Survey of United States History I
Survey of United States History I HIST 2010
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History Notes Chap 69 1 17001750 2 1740 s a Ohio Company Robert Dinwiddle Fort Duquesne 17541763 FrenchIndian War Tanaghrisson Mingo Fort Necessity Albany Conference Gen Edward Braddock George Washington 1 William Pitt a Fort Niagra EPWNP P PS l l O b Fort Ticonderoga c Montreal d Quebec Treaty of Paris 1763 Braddock v Franklin King George III Earl of Bute Thomas Hutchinson l l l l l H lO U IDUJN Pontic Ottawa Proclamation of 1763 Sir George Grenville Nl H Ounce Grenville s Acts a Molasses Act b Sugar Act c Stamp Act N Virtual Representation N N Patrick Henry a Virginia Resolves N W Sons of Liberty N 4 Stamp Act Congress N U39I Marques of Rockingham N 0 Declaratory Act William Pitt Charles Townshend 29 Townshend Duties 30 John Dickerson 31 Lord Hillsboro NN 00V RU30404 U1wa w 9 bahgtwa wal Opm bbb lmm 4 RD U39IU39IU39IU39IU39I bWNl O mm gnuI mmmm pxopoxi mam WNH Nonconsumption Agreement Daughters of Liberty Ebenezer Richardson Boston Massacare a Crispus Attucks b Captain Thomas Preston Fredrick North Gaspee Committees of Correspondence Tea Act of 1773 Boston Tea Party Coercive Acts Quebec Act Powder Alarm First Colonial Congress a Declaration of Rights Lexington and Concord Lord Dunmore Phillis Wheatley Peter Gansevoort Deborah Sampson a Robert Shurtliff Second Continental Congress John and Samuel Adams John Dickinson Benjamin Franklin Continental Army a George Washington Declaration of Necessity of Taking of Arms Bunker Hill a Thomas Gage b William Howe c John Burgoyne d Henry Clinton Muskets v Rifles Small Pox Olive Branch Petition Thomas Paine a Common Sense Abigail Adams Declaration of Independence American and British Military mam lmm 0 00 lllllll C U IbWNl O OOOOOOOOVV WNl OKDOO 0000000000 00Vme wwwmwm Ple pw Women in War Black Americans Strategy Montreal and Quebec a Gen Richard Montgomery b Benedict Arnold Battle of Long Island Home Front Ladies Association LoyalistsTories Joseph Brandt Thayendangea Prisoners Declaration of Dependence Currency Battle of Saratoga a Gen John Burgoyne b Palatine Germans c Ft Stanwix d Oriskany e Saratoga Gen John Sullivan White Eyes George Rogers Clark The French Alliance Southern Strategy Camden Benedict Arnold a American Fears Guerilla Warfare King s Mountain Battle of Cowpens Thomas Jefferson Yorktown a Comte de Grass b Comte de Rochambeau c Oct 19 1781 Treaty of Paris 1783 17751780 Articles of Confederation Sovereign States State Constitutions Republicanism 95 Bills of Rights 96 The People 97 George Mason 98 Cuffe Brothers 99 Elizabeth Freeman 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 75 m 99592 m an 0995 57 Quok Walker Gradual Emancipation Financial Chaos Robert Morris Bank of North America Iroquois Confederation Treaty of Ft Stanwix Northwest Territory Ordinance of 1784 1785 Treaty of Ft Mcintosh Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Fugitive Slave Provision Shays Rebellion 1787 Constitutional Convention Virginia Plan ThreeFifths Clause Presidency Electoral College Federalists AntiFederalists June 21 1788 Federalist Papers Alexander Hamilton First President Henry Knox Alexander Hamilton Thomas Jefferson Edmond Randolph John Jay John Adams First Congress 1789 Bill of Rights Women s Status Republican Motherhood Judith Sagent Murray 1790 New York to Philadelphia 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 75 3 Major Developments Agriculture Roads i First Toll Roads US Post Office Banks War Debt Hamilton s ThreeStage Plan i Report on Public Credit ii National Bank iii Report on Manufactures Whisky Rebellion John Neville Conflicts West Indians 39 Gen Josiah Harmer Gen Arthur St Clair iii Gen quotMadquot Anthony Wayne iv Battle of Fallen Timbers v 1795 Treaty of Greenville East European Powers i Neutrality Proclamation ii John Jay South Slave Rebellion i Haitian Revolution i Toussant L ouverture Federalists Republicans XYZ Affair Quasi War Sedition Act Alien Act quotI S Iquot 9 N 9 5 H O H H H N H W H 4 At this time Britain is warring with France and Spain In the 1747 the Ohio Company was formed to trade with Indians in the Ohio River Valley The company encroached on French territory In response France began building forts to secure their trade routes Richard Dinwiddle was Governor of Virginia and a shareholder in the Ohio Company He sent a young messenger George Washington to warn the French that they were trespassing on Virginian territory Dinwiddle then put Washington in charge ofa small group ofmen and sent them westward to chase the French away without being the aggressor This was the basis for the French and Indian War In May of 1754 Mingo Chief Tanaghrisson the Mingos were also concerned about French military occupancy led a small detachment of Washington s men to a French encampment in the woods Then as Washington tried to communicate with the injured French commander Tanaghrisson and his men intervened and scaIped all 14 wounded French soldiers including the commander This massacre was a direct violation of Washington s orders to not be the aggressor In May of 1754 Mingo Chief Tanaghrisson the Mingos were also concerned about French military occupancy led a small detachment of Washington s men to a French encampment in the woods Then as Washington tried to communicate with the injured French commander Tanaghrisson and his men intervened and scaIped all 14 wounded French soldiers including the commander This massacre was a direct violation of Washington s orders to not be the aggressor Fearing retaliation Washington and his men fortified their position resulting in the flimsy llFort Necessity In July over 600 French soldiers aided by Shawnee and Delaware warriors attacked the Fort killingwounded a third of Washington s men In June and July of 1754 24 delegates from 7 colonies met in Albany New York to try and repair relations with Indians and perhaps secure their help or neutrality in the war against the French Only the Covenant Chain alliance with the Mohawks was reaffirmed General Edward Braddock arrived from England and along with Washington mobilized towards the French Fort Duquesne They were ambushed one day short of arrival and nearly 1000 on the British side were killed or wounded including Braddock Washington was unhurt and commended for his bravery He was promoted to commander of the Virginia army William Pitt became Britain s Prime Minister in 1757 He committed massive resources to the war and within a period of two years from 1758 Forts Duquesne Niagara and Ticonderoga as well as French cities Quebec and Montreal were all captured by British and American troops France and Spain capitulated in 1763 and signed the Treaty of Paris only after losing many more battles in the Caribbean Braddock bragged to Benjamin Franklin about how easily his men had put down the quotsavagesquot compared to the colonists Franklin wrote that Braddock s defeat had llgave us Americans the first impression that our exalted ideas of the prowess of British regulars had not been well foundedquot In 1760 in the middle of the Seven Years War King George II ascended to the throne H l l H H NN N N W P U1 0 N 00 George I made his tutor the Earl of Bute the head of his cabinet of ministers He did not last long but one important decision he made was to keep a standing army in the colonies at all times even after the war In 1758 Thomas Hutchinson became Lieutenant Governor He was a loyalist Pontiac chief of the Ottawa tribe attacked the British garrison near Detroitjust three months after the Treaty of Paris Six more attacks soon followed and frontier settlements were raided by nearly a dozen other tribes By the Fallm every fort west of Detroit was captured and more than 400 British soldiers killed and 2000 colonists killed or captured Pontiac s uprising was halted in December of 1763 by the efforts of British and colonial soldiers but tensions were still high The Proclamation issued by British government attempted to minimize the violence in the future by preventing colonists from going too far west George Grenville was Prime Minister from 1763 to 1765 He passed many acts in an attempt to fins revenue Colonists feel that they are losing power and say that it is unfair they have to pay taxes as in the Stamp Act when they have no representation in deciding laws or government Grenville argued that colonists were already quotvirtuallyquot represented in Parliament Patrick Henry presented a series of resolutions on the Stamp Act called the Virginia Resolves to the House of Burgesses They were passed one by one The resolutions inched the assembly towards opposition of the Stamp Act The first three resolutions stated that Virginians were British citizens that they enjoyed the same rights and privileges as Britons and that self taxation was one of those rights The fourth resolution said that Virginians had always taxed themselves through their representatives in the House of Burgesses The fifth brought them all to a logical conclusion that the Virginia assembly alone had the right to tax Virginians The sixth denied legitimacy to any tax law originating outside Virginia and a seventh called anyone who disagreed an enemy of Virginia Resolutions six and seven were voted down and votes were later rescinded on number five as well The first organized resistance to the Stamp Act Samuel Adams John Hancock and Ebenezer Macintosh being chief of them In retaliation they exhibited a mock execution of Stamp Distributer Andrew Oliver who quickly resigned 12 days later three customs officials and court officials houses were trashed Held in New York city in 1765 27 delegates met to hammer out a petition about taxes addressed to the King and Parliament The Marques of Rockingham became Prime Minister in late 1765 and sought a way to repeal the Stamp Act without losing face The Stamp Act was repealed in March 1766 and the Declaratory Act was put into play The Declaratory Act asserted Parliament s right to legislate for the colonies llin all cases whatsoever In the Summer of1766 the Marques was removed from power and William Pitt became Prime Minister Charles Townshend was appointed chancellor of the exchequer the chief financial minister by William Pitt N RD 0 O W W N W 0 w P W 0 04 9 Townshend proposed new taxes in the form of the old navigation acts Officially called the llRevenue Act of 1767quot the Townshend duties on tea glass lead paper and painters colors were to be paid by the importer and passed on to consumers in the retail price The duties were not especially burdensome but the embodied principle looked different to the colonists in the wake of the Stamp Act crisis John Dickerson a Philadelphia lawyer wrote a series of articles titled Lettersfrom a Farmer in Pennsylvania which were widely circulated t these articles he called for a lltotal denial of the power of Parliament to lay upon these colonies any tax whatsoeverquot Lord Hillsboro the new man in charge of colonial affairs in Britain ordered Massachusetts governor Bernard to dissolve the provincial assembly in Massachusetts The nonconsumption agreements called for a boycott ofall Britishmade goods Boston led the way and dozens of other towns soon followed The idea was to encourage home manufacture and to hurt trade pressuring London merchants to repeal the duties The Daughters of Liberty emerged to give shape to a new idea that women might play a role in public affairs The Daughters of Liberty expressed their patriotism through conspicuous boycotts of Britishmade goods In Boston more than 300 women signed a petition to abstain from tea Homespun cloth became a symbol of patriotism In the fall of 1768 3000 troops arrived to occupy Boston Merchants began feeling the pressure to break the boycott In January a crowd defaced the door of the Hutchinson brothers shop which had broken the boycott with llHillsborough Paintquot In February a crowd surrounded the house of customs official Ebenezer Richardson Richardson panicked and fired a musket killing a young boy passing on the street The Sons of Liberty held a huge funeral procession On March 5 1770 a crowd taunted eight British soldiers by throwing snow and rocks They dared the soldiers to fire One soldier did and after a pause so did the rest Six men were injured and five killed One of those killed was Crispus Attucks a freed slave who was the first African American casualty of the American Revolution In the aftermath Hutchinson now acting governor addressed the crowd from the statehouse balcony and jailed Captain Thomas Preston and his eight soldiers The trial came in the Fall of 1770 All but two soldiers were acquitted The two were convicted of manslaughter branded on the thumbs and released Lord North took office as Prime Minister in 1770 and kept it for twelve years North persuaded parliament to remove all the duties except the tax on tea The Gaspee a Royal Navy ship was burned near Rhode Island Though no suspects were found it was announced that any would be sent to Britain for trial By spring of 1773 more than half the towns in Massachusetts set up committees of correspondence providing local forums for debate These committees politicized ordinary townspeople sparking a revolutionary language of rights and constitutional duties The Tea Act of 1773 allowed the East India Company to sell tea directly to government agents instead of to independent merchants through public auction The hope was to lower the price below that of smuggled Dutch tea The tea revenue was used to pay royal governors and judges a reminder to colonists of British superiority n retaliation the Sons of Liberty pressured tea agents to resign 4 O 4 4 N 4 w 4 4 4 U1 In November three ships bearing tea arrived in Boston Hutchinson would not allow the ships to leave without paying the tea duty After twenty days if it were not paid the tea would be confiscated On the twentieth day 100 to 150 men dressed as Indians boarded the ships and dumped thousands of pounds of tea into the harbor In response Lord North persuaded Parliament to pass the Coercive Acts four laws meant to punish the unruly colonists The first act the Boston Port Act closed Boston harbor until the tea was paid for The second the Massachusetts Government Act underscored Parliament s claim to supremacy over Massachusetts The third the Impartial Administration ofJustice Act stipulated that any royal official accused ofa capital crime would be tried in a court in Britain where they would probably be acquitted The fourth the Quartering Act permitted military commanders to lodge soldiers wherever necessary including private households The Quebec Act along with the Coercive Acts became known as the Intolerable Acts The Quebec Act confirmed the continuation of French civil law and government form as well as Catholicism for Quebec A direct blow to the Protestant New Englanders who had been denied their own representative government On September 4 1774 Thomas Gage commander of the Royal Army in New York who had recently become governor of Massachusetts sent troops to capture a suspected supply of gunpowder right outside of Boston In the attack rumor spread that the troops had killed six of the men guarding the powder In response to the llkillings within 24 hours thousands of armed men from Massachusetts and Connecticut converged on Boston Once learning of the false alarm they returned home peacefully The swiftness and determination of the Americans could no longer be debated Every colony but Georgia sent delegates to Philadelphia in September of 1774 for the First Continental Congress The congress produced a declaration of rights that asked only for peace liberty and securityquot In April of 1775 Gage was ordered to arrest the troublemakers Gage planned a surprise attack on a suspected ammunition storage site at Concord Near midnight on April 18 British soldiers moved west across the Charles River Paul Revere and William Dawes raced ahead to alert the minutemen When the soldiers got to Lexington they met some seventy armed men They were put down immediately The soldiers continued to Concord finding more Minutemen who were also put down At Old North Bridge in Concord more shots were exchanged As the British returned to Boston emptyhanded they were suddenly ambushed 273 British soldiers were killed or wounded and 95 Americans were killed Lord Dunmore royal governor of Virginia offered freedom to any slave who would take up arms for the British in November 1775 By December he had around 1500 slaves who were armed and called his llEthiopian Regimentquot Small pox typhoid fever and dysentery soon set in however and by the time Dunmore sailed to England in mid1776 he took only 300 black survivors with him Phillis Wheatley born in Africa was sold to John Wheatley when she was 7 She wrote many poems and in 1773 had a book of poems published Her poems spoke of llFair Freedom Many Americans saw these poems as referring to the ensuing fight for liberty when in actuality they were about freedom for AfricanAmericans 4 RD U1 0 U39IU39I NI U1 U3 U1 4 U1 U1 U1 0 U1 I U39I 00 U1 59 0 O 0 0 N Peter Gansevoort was a Brigadier General and in command of Fort Stanwix in 1777 Deborah Sampson posed as a man Robert Shurtliff of Massachusetts during the Revolutionary War On May 10 1775 the Second Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia They wanted to work out a declaration of war but due to the king s unreceptiveness were never able to work out an official declaration And by 1776 the delegates began to think about declaring independence John and Samuel Adams were cousins They favored Independence John Dickinson who had written Lettersfrom a Farmer in 1767 was now seeking reconciliation with Britain Benjamin Franklin who had just returned from an elevenyear residence in London was thought by some to be a British spy On June 14 1775 Congress voted to form the Continental Army George Washington a Virginian was put in charge to show that the desire for Independence was widespread The document was original written by independenceradical Thomas Jefferson and moderate John Dickerson was allowed to edit it to keep from offending Britain The document once again called for the defending of English liberties and pointed out the tyranny of parliament Thomas Gage the British commander in Boston had recently received troops and three talented generals William Howe John Burgoyne and Henry Clinton as well as instructions to attack the Massachusetts rebels Before he could go on the offensive Americans fortified themselves in the hilly terrain of Charleston Instead of boxing the rebels in the British generals sent 2500 soldiers across the water and straight up the hill The Americans held their fire until the British were within twenty yards The British turned back Twice more Howe sent his men up the hill to face the same volley The third time the British took the hill because the American ammunition was running low The British dead numbered 226 with 800 wounded Americans numbered at 140 dead 271 wounded and 30 captured Musket were more inaccurate but quicker to reload They were also easier to carry on the march Smallpox killed 130000 people on the American continent mostly Indians during the Revolutionary war In July 1775 congressional moderated led by John Dickerson sent an appeal to the king called the Olive Branch Petition It affirmed loyalty to the monarchy and blamed all the troubles on the king s ministers and Parliament It recommended that American colonial be 39as39I 39 g parliaments under the monarchy s umbrella By late fall 1775 King George III felt negotiations were too late and rejected the petition Thomas Paine wrote a pamphlet titled Common Sense which laid out multiple reasons for Independence Abigail Adams was John Adams wife She sought not only for independence but other legal changes for the new country She expressed a desire that women s legal status would improve under the new government which it of course never did On July 4 1776 the Declaration of Independence was adopted after much revision A month later the delegates signed it Four men John Dickinson included refused to sign and several m 4 0 U1 0 l 0 00 l N others signed quotwith regretsquot The document was printed and readaloud at many celebrations with the signers names left off The American Military was underestimated It consisted of any ablebodied man over the age of 16 Any continental soldiers who were trained had been trained for fighting Indians and French of the adult white male population enlisted The British was the mightiest military power in the world but they had limitations to what they could do as they were operating from overseas and were attempting to put down the rebellion without destroying the colonies Women followed the soldiers to do sewing cleaning and cooking For the Americans there was one woman for every fifteen men For the British there was one woman for every ten men About 5000 black men served in the war for the rebels nearly all from northern states 23 of these black men gave quotLibertyquot quotFreemanquot or quotFreedomquot as their surnames The American strategy was simply to repulse and defeat the invading army The British however needed to put down a rebellion and restore monarchal power The Americans had no central nerve center During the course of the war the British captured and occupied every major port city but this dealt no major blow as 95 of rebels lived in the countryside Quebec and Montreal were held by British at the start of the war In late 1775 the Americans set off to capture them General Richard Montgomery took Montreal in September and then advanced towards Quebec At the same time a group led by Colonel Benedict Arnold also moved towards Quebec In December both commanders attacked but failed to take the city Then they encountered smallpox which killed more men than the battles The Battle of Long Island occurred in August 1776 Washington s men were attacked at Manhattan by General Howe British Soldiers and German mercenaries Knowing he couldn t hold the city he withdrew to Forts Washington and Lee Howe captured the two forts after two months of skirmishes Washington quickly retreated across New Jersey into Pennsylvania Had Howe attacked Philadelphia he could have taken it and crushed the rebellion Instead he waited with his troops along the Delaware River On December 25 in an icy rain Washington moved his army across the Delaware and at dawn made a quick capture of the unsuspecting German soldiers In 1776 every community had a large number of committed people for both sides The Ladies Association was formed in Philadelphia in 1780 to collect money for the Continental soldiers Around 15 of Americans remained loyal to the crown in 1776 and another 25 tried to be neutral The most visible loyalists were called quotToriesquot by their enemies and they were usually royal officials such as governors local judges and customs officers Merchants were usually loyalists to maintain their trade protections Joseph Brandt a young Mohawk leader traveled to England in 1775 to complain to King George about cheating American settlers He pledged allegiance to the British in exchange for protection from the settlers American prisoners were typically viewed as inferior and were treated inhumanely British prisoners were treated fairly well 74 75 00 N 00 0 Written by Tories in rebuttal to congress July 4 llDeclaration of Independence The American government began circulating paper money that had no gold to back up the value They naively believed that people could be trusted enough and it would cause no problems later on British General John Burgoyne assumed command of an army of 7800 soldiers in Canada and began to squeeze on the Hudson River valley In addition to foodsupplies for 9200 people the army had food for the 400 horses and Burgoyne also carried thirty trunks of personal belongings and fine wines In July 1777 he captured Fort Ticonderoga with ease To reinforce Burogyne British troops from Montreal came from the east along the Mohawk river aided by Mohawks and Senecas But a hundred miles west of Albany they encountered American Continental soldiers aided by Palatine German militiamen at Fort Stanwix Joseph Brant led the Senecas and Mohawks in an ambush on the Germans and their Oneidas allies in a narrow ravine called Oriskany killing 500 of 840 of them Despite this Stanwix held and forced British and Indians to retreat Burgoyne deprived of his reinforcements and camped in a small town called Saratoga decided to attack first as General Horatio Gates closed on his position The British won but at a loss of 600 men A second attack on Burgoyne s forces cost another 600 Finally Burgoyne surrendered to American forces on October 17 1777 In the fall of 1779 General John Sullivan implemented a campaign of destruction on all Iroquoian villages of Central New York Forty Indian towns were completely obliterated In the mid1778 Delaware chief White Eyes negotiated a treaty at Fort Pitt pledging allegiance to the Americans Escalating violence undermined the agreement and that fall two friendly Shawnee chiefs were killed by American Militiamen Two months later White Eyes died under llmysterious circumstances George Rogers Clark led Kentucky militiamen into Illinois to attack and take the British fort at Kashaskia When they attack Fort Vicennes in 1779 Clark s troops tomahawked Indian captives and threw their stilllive bodies into the river The French who were reluctant to pledgefull allegiance finally allied fully with the Americans after their victory at Saratoga King George believed that the South would be more loyal to the British so he moves the fighting south Georgia fell to the general Cornwallis of the British in 1778 General Gates the hero of Saratoga led 3000 troops against Cornwallis at Camden on August 16 of 1780 The American s panicked at sight of the approaching British cavalry and fled When trying to regroup the next day only 700 soldiers showed up the rest were dead wounded captured or still fleeing The Southern Strategy succeeded in 1780 in part because of information conveyed by American traitor Benedict Arnold Arnold planned to sell the British a victory at West Point which would have possible won the war for them His plan was foiled when the man carrying plans of the fort s defense was captured by American troops Arnold s treason renewed patriotism for the disheartened Americans HitandRun tactics became increasingly popular as opposed to the formation standand shoot method 00 I 0 00 00 00 RD I O N RD 5 RD P RD 0 I RD 59 100 A brutal massacre of loyalist units by 1400 frontier riflemen in western South Carolina Cornwallis who was moving his men towards North Carolina was forced to return In January of 1781 Cornwallis men were defeated at Cowpens South Carolina Cornwallis fled north into Virginia where he captured Williamsburg in June A raiding party sent by Cornwallis proceeded to Charlottesville and captured members of the Virginia assembly Thomas Jefferson escaped by a mere ten minutes Cornwallis believing he was succeeding in Virginia marched to Yorktown expecting backup troops from New York to arrive by sea The French commanded by the Conte de Rochambeau had joined Washington in Newport Rhode Island in mid1780 And now warships under command of the Comte de Grass had sailed from France The French fleet arrived at the Chesapeake Bay before the British fleet A fiveday naval battle left the French Navy in control of the Virginian coast On land a combined French and American army of 16000 laid siege to Cornwallis 7500 men in Yorktown Cornwallis finally surrendered on October 19 1781 The Treaty of Paris formally ending the Revolutionary War was signed on September 2 1783 This treaty failed to recognize the Indians as players in the conflict The Second Constitutional Congress met at this time without real constitutional basis The Articles of Confederation were severely disagreed upon by the 13 states in matters of political ownership in the west Once the Articles were ratified and the confederation was formally constituted that arena of government seemed to many to be far less relevant of interesting than the state government In the first decade of independence the states were sovereign and allpowerful States themselves defined who was a voter and they also defined who would be free In May 1776 the congress recommended each state draw up their own constitution based on llthe authority of the people By 1778 ten states had done so and three more Connecticut Rhode Island and Massachusetts had adopted and updated their original colonial charters Political writers in the late 1770 s embraced republicanism consent of the governed Six of the state constitutions included bills of rights lists of basic individual liberties that government could not abridge Virginia passed the first in June 1776 and other states borrowed from it llThe People were defined differently in different states but typically consisted only of well off white males The author of the Virginia bill George Mason penned the words llAll men are by nature equally free and independent but he was not referring to slaves The Cuffe brothers refused to pay taxes as they could no vote They were jailed for tax evasion is 1780 but their cause was noticed and in 1783 Massachusetts extended suffrage to taxpaying blacks Elizabeth Freeman won her freedom in a Massachusetts court in 1781 basing her case on the words llall men are born free and equal Also in 1781 Quok Walker another slave charged his master with assault and battery in court and won his freedom Similar cases eventually led to the abolishment of slavery in Massachusetts 101 In 1780 Pennsylvania enacted a gradual emancipation law stating that any infant born to a slave mother on or after March 1 1780 would be freed at the age of 28 Not until 1847 did Pennsylvania abolish slavery completely 102 The confederation and even the individual states had run up a war debt Around 450 million had been injected into the economy in the form of paper money while wages fluctuated violently In 1781 146 continental dollars were the equivalent of one continental dollar in 1775 Robert Morris was chosen by congress to be superintendant of finance Morris came up with the idea to create the Bank of North America The bank would be private but have a special relationship with the confederation holding the government s hard money and private deposits by individuals With the bank came banknotes which were paper money that was actually backed by hard currency 103 The Iroquois Confederacy was a league of six tribes who inhabited land claimed by New York and Massachusetts 104 In October 1784 a meeting was called at Ft Stanwix between congress and the Iroquois The governor of New York believed the Indians to be citizens on his land and held a private negotiation with them in September No deal was struck with New York At the meeting in October Americans called for release of all Revolutionary war prisoners recognition of the confederation s authority to negotiate and an allimportant cession of a strip of land from Fort Niagara due south which kept them from being able to claim their tribes were llon the border of Canadaquot The Treaty was signed though many tribes who weren t present tried to disavow it 105 The Northwest Territory was the land North if the Ohio and East of the Mississippi Thomas Jefferson who was put in charge of drafting a policy divided it into nine new states with evenly spaces eastwest boundaries Jefferson wanted the land to be given to settlers instead of sold to encourage faster colonization 106 The Ordinance of 1784 adopted Jefferson s rectangular grid format the ten states and the guarantee of selfgovernment and eventual statehood but refused to give away the land a The Ordinance of 1785 adopted instead having only three to five states with the property in each divided into townships six miles square further divided into thirtysix sections of 640 acres The minimum purchase was 640 acres and payment required in hard money 107 The Treaty of fort McIntosh in 1785 coerced partial cessions of land from Delaware Huron and Miami tribes 108 The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 set forth a threestage process for settled territories to become a state First congress would appoint officials for a sparsely populated territory who would adopt a legal code and appoint local magistrates When the free male population reached 5000 the territory could elect its own legislature and send a nonvoting delegate to congress When the population of voting citizens reached 6000 the territory could write a state constitution and apply for full admission to the union According to Thomas Jefferson s suggestions all new territories would be prohibited from having slaves However a Fugitive Slave Act was added that said any escaped slave caught north of the Ohio River would be returned south 109 Massachusetts passed tough tax laws that called for payment in hard money instead of paper Farmers found it difficult to pay the taxes and began petitioning against lloppressive taxationquot In the fall of 1787 several thousand armed men marched on courthouses in six Massachusetts counties and forced judges to close their courts until the state constitution was revised Daniel Shays was one of them In October congress tried to grow their army but only 100 men enlisted Governor Bowdoin raised his own private army of 3000 When the insurgents learned of the private army in January of 1781 they moved to capture a federal armory in Springfield but were beaten to it 4 rebels were killed and 20 wounded In February at Petersham Bowdoin s army surprised the rebel and captured 150 of them The rest were captured later 110 The convention was called to revise the Articles of Confederation Patrick Henry now governor of Virginia refused to attend Rhode Island also refused to go Two New York delegates left in the middle of the convention leaving Alexander Hamilton The Virginia delegation laid out a fifteenpoint plan for a complete restructuring of the government This Virginia Plan totally repudiated the principles of a confederation of states It laid out a three I II39IA to branch government r quot ofa tvvv a powerful executive and a judiciary It almost eliminated the voices of smaller states because representation in both houses was proposed to be based on population After much debate the llThreeFifths clausequot came to be which stated that llAll free persons plus threefifths of all other Persons constituted the numerical base for the appointment of representatives The delegates devised an electoral college whose only function was to elect the president and vice president Each state s legislature would choose the representatives number being the sum of representatives and senators for the state What emerged is the government we all know and it was signed by all but three dissenters 111 The proconstitution forces called themselves federalists and their opponents Anti Federalists The Federalists hit the states most likely to ratify quickly first and Delaware ratified by early December Before the AntiFederalists had begun campaigning Pennsylvania New Jersey and Georgia followed Connecticut Maryland and South Carolina also ratified Virginia and New York were clearly AntiFederalist but Massachusetts after many problems for the Federalists ratified One more was needed and Rhode Island and North Carolina were hopeless for the Federalists cause 112 On June 21 1788 New Hampshire gave the decisive ninth vote to ratify the constitution 113 New York remained very AntiFederalists but two creative and persuasive Federalists Alexander Hamilton and James Madison published The Federalist Papers in 1787 These were a series of essays which set out the failures of the Articles of Confederation and analyzed the complex nature of the Federalist position 114 Hamilton s main concern as the first Secretary of Treasury was the war debt 115 In February of 1789 George Washington was sworn in as the first president Much like in a monarchy weekly levies were held in his honor a First Secretary of War b First Secretary of Treasury Secretary of State First Attorney General First ChiefJustice of the Supreme Court rhme First Vice President He felt that his role which was residence over the senate was insignificant 116 Looked at the Bill of Rights and ten Bills of Rights were ratified 117 Women had hoped that during the First Congress their rights would be evaluated They were not of course However the idea of Republican Motherhood became better accepted t stated that women should be allowed to get an education so that they could produce better educated sons citizens Judith Sargent Murray became known as the first spokeswoman for women equality in 1790 She confidently asserted that women were equally as smart as men In 1798 she published The Gleaner which was a collection of the essays she had written for women equality under the pen name quotConstantiaquot George Washington and John Adams both purchased a copy 118 In 1790 the capital relocated from Philadelphia to New York which was considered a llMore Central Locationquot 119 Wheat production increased dramatically with the introduction of the cotton gin which kick started slavery even harder Many roads were built mostly by private companies Because private companies built the roads they were allowed to toll people who used them The post office was also created and Benjamin Franklin was made the first Postmaster general 120 During the 1790s the number of banks increased tenfold In 1800 there were 29 banks 121 The economic upturn suggested that the wartime debt might be paid off Hamilton had a different plan In January 1790 he issued a Report on Public Credit that recommended that the debt be funded but not immediately repaid at full value This meant old bonds would be rolled over to new bonds earning interest until they retired several years later James Madison was reluctant Over wine at Jefferson s house a deal was struck between them Hamilton s opposition would be quelled but the capitol would be moved further south into what is now the District of Columbia The second part of Hamilton s plan involved creating a National Bank The federal government would hold 20 of the Bank s stocks The third and final part came in December 1791 when Hamilton issued the Report of Manufacture a proposal to encourage the production of Americanmade goods 122 Hamilton imposed a tax on whisky to bring in more revenue for the government to be paid by farmers as they brought in wheat Tax evasion became very common and Hamilton tightened the persecution John Neville is the tax collector behind most of the persecutions A major rebellion occurs and one person is killed in the first attack 123 Conflicts a Fort Washington was built on the Ohio to encourage white settlement in the Ohio area Harmer was brought in to subdue the Indians He was ambushed and defeated so badly he ended up courtmartialed St Clair built two forts but was unfortified when attacked on November 4 55 of the Americans were killed or wounded and only 3 out of 200 women escaped alive Wayne led multiple skirmished and was also ambushed He managed to win however with the use of bayonets Americans eventually strike up a deal with the Indians involving trade goods The Americans then begin offering many trade goods in an attempt to make the Indians dependent upon them b The French Revolution causes problems for the American alliance with France when England declares war on France The Neutrality Proclamation said that we would be friends with both England didn t like it though and captured a huge number of American trade ships John Jay was sent to England to negotiate the return of the trade goods gain compensation for the slaves captured in war and to request the vacating of English forts in America Instead he returned with only the vacating of the forts and a huge debt England puts on America regarding the remaining planter debts from the war c Many mixedrace plantation owners fled Haiti as L ouverture led a rebellion of Haitian slaves and took over Haiti making it the first Africanrun country in the new world 124 Polarization over Haiti the French the Jay Treaty and Hamilton s threestage plan led to two distinct groups or llpartiesquot The Federalists and the Republicans In the election of 1796 John Adams and Thomas Pickney represented the Federalists and Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr represented the Republicans The law at the time said that the topvoted would be president and the second highest would be vice John Adams became president and Thomas Jefferson his VP 125 France begins seizing American ships because they feel America has sided with England thanks to the Jay treaty Three French agents known only as X Y and Z arrived in America and said that peace would only be made if enough money was sent to France This leads to the Quasi war an undeclared war on France 126 The Sedition Act was highly opposed by Republicans as it was in conflict with the Bill of Rights It said that speaking out against Congress or the President was illegal 127 The two Alien Acts were also viewed as antiBill of Rights The first extended the waiting period from five to fourteen years for an alien to achieve citizenship and required they all register with the federal government The second gave the president the right to deport or imprison without trial any foreigner suspected of being a danger to the United States 2010 Chapter 1 How do we know about first people in America Folsom point Clovis Point Where did first human beings in Western Hemisphere come from Pangaea Beringia Continental Drift Two developments that made it possible or humans to migrate Paleo Indians Clovis Indians Archaic Indians Bows and Arrows Horses California people were Great Basin people were Northwest Coast people were Great Plains people were Eastern Woodlands people were Southwestern people were MesoAmerican people were 1490 Hunting gathering Agriculture Population North America compared to England Where was population dispersed in North America Food for Native Americans Cultures of Native Amerians Mesoamericans Western hemisphere population vs Europe Mexican Aztecs 1325 Lake Texcoco Tenochtitlan Mexica 1430 Empire in 1490s Huitzilopochtli Tribute 1492 turning point for Native Americans why
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