported France Some even seemed to want an event similar to the French Revolution to come to the United States to overthrow the Federalistslll When DemocraticRepublicans in some states refused to enforce federal laws and even threatened possible rebellion Federalists threatened to send in an army and force them to capitulatelll As the paranoia sweeping Europe was bleeding over into the United States calls for secession reached unparalleled heights and the fledgling nation seemed ready to rip itself apart Some of this was seen by Federalists as having been caused by French and Frenchsympathizing immigrants citation needed The acts were thus meant to guard against this real threat of anarchy DemocraticRepublicans denounced them as being both unconstitutional and designed to stifle criticism of the administration and as infringing on the right of the states to act in these areas though they did use them after the 1800 election against FederalistsEl They became a major political issue in the elections of 1798 and 1800 They were very controversial in their own day as they remain to the present day Opposition to them resulted in the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves authored by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison which were foundational to the states rights theory that helped lead to the Civil War Matthew Lyon July 14 1749 August 1 1822 father of Chittenden Lyon and greatgrandfather of William Peters Hepburn was a printerfarmer soldier and politician serving as a United States Representative from both Vermont and Kentucky Lyon attended school in Dublin having been born in nearby in nearby County Wicklow Ireland He began to learn the printer39s trade in 1763 but emigrated to Connecticut in 1764 Lyon landed as a redemptioner and worked on a farm in Woodbury where he continued his education In 1774 Lyon moved to Wallingford Vermont then known as the New Hampshire Grants and organized a company of militia He served asadjutant in Colonel Seth Warner39s regiment in Canada in 1775 and was then commissioned a Second Lieutenant in the regiment known as the Green Mountain Boys in July 1776 He moved to Arlington Vermont in 1777 James Madison Jr March 16 1751 OS March 5 June 28 1836 was an American statesman and political theorist He is hailed as the quotFather of the Constitution for being instrumental in the drafting of the United States Constitution and as the key champion and author of the United States Bill of Rightsl1l He was the fourth President of the United States 1809 1817 He served as a politician much of his adult life Like other Virginia statesmen in the slave societyl2l he was a slaveholder and part of the elite he inherited his plantation known asMontpelier and owned hundreds of slaves during his lifetime to cultivate tobacco and other crops After the constitution had been drafted Madison became one of the leaders in the movement to ratify it His collaboration with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay produced the Federalist Papers 1788 Circulated only in New York at the time they would later be considered among the most important polemics in support of the Constitution He was also a delegate to the Virginia constitutional ratifying convention and was instrumental to the successful ratification effort in Virginia Like most of his contemporaries Madison changed his political views during his life During the drafting and ratification of the constitution he favored a strong national government though later he grew to favor stronger state governments before settling between the two extremes late in his life In 1789 Madison became a leader in the new House of Representatives drafting many basic laws He is notable for drafting the first ten amendments to the Constitution and thus is known as the quotFather of the Bill of Rightsquotl3l Madison worked closely with President George Washington to organize the new federal government Breaking with Hamilton and what became the Federalist party in 1791 Madison andThomas Jefferson organized what they called the Republican Party later called by historians the DemocraticRepublican Partyl4l in opposition to key policies of the Federalists especially the national bank and the Jay Treaty He coauthored along with Thomas Jefferson the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions in 1798 to protest the Alien and Sedition Acts As Jefferson s Secretary of State 1801 1809 Madison supervised the Louisiana Purchase which doubled the nation s size After his election to the presidency he presided over renewed prosperity for several years As president 1809 17 after the failure of diplomatic protests and a trade embargo against Great Britain he led the nation into the War of 1812 He was responding to British encroachments on American honor and rights in addition he wanted to end the influence of the British among their Indian allies whose resistance blocked United States settlement in the Midwest around the Great Lakes Madison found the war to be an administrative nightmare as the United States had neither a strong army nor financial system as a result he afterward supported a stronger national government and a strong military as well as the national bank which he had long opposed Date 1798 1800 Location Atlantic Ocean the Caribbean the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea Result Tactical Am ericanvictoryfi end of French p rivateer attacks on US shipping US neutrality and renunciation of claims against France Convention of 1800 E United States President John Adams Paul Barras Lieutenant General George Washington Napoleon Bonaparte Benjamin Stoddert Edme Etienne Borne Desfourneaux Alexander Hamilton VictOr Hugues A eet of 54 including Unknown 18 Frigates 4 Sloops 2 Brigs 3 Schooners 5700 Sailors 365 prrivateers 20 dead More than 100 privateer warships captured 42 wounded 300 merchantmen and their cargoes captured Judicial review is the doctrine under which legislative and executive actions are subject to review and possible invalidation by the judiciary Specific courts with judicial review power must annul the acts of the state when it finds them incompatible with a higher authority such as the terms of a written constitution Judicial review is an example of the separation of powers in a modern governmental system where the judiciary is one of three branches of government This principle is interpreted differently in different jurisdictions which also have differing views on the different hierarchy of governmental norms As a result the procedure and scope ofjudicial review differs from country to country and state to state The Northwest Ordinance formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States NorthWest of the River Ohio and also known as the Freedom Ordinance or quotThe Ordinance of 1787quot was an act of the Congress of the Confederation of the United States passed July 13 1787 The primary effect of the ordinance was the creation of the Northwest Territory as the first organized territory of the United States out of the region south of the Great Lakes north and west of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River On August 7 1789 President George Washington signed the Northwest Ordinance of 1789 into law after the newly created US Congressreaffirmed the Ordinance with slight modifications under the Constitution The Ordinance purported to be not merely legislation that could later be amended by Congress but rather quotthe following articles shall be considered as Articles of compact between the original States and the people and states in the said territory and forever remain unalterable unless by common consentquot1 Arguably the single most important piece of legislation passed by members of the earlier Continental Congresses other than the T 39 39 of39 39 I 39 it 39 quot 39 Ithe precedent by which the federal government would be sovereign and expand westward across North America with the admission of new states rather than with the expansion of existing states and their established sovereignty under the Articles of Confederation It is the most important legislation that Congress has passed with regard to American public domain landsJZ The US Supreme Court recognized the authority of the Northwest Ordinance of 1789 within the applicable Northwest Territory as constitutional in Strader v Graham51 US 82 96 97 1851 but did not extend the Ordinance to cover the respective states once they were admitted to the Union3 The prohibition of slavery in the territory had the practical effect of establishing the Ohio River as the boundary between free and slave territory in the region between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River This division helped set the stage for national competition over admittingfree and slave states the basis of a critical question in American politics in the 19th century until the Civil War The Missouri Compromise was an agreement passed in 1820 between the proslavery and anti slavery factions in the United States Congress involving primarily the regulation of slavery in the western territories t prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory north of the parallel 36 30 nortlexcept within the boundaries of the proposed state of Missouri Prior to the agreement the House of Representatives had refused to accept this r 39 and a f 39 was appointed A bill to enable the people of the Missouri Territory to draft a constitution and form a government preliminary to admission into the Union came before the House of Representatives in Committee of the Whole on February 13 1819 James Tallmadge of New York offered an amendment named the Tallmadge Amendment that forbade further introduction of slaves into Missouri and mandated that all children of slave parents born in the state after its admission should be free at the age of 25 The committee adopted the measure and incorporated it into the bill as finally passed on February 17 1819 by the house The United States Senate refused to concur with the amendment and the whole measure was lost During the following session 1819 1820 the House passed a similar bill with an amendment introduced on January 26 1820 by John W Taylor of New York allowing Missouri into the union as a slave state The question had been complicated by the admission in December of Alabama a slave state making the number of slave and free states equal In addition there was a bill in passage through the House January 3 1820 to admit Maine as a free state The Senate decided to connect the two measures It passed a bill for the admission of Maine with an amendment enabling the people of Missouri to form a state constitution Before the bill was returned to the House a second amendment was adopted on the motion ofJesse B Thomas of Illinois excluding slavery from the Missouri Territory north of the parallel 36 30 nortlthe southern boundary of Missouri except within the limits of the proposed state of Missouri The Louisiana Purchase French Vente de la Louisiane quotSale of Louisianaquot was the acquisition by the United States of Americaof 828000 square miles 2140000 kmz of France39s claim to the territory of Louisiana in 1803 The US paid 60 million francs11250000 plus cancellation of debts worth 18 million francs 3750000 for a total sum of 15 million dollars less than 3 cents per acre for the Louisiana territory 233 million in 2011 dollars less than 42 cents per acrel1ll2ll3l The Louisiana Purchase encompassed all or part of 15 current US states and two Canadian provinces The land purchased contained all of presentday Arkansas Missouri Iowa Oklahoma Kansas and Nebraska parts of Minnesota that were west of theMississippi River most of North Dakota nearly all of South Dakota northeastern New Mexico northern Texas the portions ofMontana Wyoming and Colorado east of the Continental Divide and Louisiana west of the Mississippi River including the city ofNew Orleans Parts of this area were still claimed by Spain at the time of the purchaselzl In addition the purchase contained small portions of land that would eventually become part of the Canadian provinces of Albertaand Saskatchewan The purchase which doubled the size of the United States comprises around 23 of current US territoryJZlThe 1810 census counted the population of whites as 92345 in the territory4 The purchase was a vital achievement in the presidency ofThomas Jefferson At the time it faced domestic opposition as being possibly unconstitutional Although he believed that the US Constitution did not contain any provisions for acquiring territory Jefferson decided to purchase Louisiana to protect United States trade access to the port of New Orleans and free passage on the Mississippi River Slavery already existed in the territory Jefferson supported Congress in passing slavery law for the territory which contributed to the crisis of the Union a half century laterJSl Napoleon Bonaparte upon completion of the agreement stated quotThis accession of territory affirms forever the power of the United States and I have given England a maritime rival who sooner or later will humble her pridequotl5l The Panic of 1819 was the first major financial crisis in the United Stateslil and had occurred during the political calm of the Era of Good Feelings The new nation previously had faced a depression following the war of independence in the late 1780s and led directly to the establishment of the dollar and perhaps indirectly to the calls for a Constitutional Convention It had also experienced another severe economic downturn in the late 1790s following the Panic of 1797 In the earlier crises however the primary cause of economic turmoil originated in foreign trade and the broader Atlantic economyl1 These crises and others had resulted from international conflicts such as the Embargo Act and War of 1812 and had caused widespread domestic foreclosures bank failures unemployment and a slump in agriculture and manufacturing However things would change for the US economy after the Second Bank of the United States was founded in 1816121 in response to the spread of bank notes across United States from private banks due to inflation brought on by the debt following the wan lln contrast the causes of the Panic of 1819 largely originated within the US economy The panic marked the end of the economic expansion that had followed the War of 1812 and ushered in new financial policies that would shape economic development John Jay December 12 1745 May 17 1829 was an American politician statesman revolutionary diplomat a Founding Father of the United States and the first ChiefJustice of the United States 1789 95 Jay was born into a wealthy family of merchants and government officials in New York City Throughout his childhood he received a private education and he then studied law at King39s College After passing the New York bar exam he established his own legal practice He soon became a member of the New York Committee of Correspondence where he became involved with a conservative political faction that fearing quotmob rulequot sought to protect property rights and maintain the quotrule of lawquot while resisting British violations of human rights Jay served as the President of the Continental Congress from 1778 to 1779 During and after the American Revolution Jay was a minister ambassador to Spain and France helping to fashion United States foreign policy and to secure favorable peace terms from Great Britainwith Jay39s Treaty of 1794 and the First French Republic Jay a proponent of strong centralized government also cowrote the Federalist Papers along with Alexander Hamilton and James Madison As a leader of the new Federalist Party Jay was the Governor of New York State from 1795 to 1801 and he became the state39s leading opponent of slavery His first two attempts to emancipate the slaves in New York failed in 1777 and in 1785 but his third attempt succeeded in 1799 The 1799 act a gradual emancipation act that he signed into law eventually brought about the emancipation of all slaves there before his death in 1829 The National Road or Cumberland Road was the first major improved highway in the United States to be built by the federal government Construction began heading west in 1811 at Cumberland Maryland on thePotomac River It crossed the Allegheny Mountains and southwestern Pennsylvania reaching Wheeling Virginia now West Virginia on the Ohio River in 1818 Plans were made to continue through St Louis at confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers and to Jefferson City upstream on the Missouri Following the panic of 1837 however funding ran dry and construction was stopped at Vandalia Illinois after crossing the states of Ohio and Indiana Beyond the National Road39s eastern terminus at Cumberland and toward the Atlantic coast a series of privateturnpikes were completed in 1824 connecting the National Road with Baltimore Maryland and its port onChesapeake Bay these feeder routes formed what is referred to as an eastern extension of the National Road In 1835 the road east of Wheeling was turned over to the states for operation as a turnpike It came to be known as the National Pike a name also applied to the Baltimore extension The road39s route between Baltimore and Cumberland continues to use the name National Pike or Baltimore National Pike today with various portions now signed as US Route 40 Alternate US 40 or Maryland 144 A spur between Frederick Maryland and Georgetown in Washington DC now Maryland Route 355 bears various local names but is sometimes referred to as the Washington National PikeIEItquotti quot quot99ml it is now paralleled by Interstate 270between the Capital Beltway I495 and Frederick The approximately 620mile 1000 km long National Road provided a connection between the Potomac and Ohio Rivers and a gateway to the West for thousands of settlers It was the first road in the US to use the new macadam road surfacingm Today much of the alignment is followed by US 40 with various portions bearing the Alternate US 40 designation or various stateroad numbers The full road including extensions east to Baltimore and west to St Louis was designated quotThe Historic National Road an AllAmerican Roadquot in 2002I Liberty is a contested moral and political principle that seeks to identify the condition in which human beings are able to govern themselves There are different conceptions of liberty which articulate the relationship of individuals to society in different ways including some which relate to life under a quotsocial contractquot or to existence in a quotstate of naturequot and some which see the active exercise of freedom and rights as essential to liberty Understanding liberty involves how we imagine the roles and responsibilities of the individual in society in relationship to conceptions of free will and determinism which involves the larger domain of metaphysics Individualist and classical liberal conceptions of liberty typically consist of the freedom of individuals from outside compulsion or coercion also known as negative liberty This conception of liberty which coincides with the Libertarian pointofview suggests that people should must and ought to behave according to their own free will and take responsibility for their actions while in contrast Social liberalconceptions of liberty place an emphasis upon social structure and agency and thus positive liberty see the world as more complex in the sense that the social structure has an impact upon human flourishing and happiness thus the should oughts and musts are directed toward ensuring Egalitarianism n feudal societies a quotlibertyquot was an area ofallodial land in which the rights of the ruler or monarch had been waived AntiFederalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger US federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the Constitution of 1787 The previous constitution called the Articles of Confederation gave state governments more authority Led by Patrick Henry of Virginia AntiFederalists worried among other things that the position of president then a novelty might evolve into a monarchy A book titled quotThe Anti Federalist Pagersquot is a detailed explanation of American AntiFederalist thought The Federalist Party was the first American political party from the early 1790s to 1816 the era of the First Party System with remnants lasting into the 1820s The Federalists controlled the federal government until 1801 The party was formed by Alexander Hamilton who during George Washington39s first term built a network of supporters largely urban bankers and businessmen to support his fiscal policies These supporters grew into the Federalist Party committed to a fiscally sound and nationalistic government The United States39 only Federalist president was John Adams although George Washington was broadly sympathetic to the Federalist program he remained an independent his entire presidencyl1l The Federalist policies called for a national bank tariffs and good relations with Britain as expressed in the Jay Treaty negotiated in 1794 Their political opponents the DemocraticRepublicans led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison denounced most of the Federalist policies especially the bank and vehemently attacked the Jay Treaty as a sellout of republican values to the British monarchy The Jay Treaty passed and indeed the Federalists won most of the major legislative battles in the 1790s They held a strong base in the nation39s cities and in New England The DemocraticRepublicans with their base in the rural South won the hardfought election of 1800 the Federalists never returned to power The Federalists too wedded to an upperclass style to win the support of ordinary voters grew weaker year by year They recovered some strength by intense opposition to the War of 1812 they practically vanished during the Era of Good Feelings that followed the end of the war in 1815l2l The Federalists left a lasting imprint as they fashioned a strong new government with a sound financial base and in the person of ChiefJustice John Marshall decisively shaped Supreme Court policies for another three decadesl3l Alexander Hamilton January 11 1755 or 1757quot July 12 1804 was a Founding Father soldier economist political philosopher one of America39s first constitutional lawyers and the first United States Secretary of the Treasury As Secretary of the Treasury Hamilton was the primary author of the economic policies of the George Washington Administration especially the funding of the state debts by the Federal government the establishment of a national bank a system of tariffs and friendly trade relations with Britain He became the leader of the Federalist Party created largely in support of his views and was opposed by the DemocraticRepublican Party led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison Hamilton served in the American Revolutionary War At the start of the war he organized an artillery company and was chosen as its captain He later became the senior39z39 aidedecamp and confidant to General George Washington the American commanderinchief He served again under Washington in the army raised to defeat the Whiskey Rebellion a tax revolt of western farmers in 1794 In 1798 Hamilton called for mobilization against France after the XYZ Affair and secured an appointment as commander ofa new army which he trained for a war39339 However the QuasiWar although hard fought at sea was never officially declared In the end President John Adams found a diplomatic solution that avoided war Of illegitimate birth and raised in the West Indies Hamilton was effectively orphaned at about the age of 11 Recognized for his abilities and talent he came to North America for his education sponsored by people from his community He attended King39s College nowColumbia University After the American Revolutionary War Hamilton was elected to the Continental Congress from New York He resigned to practice law and founded the Bank of New York Hamilton was among those dissatisfied with the first national constitution the Articles of Confederation because it lacked a president courts and taxing powers He became a driving force behind the Annapolis Convention which successfully called on Congress to issue a call for the Philadelphia Convention to create a new constitution He was an active participant and played a major role in the ratification process by writing half of the Federalist Papers to this day the single most important source for Constitutional interpretationquotquot In the new government under President George Washington he was appointed the Secretary of the Treasury39539 An admirer of British political systems Hamilton was a nationalist who emphasized strong central government and successfully argued that the implied powers of the Constitution could be used to fund the national debt assume state debts and create the governmentowned Bank of the United States These programs were funded primarily by a tariff on imports and later also by a highly controversialexcise tax on whiskey Embarrassed when an extramarital affair with Maria Reynolds became public Hamilton resigned from office in 1795 and returned to the practice of law in New York However he kept his hand in politics and was a powerful influence on the cabinet of President Adams 1797 1801 Hamilton39s opposition to John Adams helped cause Adams39 defeat in the 1800 elections When Thomas Jefferson andAaron Burr tied in the electoral college Hamilton helped defeat his bitter personal enemy Burr and elect Jefferson as president After opposing Adams the candidate of his own party Hamilton was left with few political friends In 1804 as the next presidential election approached Hamilton again opposed the candidacy of Burr Taking offense at some of Hamilton39s comments Burr challenged him to a duel and mortally wounded Hamilton who died within days39639 Thomas Jefferson April 13 1743 April 2 1743 OS July 4 1826 was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of theUnited States Declaration of Independence 1776 and the third President of the United States 1801 1809 At the beginning of the American Revolution Jefferson served in the Continental Congress representing Virginia He then served as a wartime Governor of Virginia 1779 1781 Just after the war ended from mid1784 Jefferson served as a diplomat stationed in Paris initially as a commissioner to help negotiate commercial treaties In May 1785 he became the United States Minister to France He was the first United States Secretary of State 1790 1793 during the administration of President George Washington Upon resigning his office with his close friend James Madisonhe organized the DemocraticRepublican Party Elected Vice President in 1796 under his opponent John Adams Jefferson with Madison secretly wrote the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions which attempted to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts and formed the basis of states39 rights Elected president in what Jefferson called the Revolution of 1800 he oversaw a peaceful transition in power purchased the vast Louisiana Territory from France 1803 and sent the Lewis and Clark Expedition 1804 1806 to explore the new west His second term was beset with troubles at home such as the failed treason trial of his former Vice President Aaron Burr and escalating trouble with Britain With Britain at war with Napoleon he tried aggressive economic warfare against them however his embargo laws did more damage to American trade and the economy and provoked a furious reaction in the Northeast Jefferson has often been rated in scholarly surveys as one of the greatest US presidents though since the midtwentieth century some historians have increasingly criticized him for his failure to act against domestic slaveryI1II2I A leader in the Enlightenment Jefferson was a polymath who spoke five languages and was deeply interested in science invention architecture religion and philosophy He designed his own large mansion on a 5000 acre plantation near Charlottesville Virginia which he named Monticello His interests led him to assist in founding the University of Virginia in his postpresidency years While not an orator he was an indefatigable letter writer and corresponded with many influential people in America and Europe As part of the Virginia planter eliteand as a tobacco planter Jefferson owned hundreds of slaves throughout his lifetime Like many of his contemporaries he viewed Africans as being racially inferior His views on slavery were complex and changed over the course of his life He was a leading American opponent of the international slave trade and signed the Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves on March 2 1807 After Martha Jefferson his wife of eleven years died in 1782 Thomas remained a widower for the rest of his life his marriage produced six children with only two surviving to adulthood In 1802 allegations surfaced that he was also the father of his house slave Sally Hemings39 children In 1998 DNA tests revealed a match between her last child and the Jefferson male family line The paternity of these children remains a matter of debate among historians The XYZ Affair was a 1798 diplomatic episode during the administration of John Adams that Americans interpreted as an insult from France It led to an undeclared naval war called the QuasiWar which raged at sea from 1798 to 1800 The Federalist Party took advantage of the national anger to build an army and pass the Alien and Sedition Acts to damage the rival DemocraticRepublican PartyIll Sarah quotSallyquot Hemings Charles City County Virginia circa 1773 Charlottesville Virginia 1835 was an enslaved woman of mixed raceowned by President Thomas Jefferson through his wife39s inheritance The youngest of six siblings by the planter John Wayles and his slaveBetty Hemings Sally was the half sister of Jefferson39s wife Martha Wayles Skelton1 The Hemingses and all of Wayles39 slaves were inherited by the Jeffersons a year after their marriage and were taken to Monticello The Hemings children and their descendants were trained as domestic servants and artisans In 1787 Sally Hemings at the age of 14 was chosen to accompany Mary Polly the youngest daughter of Jefferson to Paris to rejoin her father the widower was serving as the US Minister to France Hemings and Jefferson are widely believed to have begun a sexual relationship that resulted in her pregnancy in 1789 Given his promise to free her children she returned with him that year to the United States Her first child died young after their return She had a total of six additional children born into slavery four survived to adulthood and were noted for their resemblance to Jefferson Reporting in 1802 of Jefferson39s relationship and mixedrace children caused sensational news coverage but the president kept silent on the issue Sally Hemings served in his household as a domestic servant until his death The historical question of whether Jefferson was the father of her children has been known as the JeffersonHemings controversy Following renewed historic analysis and a 1998 DNA study that found a match between the Jefferson male line and a descendant of her last son Eston Hemings a consensus among historians supports that the widower Jefferson fathered her son Eston Hemings and likely all her children2Some historians disagree3 Jefferson freed all of Sally Hemings39 children Beverly Harriet Madison and Eston as they came ofage Three of the four entered white society as adults they were seveneighths European in ancestry45 Hemings had succeeded in quotbringing her children out of Egyptquot or out of slavery6 As the historian Edmund S Morgan has noted quotHemings herself was withheld from auction and freed at last by Jefferson s daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph who was of course her niecequotm Hemings lived for her last nine years with her two younger sons in Charlottesville She lived to see a grandchild born in the house her sons owned After their mother39s death in 1835 Eston and Madison Hemings migrated with their families to Chillicothe in the free state of Ohio William Clark August 1 1770 September 1 1838 was an American explorer soldier Indian agent and territorial governor1 A native of Virginia he grew up in prestatehood Kentucky before later settling in what became the state of Missouri Clark was a planter and slaveholderJZ Along with Meriwether Lewis Clark led the Lewis and Clark Expedition of 1803 to 1806 across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean and claimed the Pacific Northwest for the United States3 Before the expedition he served in a militia and the United States Army Afterward he served in a militia and as governor of the Missouri Territory From 1822 until his death in 1838 he served as Superintendent of Indian Affairs Marbury v Madison 5 1 Cranch 1803 is a landmark case in United States law and in the history of law worldwide It formed the basis for the exercise of 39udicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution It was also the first time in Western history a court invalidated a law by declaring it quotunconstitutionaPhil 1 The landmark decision helped define the boundary between the constitutionally separate executive and judicial branches of the American form of government The case resulted from a petition to the Supreme Court by William Marbury who had been appointed by President John Adams as Justice of the Peace in the District of Columbia but whose commission was not subsequently delivered Marbury petitioned the Supreme Court to force the new Secretary of State James Madison to deliver the documents The Court with John Marshall as Chief Justice found firstly that Madison39s refusal to deliver the commission was both illegal and remediable Nonetheless the Court stopped short of compelling Madison by writ of mandamus to hand over Marbury39s commission instead holding that the provision of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that enabled Marbury to bring his claim to the Supreme Court was itself unconstitutional since it purported to extend the Court39s original 39urisdictionbeyond that which Article III established The petition was therefore denied The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons including trade restrictions due to Britain39s ongoing war with France the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion outrage over insults to national honour after humiliations on the high seas and possible American desire to annex Canada 39339 Tied down in Europe until 1814 the British at first used defensive strategy repelling multiple American invasions of the provinces of Upper and Lower Canada However the Americans gained control over Lake Erie in 1813 seized parts of western Ontario and ended the prospect of an Indian confederacy and an independent Indian state in the Midwest under British sponsorship In the Southwest General Andrew Jackson destroyed the military strength of the Creek nation at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814 With the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 the British adopted a more aggressive strategy sending in three large invasion armies The British victory at the Battle of Bladensburg in August 1814 allowed them to capture and burn Washington DC American victories in September 1814 and January 1815 repulsed all three British invasions in New YorkBaltimore and New Orleans The war was fought in three theatres At sea warships and privateers of both sides attacked each other39s merchant ships The British blockaded the Atlantic coast of the US and mounted largescale raids in the later stages of the war American successes at sea were characterized by single ship duels against British frigates and combat against British provincial vessels on the Great Lakes such as at the action on Lake Erie Both land and naval battles were fought on the frontier which ran along the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River The South and the Gulf coast saw major land battles in which the American forces destroyed Britain39s Indian allies and repulsed the main British invasion force at New Orleans Both sides invaded each other39s territory but these invasions were unsuccessful or temporary At the end of the war both sides occupied parts of the other39s territory but these areas were restored by the Treaty of Ghent In the United States battles such as the Battle of New Orleans of 1815 and the Battle of Baltimore of 1814 which inspired the lyrics of the United States national anthem quotThe StarSpangled Bannerquot produced a sense ofeuphoria over a quotsecond war of independencequot against Britain It ushered in an quotEra of Good Feelingsquot in which partisan animosity nearly vanished Canada also emerged from the war with a heightened sense of national feeling and solidarity having repelled multiple American invasions Battles such as the Battle of Queenston Heights and the Battle of Crysler39s Farm were used as such examples by Canadians The war is scarcely remembered in Britain today as it regarded the war as a sideshow to the much larger war against Napoleonraging in Europe as such it welcomed an era of peaceful relations and trade with the United States Tecumseh March 1768 October 5 1813 was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy known asTecumseh39s Confederacy which opposed the United States during Tecumseh39s War and the War of 1812 Tecumseh has become an icon and heroic figure in American Indian and Canadian history Tecumseh grew up in the Ohio Country during the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War where he was constantly exposed to warfarem With Americans continuing to encroach on Indian territory after the British ceded the Ohio Valley to the new United States in 1783 the Shawnee moved further northwest In 1808 they settled Prophetstown in presentday Indiana With a vision of establishing an independent American Indian nation east of the Mississippi Tecumseh worked to recruit additional tribes to the confederacy from the southern United StatesI During the War of 1812 Tecumseh39s confederacy allied with the British in The Canadas the collective name for the colonies of Upper Canadaand Lower Canada and helped in the capture of Fort Detroit Tecumseh was killed in the Battle of the Thames in October 1813 Shays39 Rebellion was an armed uprising that took place in central and western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787 The rebellion was named after Daniel Shays a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and one of the rebel leaders The rebellion started on August 21 1786 over financial difficulties brought about by a postwar economic depression a credit squeeze caused by a lack of hard currency and fiscally harsh government policies instituted in 1785 to solve the state39s debt problems Protestors including many war veterans shut down county courts throughout the later months of 1786 to stop judicial hearings for tax and debt collection The protestors became radicalized against the state government following the arrests of some of their leaders and began to organize militarily A militia that had been raised as a private army defeated a Shaysite attempt to seize the federal Springfield Armory in late January 1787 killing four and wounding 20 The main Shaysite force was scattered on February 4 1787 after a surprise attack on their camp in Petersham Massachusetts Scattered resistance continued until June 1787 with the single most significant action being an incident in Sheffield in late February where 30 rebels were wounded one mortally in a skirmish with government troops The rebellion took place in a political climate where the reform of the country39s governing document the Articles of Confederation was widely seen as necessary The events of the rebellion most of which occurred after the Philadelphia Convention had been called but before it began in May 1787 are widely seen to have had some effect on the debates on the shape of the new government Some historians however argue that the new constitution that the convention drafted would not have been significantly different if the rebellion had not happened Dolley Payne Todd Madison May 20 1768 July 12 1849 was the spouse of the fourth President of the United States James Madison and was First Lady of the United States from 1809 to 1817 During the previous administration of Thomas Jefferson a widower and their friend she occasionally acted as First Lady to fulfill the ceremonial functions more usually associated with the President39s wifem She was notable for her social gifts and is credited with helping define the role of the First Lady as well as contributing to the popularity of Madison as president Napoleon Bonaparte French Napol on Bonaparte napole5 banapaist 15 August 1769 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution As Napoleon l he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815 His legal reform the Napoleonic Code has been a major influence on many civil lawjurisdictions worldwide but he is best remembered for his role in the wars led against France by a series of coalitions the socalled Napoleonic Wars He established hegemony over most of continental Europe and sought to spread the ideals of the French Revolution while consolidating an imperial monarchy which restored aspects of the deposed ancien r gime Due to his success in these wars often against numerically superior enemies he is generally regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time Napoleon was born in Corsica to parents of noble Genoese ancestry and trained as an artillery officer in mainland France He rose to prominence under the French First Republic and led successful campaigns against the First and Second Coalitions arrayed against France In 1799 he staged a coup d39 tat and installed himselfas First Consul five years later the French Senate proclaimed him emperor In the first decade of the 19th century the French Empire under Napoleon engaged in a series of conflicts the Napoleonic Wars involving every major European powerquot39 After a streak of victories France secured a dominant position in continental Europe and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states Napoleon39s campaigns are studied at military academies throughout much of the worldquot39 The Peninsular War and 1812 French invasion of Russia marked turning points in Napoleon39s fortunes His Grande Arm e was badly damaged in the campaign and never fully recovered In 1813 the Sixth Coalition defeated his forces at Leipzig the following year the Coalition invaded France forced Napoleon to abdicate and exiled him to the island ofamp Less than a year later he escaped Elba and returned to power but was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo in June 1815 Napoleon spent the last six years of his life in confinement by the British on the island of Saint Helena An autopsy concluded he died of stomach cancer although this claim has sparked significant debate as some scholars have held that he was a victim of arsenic poisoning James Monroe April 28 1758 July 4 1831 was the fifth President of the United States 1817 1825 Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generationquot39 His presidency was marked both by an quotEra of Good Feelingsquot a period of relatively little partisan strife and later by the Panic of 1819 and a fierce national debate over the admission of the Missouri Territory Monroe is most noted for his proclamation of the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 which stated that the United States would not tolerate further European intervention in the Americas Born in Westmoreland County Virginia Monroe fought in the American Revolutionary War He was injured in the Battle of Trenton with a musket ball to his shoulder After studying law under Thomas Jefferson from 1780 to 1783 he served as a delegate in the Continental Congress As an anti federalist delegate to the Virginia convention that considered ratification of the United States Constitution Monroe opposed ratification claiming it gave too much power to the central government Nonetheless Monroe took an active part in the new government and in 1790 he was elected to the Senate of the first United States Congress where he joined the Jeffersonians He gained experience as an executive as the Governor of Virginia and rose to national prominence when as a diplomat in France he helped negotiate the Louisiana Purchase in 1803 Monroe was of French and Scottish descent During the War of 1812 Monroe held the critical roles of Secretary of State and the Secretary of War under President James MadisonglFacing little opposition from the fractured Federalist Party Monroe was easily elected president in 1816 winning over 80 percent of the electoral vote and becoming the last president during the First Party System era of American politics As president he sought to ease partisan tensions and embarked on a tour of the country and was well received everywherelEitquotti quot quot99ml As nationalism surged partisan fury subsided and the quotEra of Good Feelingsquot ensued until the Panic of 1819 struck and dispute over the admission of Missouri embroiled the country in 1820 Nonetheless Monroe won nearunanimous reelection In 1823 he announced the Monroe Doctrine which became a landmark in American foreign policy His presidency concluded the first period of American presidential history before the beginning ofJacksonian democracy and the Second Party System era Following his retirement in 1825 Monroe was plagued by financial difficulties He died in New York City on July 4 1831 Jay Treaty 8 Mm also known as Jay39s Treaty The British Treaty the Treaty of London of 1794 and officially Treaty of Amity Commerce and Navigation between His Britannic Majesty and The United States ofAmericaEl was a treaty between the United States and Great Britain that is credited with averting warlll resolving issues remaining since the Treaty of Paris of 1783 which ended the American Revolution l gl and facilitating ten years of peaceful trade between the United States and Britain in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars which began in 1792 The terms of the treaty were designed primarily by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton strongly supported by the chief negotiator John Jay and support from President George Washington The treaty gained the primary American goals which included the withdrawal of units of the British Army from preRevolutionary forts that it had failed to relinquish in the Northwest Territory of the United States the area west of Pennsylvania and north of the Ohio River The British had recognized this area as American territory in the Treaty of Paris of 1783 The parties agree that disputes over wartime debts and the AmericanCanadian boundary were to be sent to arbitration one of the first major uses of arbitration in diplomatic history The Americans were granted limited rights to trade with British possessions in India and colonies in the Caribbean in exchange for some limits on the American export of cotton The treaty was hotly contested by the Jeffersonians in each state They feared that closer economic ties with Britain would strengthen Hamilton39sFederalist Party promote aristocracy and undercut republicanism Washington39s announced support proved decisive and the treaty was ratified by a 23 majority of the Senate in November 1794 The treaty became a central issue of contention leading to the formation of the quotFirst Party Systemquot in the United States with the Federalists favoring Britain and the Jeffersonian republicans favoring France The treaty was for ten years39 duration Efforts to agree on a replacement treaty failed in 1806 when Jefferson rejected the MonroePinkney Treaty as tensions escalated toward the War of 1812131 The treaty was signed on November 19 1794 the Senate advised and consented on June 24 1795 it was ratified by the President and the British government it took effect on the day ratifications were officially exchanged February 29 1796 The historian George Herring notes the quotremarkable and fortuitous economic and diplomatic gainsquot produced by the Jay TreatyEl Washington DC formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington quotthe Districtquot or simply DC is thecapital of the United States On July 16 1790 the United States Congress approved the creation of a federal district to become the national capital as permitted by the US Constitution The District is therefore not a part ofany US state It was formed from land along the Potomac River donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia however the Virginia portion was returned by Congress in 1846 A new capital city named after George Washington was founded in 1791 to the east of the preexisting port of Georgetown Congress consolidated the City of Washington Georgetown and the remaining unincorporated area within the District under a single municipalgovernment in 1871 The city shares its name with the US state of Washington located on the country39s Pacific coast Washington DC had an estimated population of 617996 in 2011 The city was the 24th most populous place in the United States as of 2010 Commuters from the surrounding Maryland and Virginia suburbs raise the city39s population to over one million during the workweek The Washington Metropolitan Area of which the District is a part has a population of nearly 56 million the seventhlargestmetropolitan area in the country The centers of all three branches of the federal government of the United States are located in the District as are many of the nation39s monuments and museums Washington DC hosts 176 foreign embassies as well as the headquarters of the World Bank thenternational Monetary Fund IMF the Organization of American States OAS the InterAmerican Development Bank and the Pan American Health Organization PAHO The headquarters of many other institutions such as trade unions nonprofit organizations lobbying groups and professional associations are also located in the city The District is governed by a locally elected mayor and 13member city council However the United States Congress has supreme authority over the city and may overturn local laws Residents therefore have less selfgovernance than residents of the US states The District has a nonvoting at large Congressional delegate but no senators DC residents could not vote in presidential elections until the ratification of the Twentythird Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1961 The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions or Resolves were political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799 in which the Kentucky and Virginia legislatures took the position that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional The resolutions argued that the states had the right and the duty to declare unconstitutional any acts of Congress that were not authorized by the Constitution In doing so they argued for states39 rights and strict constructionism of the Constitution The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions of 1798 were written secretly by Vice President Thomas Jefferson and James Madison respectively The principles stated in the resolutions became known as the quotPrinciples of 3998quot Adherents argue that the states can judge the constitutionality of central government laws and decrees The Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 argued that each individual state has the power to declare that federal laws are unconstitutional and void The Kentucky Resolution of 1799 added that when the states determine that a law is unconstitutional nullification by the states is the proper remedy The Virginia Resolutions of 1798 refer to quotinterpositionquot to express the idea that the states have a right to quotinterposequot to prevent harm caused by unconstitutional laws The Virginia Resolutions contemplate joint action by the states The Resolutions had been controversial since their passage eliciting disapproval from ten state legislatures The theoretical damage of the resolutions was quotdeep and lasting and was a recipe for disunionquotquot39 George Washington was so appalled by them that he told Patrick Henry that if quotsystematically and pertinaciously pursuedquot they would quotdissolve the union or produce coercionquotquot39 Their influence reverberated right up to the Civil War and beyond39239 In the years leading up to the Nullification Crisis the resolutions divided Jeffersonian democrats with states39 rights proponents such as John C Calhoun supporting the Principles of 3998 and President Andrew Jackson opposing them Years later the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 led antislavery activists to quote the Resolutions to support their calls on Northern states to nullify what they considered unconstitutional enforcement of the law39339 Future president James Garfield at the close of the Civil War said that Jefferson39s Kentucky Resolution quotcontained the germ of nullification and secession and we are today reaping the fruitsquot39239 The Era of Good Feelings marked a period in the political history of the United States that reflected a sense of national purpose and a desire for unity among Americans in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Warsquot39 The era saw a brief lull in the bitter partisan disputes that had plagued the Democratic Republican and Federalist parties during the First Party System392quot339 President James Monroe endeavored to consolidate the Republican and Federalist parties through quotamalgamationquot with the ultimate goal of eliminating parties altogether from national politicsquot39quot539 The period is so closely associated with Monroe39s presidency 1817 1825 and his administrative goals that his name and the era are virtually synonymous The designation of the period by historians as one of quotgood feelings is often conveyed with irony or skepticism as the history of the era was one in which the political atmosphere was strained and divisive especially among factions within the Monroe administration and the Republican Party398quot9quot1quot39 The phrase quotEra of Good Feelings was coined by Benjamin Russell in the Boston Federalist newspaper Columbian Centinel on July 12 1817 following Monroe39s visit to Boston Massachusetts as part of his good will tour of Americaquotquotquot239 The Second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816 five years after the First Bank of the United States lost its own charter The Second Bank of the United States was initially headquartered in Carpenters39 Hall Philadelphia the same as the First Bank and had branches throughout the nation The Second Bank was chartered by many of the same congressmen who in 1811 had refused to renew the charter of the original Bank of the United States The predominant reason that the Second Bank of the United States was chartered was that in the War of 1812 the US experienced severe inflation and had difficulty in financing military operations Subsequently the credit and borrowing status of the United States were at their lowest levels since its founding Mumquot quot99ml Like the First Bank the Second Bank was also chartered for 20 years and also failed to have its charter renewed t existed for 5 more years as an ordinary bank before going bankrupt in 1841 The Constitutional Conventionll1 also known as the Philadelphia Conventionm the Federal ConventionJ11 or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia took place from May 14 to September 17 1787 inPhiladelphia Pennsylvania to address problems in governing the United States of America which had been operating under the Articles of Confederation following independence from m Britain Although the Convention was intended to revise the Articles of Confederation the intention from the outset of many of its proponents chief among them James Madison and Alexander Hamilton was to create a new government rather than fix the existing one The delegates elected George Washington to preside over the convention The result of the Convention was the United States Constitution placing the Convention among the most significant events in the history of the United States The most contentious disputes revolved around the composition and election of the senate how quotproportional representationquot was to be defined whether to include slaves or other property whether to divide the executive power between three persons or divest the power into a single president how to elect the president how long his term was to be and whether he could stand for reelection what offenses should be impeachable the nature of a fugitive slave clause whether to allow the abolition of the slave trade and whether judges should be chosen by the legislature or executive Most of the time during the convention was spent on deciding these issues while the powers of legislature executive and judiciary were not heavily disputed Once the convention began the delegates first agreed on the principles of the convention then they agreed on Madison39s Virginia plan and began to modify it A Committee of Detail assembled during the July 4 recess and produced a rough draft Most of this rough draft remained in place and can be found in the final version of the constitution After the final issues were resolved the Committee on Style produced the final version and it was voted on and sent to the states The ThreeFifths Compromise was a compromise between Southern and Northern states reached during the Philadelphia Convention of 1787 in which threefifths of the enumerated population of slaves would be counted for representation purposes regarding both the distribution of taxes and the apportionment of the members of the United States House of Representatives It was proposed by delegates James Wilson and Roger Sherman Delegates opposed to slavery generally wished to count only the free inhabitants of each state Delegates supportive of slavery on the other hand generally wanted to count slaves in their actual numbers Since slaves could not vote slaveholders would thus have the benefit of increased representation in the House and the Electoral College The final compromise of counting quotall other personsquot as only threefifths of their actual numbers reduced the power of the slave states relative to the original southern proposals but increased it over the northern position The ThreeFifths Compromise is found in Article 1 Section 2 Paragraph 3 of the United States Constitution Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union according to their respective Numbers which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons including those bound to Service for a Term of Years and excluding Indians not taxed three fifths ofall other Persons McCuIIoch v Maryland 17 US 316 1819 was a landmark decision by the Supreme Court of the United States The state of Marylandhad attempted to impede operation of a branch of the Second Bank of the United States by imposing a tax on all notes of banks not chartered in Maryland Though the law by its language was generally applicable to all banks not chartered in Maryland the Second Bank of the United States was the only outofstate bank then existing in Maryland and the law was recognized in the court39s opinion as having specifically targeted the US Bank The Court invoked the Necessary and Proper Clause of the Constitution which allowed the Federal government to pass laws not expressly provided for in the Constitution39s list of express powers provided those laws are in useful furtherance of the express powers of Congress under the Constitution This fundamental case established the following two principles 1 The Constitution grants to Congress implied powers for implementing the Constitution39s express powers in order to create a functional national government 2 State action may not impede valid constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government The opinion was written by Chief Justice John Marshall The Embargo Act of 1807 was a general embargo enacted by the United States Congress 39139 against Great Britain and France during the Napoleonic Wars39239 The circumstances leading to the embargo arose from flagrant violations of US neutrality in which American merchantmen and their cargo were seized as contraband of war by the belligerent European navies The British Royal Navy in particular resorted to impressment forcing thousands of American seamen into service on their warships39339 Great Britain and France engaged in a life or death struggle for control of Europe rationalized the plunder of US shipping as incidental to war and necessary for their survivalquotquot The ChesapeakeLeopard Affair was a particularly egregious example of British aggression violating American neutralityquotquot539 The deliberate diplomatic insults and presumptuous official orders issued in support of these depredations by European powers were widely recognized as grounds for a US declaration of war 39739 President Thomas Jefferson acted with restraint as these abuses mounted weighing public support for retaliation39839 He recommended that Congress respond with commercial warfare rather than with military mobilization39939 The Embargo Act was signed into law on December 22 1807quotquot39 The anticipated effect of this drastic measure39n39 economic hardship for the belligerent nations 39239 was expected to chasten Great Britain and France and force them to end their molestation of American shipping respect US neutrality and cease the policy of impressmentquot239 The embargo turned out to be impractical as a coercive measure and was a failure both diplomatically and economically 13quot1439 As implemented the legislation inflicted devastating burdens on the US economy and the American people quot639 Widespread evasion of the maritime and inland trade restrictions by American merchants as well as loopholes in the legislation greatly reduced the impact of the embargo on the intended targets in Europe British merchant marine appropriated the lucrative trade routes relinquished by US shippers due to the embargoquotquot39 Demand for English goods rose in South America offsetting losses suffered as a result of NonImportation Acts392quot392quot1739 The embargo undermined national unity in the US provoking bitter protests especially in New England commercial centersquot7quot39839 The issue vastly increased support for the Federalist Party and led to huge gains in their representation in Congress and in the electoral college in 1808quot939 Thomas Jefferson39s doctrinaire approach to enforcing the embargo violated a keyDemocraticRepublican precept commitment to limited government39339 Sectional interests and individual liberties were violated by his authorization of heavy handed enforcement by federal authorities39m39 The embargo had the pernicious effect of simultaneously undermining American citizen39s faith that their government could execute its own laws fairly and strengthened the conviction among America39s enemies that her republican form of government was inept and ineffectual392139 At the end of 15 months the embargo was revoked on March 1 1809 in the last days of Jefferson39s presidency392239 The Republican Party or sometimes called the DemocraticRepublican Party for the sake of less confusion with todays Republican Party was an American political party founded in 1792 by then Secretary for the State Department Thomas Jefferson and Representative from Virginia James Madison The party formed first as a caucus in the House of Representatives and then in every state to contest elections and oppose the programs of then Secretary for the Treasury Alexander Hamilton Jefferson needed to have a nationwide party to counteract the Federalists a nationwide party recently formed by Hamilton Foreign affairs took a leading role in 1795 as the Republicans opposed the Jay Treaty with Britain then at war with France and supported good relations with revolutionary France until Napoleon became a dictator after 1799 The party insisted on a stringent standard for derivation of any proposed powers for the United States Government and denounced many of Hamilton39s measures especially the national bank as unconstitutional The party was strongest in the South and weakest in the Northeast it favored states39 rightsand the primacy of the yeoman farmers and the planters over bankers industrialists merchants and investors The Jeffersonians were deeply committed to the principles of republicanism which they feared were threatened by the supposed monarchical tendencies of the Federalists The party came to power with the election of Jefferson in 1800 The Federalists too elitist to appeal to most people faded away and the Republicans despite internal divisions dominated the First Party System until partisanship itself withered away after 1816 The presidents selected by the party were Thomas Jefferson 1801 1809 James Madison 1809 1817 and James Monroe 1817 1825 After 1800 the party dominated Congress and most state governments outside New England It selected presidential candidates through its caucus in Congress but in the late 182039s that system broke down The party split between Andrew Jackson and the incumbent PresidentJohn Quincy Adams What began as Jackson39s ideas of democracy quotJacksonian democracyquot lead to the founding of the Democratic Party The other faction led by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay formed a new party known as the National Republicans it evolved into theWhig Party the northern wing of which eventually became the Civil Warera Republican Party The Articles of Confederation formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union was an agreement among the 13 founding states that legally established the United States of America as a confederation of sovereign states and served as its first constitutionIll ts drafting by theContinental Congress began in mid 1776 and an approved version was sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 The formal ratification by all 13 states was completed in early 1781 Even if not yet ratified the Articles provided domestic and international legitimacy for the Continental Congress to direct the American Revolutionary War conduct diplomacy with Europe and deal with territorial issues and Indian relations Nevertheless a perceived weak government created by the Articles became a matter of concern for key nationalists and in 1789 the Articles were replaced with theUS Constitution It provided for a much stronger national government with a chief executive the president courts and taxing powers The Bill of Rights is the collective name for the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution These limitations serve to protect the natural rights of liberty and property They guarantee a number of personal freedoms limit the government39s power in judicial and other proceedings and reserve some powers to the states and the public While originally the amendments applied only to the federal government most of their provisions have since been M to apply to the states by way of the Fourteenth Amendment The 39 were 39 39 39 by James Madison to the lst United States Congress as a series of legislative articles They were adopted by the House of Representatives on August 21 17893 1 formally proposed by 39oint resolution of Congress on September 25 1789 and came into effect as Constitutional Amendments on December 15 1791 through the process of ratification by threefourths of the States While twelve amendments were passed by Congress only ten were originally passed by the states Of the remaining two one was adopted as the Twentyseventh Amendment and the other technically remains pending before the states Originally the Bill of Rights legally protected only landowning white menE1 4 AmerIcansl l excluding African and womenw However these limitations were not explicit in the Bill of Right39s text It took additional Constitutional Amendments and numerous Supreme Court cases to extend the same rights to all US citizens The Bill of Rights plays a key role in American law and government and remains a vital symbol of the freedoms and culture of the nation One of the first fourteen copies of the Bill of Rights is on public display at the National Archives in Washington DC John Adams October 30 1735 OS October 19 1735 July 4 1826 was an American Founding Father lawyer statesman diplomat and political theorist A leading champion of independence in 1776 he was the second President of the United States 1797 1801 Hailing from New England Adams a prominent lawyer and public figure in Boston was highly educated and represented Enlightenment values promoting republicanism A Federalist he was highly influential and one of the key Founding Fathers of the United States Adams came to prominence in the early stages of the American Revolution As a delegate from Massachusetts to the Continental Congress he played a leading role in persuading Congress to declare independence and assisted Jefferson in drafting the Declaration of Independence As a diplomat in Europe he was a major negotiator of the eventual peace treaty with Great Britain and chiefly responsible for obtaining important loans from Amsterdam bankers A political theorist and historian Adams largely wrote the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780 which soon after ended slavery in Massachusetts but was in Europe when the federal Constitution was drafted on similar principles later in the decade One of his greatest roles was as a judge of character in 1775 he nominated George Washington to be commanderinchief and 25 years later nominated John Marshall to be Chief Justice of the United States Adams39 revolutionary credentials secured him two terms as George Washington39s vice president and his own election in 1796 as the second president During his one term he encountered ferocious attacks by the Jeffersonian Republicans as well as the dominant faction in his ownFederalist Party led by his bitter enemy Alexander Hamilton Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts and built up the army and navy especially in the face ofan undeclared naval war called the quotQuasiWarquot with France 1798 1800 The major accomplishment of his presidency was his peaceful resolution of the conflict in the face of Hamilton39s opposition In 1800 Adams was defeated for reelection by Thomas Jefferson and retired to Massachusetts He later resumed his friendship with Jefferson He and his wife Abigail Adams founded an accomplished family line of politicians diplomats and historians now referred to as the Adams political family Adams was the father of John Quincy Adams the sixth President of the United States His achievements have received greater recognition in modern times though his contributions were not initially as celebrated as those of other Founders The Connecticut Compromise also known as the Great Compromise of 1787 or Sherman39s Compromise was an agreement that large and small states reached during theConstitutional Convention of that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution t retained the bicameral legislature as proposed by James Madison along with proportional representation in the lower house but required the upper house to be weighted equally between the states The MidnightJudges Act also known as the Judiciary Act of 1801 2 g represented an effort to solve an issue in the US Supreme Court during the early 19th century There was concern beginning in 1789 about the system that required the justices of the Supreme Court to quotride circuitquot and reiterate decisions made in the appellate level courtsIll The Supreme Court justices had often voiced concern and suggested that the judges of the Supreme and circuit courts be divided The Monroe Doctrine is a policy of the United States introduced on December 2 1823 It stated that further efforts by European nations to colonize land or interfere with states in North or South America would be viewed as acts of aggression requiring US intervention1 The Doctrine noted that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries The Doctrine was issued at a time when nearly all Latin American colonies of Spain and Portugal had achieved independence from the Spanish Empire except Peru and Bolivia which became independent in 1823 and 1825 respectively and Cuba and Puerto Rico The United States working in agreement with Britain wanted to guarantee no European power would move ingl President James Monroe first stated the doctrine during his seventh annual State of the Union Address to Congress It became a defining moment in the foreign policy of the United States and one of its longeststanding tenets and would be invoked by many US statesmen and several US presidents including Theodore Roosevelt John F Kennedy Ronald Reagan and others The intent and impact of the Monroe Doctrine persisted with only minor variations for almost two centuries Its primary objective was to free the newly independent colonies of Latin America from European intervention and control that would make the New World a battleground for the Old The doctrine put forward that the New World and the Old World were to remain distinctly separate spheres of influence for they were composed of entirely separate and independent nationsl3l James Tallmadge Jr January 28 1778 Stanfordville Dutchess County New York 39 29 1853 New York City was an American lawyer and politician who served in the United States House of Representatives miBiographv His father Colonel James Tallmadge 1744 to 1821 led a company of volunteers at the capture of General John Burgoyne He graduated from Brown University Providence Rhode Island in 1798 and was secretary to Governor George Clinton from 1798 to 1800 He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1802 after which he practiced in Poughkeepsie and in New York City He wasSurrogate of Dutchess County from 1804 to 1810 He served in the War of 1812 and commanded a company of home guards in defense of New York He was byelected as a DemocraticRepublican to the Fifteenth Congress to fill the vacancy caused by the death of representativeelect Henry B Lee on February 18 1817 and served from June 6 1817 to March 3 1819 In the House he defended GeneralAndrew Jackson39s course in the Seminole War and introduced an amendment to the bill authorizing the people of Missouri to draft a constitution and form a state government quotAnd provided That the further introduction of slavery or involuntary servitude be prohibited except for the punishment of crimes whereof the party shall have been fully convicted and that all children born within the said State after the admission thereof into the Union shall be free at the age of twenty five yearsquotm In support of this amendment he delivered a powerful speech on February 16 1819 in opposition to the extension of slavery1 This was widely circulated and was translated into German He was a delegate to the New York State F 39 39 39F 39 in 1821 and 1846 and was a member of the New York State Assemblyin 1824 He served as Lieutenant Governor of New York from 1825 to 1826 In 1836 he visited Russia and aided in introducing into that country several American mechanical inventions especially cottonspinning machinery He was president of New York University from 1830 to 1846 which conferred a LLD on him in 1838 and of the American Institute of which he was one of the founders from 1831 to 1850 His only daughter was one of the most beautiful women in the country and after her return from Russia to which court she accompanied her father married Philip S Van Rensselaer the third son of Stephen Van Rensselaer Their only surviving son James Tallmadge Van Rensselaer was a wellknown lawyer in New York City He is buried at the New York Marble Cemetery Noah Webster Jr October 16 1758 May 28 1843 was a lexicographer textbook pioneer English spelling reformer political writer editor and prolific author He has been called the quotFather of American Scholarship and Educationquot His bluebacked speller books taught five generations of American children how to spell and read and made their education more secular and less religious According to Ellis 1979 he gave Americans quota secular catechism to the nationstatequotJll His name became synonymous with quotdictionaryquot especially the modernMerriamWebster dictionary that was first published in 1828 as An American Dictionary of the Enqlish Lanauaae