Topics in Physical Science
Topics in Physical Science PSCI 1030
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Popular in Physical Science
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cortez O'Hara on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 1030 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/213113/psci-1030-middle-tennessee-state-university in Physical Science at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
REVIEW Chapter 6 Waves Wave 7 the propagation of energy from a disturbance Amplitude A 7 the maximum displacement of any part of the wave or wave particle from its equilibrium position Wavelength 1 7 distance between two wave maxima Period T 7 the time for a complete cycle of motion Frequency f 7 the number of oscillations or wave cycles that occur during a given period of time usually one second Hertz Hz 7 the SI unit of frequency One hertz is one cycle per second or US Energy E of a wave is directly proportional to the square of the amplitude of the wave E XAZ This means that a doubling of the amplitude of a wave is a quadrupling of the energy transported by the wave Wave speed 7 the distance a wave travels divided by the time of travel 11 M Transverse wave a wave in which the particle motion is perpendicular to the direction of the wave velocity Longitudinal wave 7 a wave in which the particle motion and the wave velocity are parallel to each other Electromagnetic waves 7 vibrating electric and magnetic fields Electromagnetic waves are transverse waves Electromagnetic waves DO NOT require a medium for propagation Speed of all electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is 300 X 108 ms or 186000 mis Radio waves are NOT sound waves Radio waves are electromagnetic waves Sound 7 the propagation of sound waves Sound waves are longitudinal waves Sound waves DO requjre a medium for propagation Sound wave speed depends on the makeup of the material In air at 20 C its speed is 344 ms or 770 mih Sound intensity 7 the rate of transfer of sound energy through a given area with units of joules per second through a square meter Jsm2 or watts per square meter Wmz Decibel dB 7 a unit of sound intensity level one tenth of a bel B Decibel dB scale is NOT linear with respect to intensity when the sound intensity is doubled the intensity level increases by only 3 dB when the sound intensity is halved the intensity level decreases by only 73 dB Sound spectrum 7 an ordered arrangement of various frequencies or wavelengths of sound The three main regions of the sound spectrum are the infrasonic the audible and the ultrasonic Page 1 of 2 Audible region 7 audible range of human hearing which is between 20 Hz and 20 kHz Ultrasound 7 ultrasonic region of the sound spectrum with frequency greater than 20000 Hz 20 kHz Standing wave 7 a stationary waveform arising from the interference of waves traveling in opposite directions Resonance 7 a wave effect that occurs when an object has a natural frequency that coincides with an external frequency with maximum energy transfer to an object Doppler effect 7 an apparent upward shift in frequency for observers towards whom the source is approaching and an apparent downward shift in frequency for observers from whom the source is receding The Doppler effect can be observed for any type of wave water wave sound wave light wave etc The Doppler effect is of great interest to astronomers who use the information about the shift in frequency of electromagnetic waves produced by moving distant stars in order to derive information about those stars Redshift 7 a Doppler effect caused when an electromagnetic wave source moves away from the observer for example a distant star moving away from an observer on the Earth and shifts the frequencies lower or toward the red end of the electromagnetic spectrum Blueshift 7 a Doppler effect caused when an electromagnetic wave source moves towards the observer for example a distant star moving towards an observer on the Earth and shifts the frequencies higher or toward the blue end of the electromagnetic spectrum Page 2 of 2 REVIEW Chapter 3 Force and Motion Force 7 a vector quantity gm of producing a change in Velocity or in other words acceleration Net force 7 a non zero vector sum of all forces Newton 7 the unit of force in the metric system 1 newton l kgms2 1 lb 445 newton Inertia 7 the natural tendency of an object to remain in a state of rest or in uniform motion in a straight line Mass is a measure of inertia the greater the mass the greater the inertia and vice versa Newton s First Law of Motion The Law of Inertia 7 an object will remain at rest or in uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by an external unbalanced force a If there is an external unbalanced force acting on the object the object will be accelerated b If there is zero net external force the object will remain at rest or will continue in motion with the same speed and direction Newton s Second Law of Motion 7 the acceleration of an object is equal to the force on the object divided by the mass of the object a Fm This law explains how forces acting on a single object can cause an acceleration of the object Newton s Third Law of Motion 7 whenever an object exerts a force on a second object the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object F1 7F2 or mlal 7m2a2 This law relates two equal and opposite forces that act on two different objects Newton s Law of Universal Gravitation 7 the gravitational force between two masses is directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers of mass F Gmlmzrz G 7 the universal gravitational constant that has a very small value Acceleration due to gravity 7 represented by symbol g and equals 980 ms2 at the Earth s surface It is independent of the object s mass The g slightly decreases with increasing altitude and increasing latitude Weightlessness 7 microgravity An astronaut in a space shuttle orbiting the Earth is under the in uence of gravity but experiences no force of support Weight w 7 describes the force of gravity It is mathematically expressed as w mg where m is mass of an object g 980 ms2 is acceleration of an object due to gravity Centripetal force 7 the center seeking force that causes an object to follow a curved path A requisite force is needed to cause the centripetal force to act on the object Linear momentum p 7 the product of an object s mass m and its velocity v p mv Linear momentum is a vector quantity Total linear momentum P 7 sum of all individual linear momentums p of an isolated system of masses Conservation of total linear momentum Pf P 7 the total linear momentum P of a system remains constant if there are no external unbalanced forces acting on the system Page 1 of 2 Torque 1397 a force about an axis It is mathematically represented as 239 rF where r is the length of the lever arm For a given constant force F the greater the r the greater the torque Angular momentum L 7 mathematically represented as L mvr for a mass m going with velocity v in a circle of radius r Angular momentum is a vector quantity Conservation of angular momentum m1v1r1 mZerZ 7 the angular momentum of a system remains constant unless acted upon by an external torque Example of conservation of angular momentum 7 in its orbit around the Sun as the comet gets closer to the Sun r decreases and therefore v must increase Thus the comet moves faster when it is closer to the Sun to conserve its angular momentum Buoyant force the upward force exerted on a submerged object by a uid Buoyant force acts in the direction opposite to the force of gravity weight The buoyant force does not depend on the weight or shape of the submerged object only on the weight of the displaced uid Archimede s principle the buoyant force is equal in magnitude to the weight of the volume of uid that is displaced Fluids 7 liquids and gases The we density determines whether an object sinks or oats p m gt polyEC the object will oat p m lt polyEC the object will sink p uid polyEC the object will remain at equilibrium at any submerged depth in a uid For example cream oats in milk so cream is less dense Page 2 of 2 REVIEW Chapter 8 Electricity and Magnetism Electromagnetic wave 7 a transverse wave consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields Ch 6 Electric field 7 a force eld surrounding a charged particle and depicted by a set of imaginag lines It represents the electrical effect another charged object would experience when placed in the eld of the charged particle Magnetic eld 7 a force eld depicted by a set of imagin lines that indicate the direction in which a small compass needle would point if it were placed near a magnet All magnetic elds originate in moving electric charges Electromagnetism 7 the interaction of electrical and magnetic effects Protons 7 positively charged particles in the nuclei of atoms Electrons 7 negatively charged subatomic particles Electric charge q 7 a fundamental property of matter that can be either positive or negative and gives rise to electric forces The electric charge q comes in multiples of individual units called the elementary charge 8 which equals il6gtlt10 19 C The proton has a charge of 8 and the electron has a charge of 8 Law of charges 7 like charges repel unlike charges attract Electric potential energy 7 the potential energy that results from work done in separating electric charges Voltage V7 the amount of work it would take to move a charge between two points divided by the value of the charge 7 that is work per unit charge V Wq or the electric potential energy per unit charge Volt V 7 the SI derived unit of voltage equal to one joule per coulomb V JC Electric current I 7 the time rate of ow of electric charge I qt In metal conductors moving electrons constitute an electric current Ampere A 7 the SI base unit of electric current Coulomb C 7 the SI derived unit of electric charge q One coulomb is defined as the charge transported by a current of one ampere in one second As Coulomb s law 7 the force of attraction or repulsion between two charged bodies is directly proportional to the product of the two charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance k between them F amp r Ohm Q 7 the SI derived unit of resistance equal to one volt per ampere Q VA Ohm s law 7 the voltage across two points is equal to the current owing between the points times the resistance between the points V IR Electric resistance R 7 the opposition to the ow of electric charge Electric power 7 the expenditure of electrical work W divided by time t P Wt IV Direct current dc 7 electric current in which the electrons ow directionally from the negative e terminal toward the positive terminal Page 1 of 2 REVIEW Chapter 9 Atomic Physics Atom 7 the smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical combination Electrons 7 negatively charged subatomic particles The ultraviolet catastrophe 7 a prediction of the classical physics that the intensity I of the energy of the emitted radiation should be proportional to the second power of the frequency 1 cc f the intensity should approach infinity at the ultraviolet region Dual nature of light 7 light must be described sometimes as a wave and sometimes as a particle Photon 7 a quantum of electromagnetic energy Quantum 7 a discrete amount or packet of energy Quantum mechanics 7 the branch of physics that replaced the classicalmechanical view that everything moved according to exact laws of nature with the concept of probability Schrodinger s equation forms the basis of quantum wave mechanics Billiard ball model of the atom 1807 7 Dalton s concept of an atom as a featureless indivisible sphere of uniform density Plumpudding model of the atom 1903 7 Thomson s concept of an atom as a sphere of positive charge in which negatively charged electrons were embedded Nuclear model of the atom 1911 7 Rutherford s concept of an atom as having a dense center of positive charge called nucleus around which electrons orbited Bohr s model of hydrogen atom 1913 7 also called planetary model of the atom 7 for hydrogen atom one electron revolves around the nuclear proton in a circular orbit The hydrogen electron can exist only in discrete speci c orbits with particular radii electron orbits are characterized by wholenumber values n l 2 3 where n is called the principle quantum number Principal quantum number 7 the numbers n l 2 3 used to designate the various principal energy levels that an electron may occupy in an atom Electron cloud model of the atom 1926 7 also called Schrodinger s quantum model 7 the model of an electron cloud around the nucleus where the cloud s density re ects the probability that the electron is in a given region The r2 512 represents the probability of nding the electron at a particular distance r from the nucleus Wis called the wave function and mathematically represents the wave associated with a particle Ground state 7 the lowest energy level of an atom Excited states 7 the energy levels above the ground state in an atom Fluorescence 7 emission of photons of visible light by electrons when excited by ultraviolet light Phosphorescence 7 a glow of light that persists after the source of excitation has been removed Laser 7 an acronym for Light Ampli cation by Stimulated Emission of Radiation it produces coherent monochromatic light Stimulated emission 7 process in which an excited electron in an atom is stimulated to emit a photon Page 1 of 2 Line absorption spectrum 7 a set of dark spectral lines of certain frequencies or wavelengths formed by dispersion of light that has come from an incandescent source and has then passed through a sample of cool gas Line emission spectrum 7 a set of bright spectral lines of certain frequencies or wavelengths formed by dispersion of light from a gas discharge tube Each element gives a different set of lines Photoelectric effect 7 the emission of electrons that occurs when certain metals are exposed to ultraviolet or visible light Xrays 7 highfrequency high energy electromagnetic radiation formed when highspeed electrons strike a metallic target Microwaves 7 lowfrequency lowenergy electromagnetic radiation Microwaves are employed in microwave ovens lVIicrowaves are absorbed by polar molecules such as water molecules and to a lesser extent by fat and oil molecules Heisenberg s uncertainty principle 7 it is impossible to know a particle s exact position and velocity simultaneously This principle describes limitations on measurements de Bro glie matter waves 7 a moving particle has a wave associated with it Page 2 of 2 REVIEW Chapter 5 Temperature and Heat Temperature 7 a measure of the average kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance Heat 7 the net energy transferred from one object to another because of a temperature difference Heat engine 7 a device that converts heat into work A diesel engine and a gasoline engine are two examples of a heat engine Heat pump 7 a device that uses work input to transfer heat from a low temperature reservoir to a high temperature reservoir A household refrigerator is an example of a heat pump British thermal unit Btu 7 the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one paund of pure water by one Fahrenheit degree at normal atmospheric pressure Calorie cal 7 the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one gram of pure water by one Celsius degree at normal atmospheric pressure Kilocalorie kcal 7 the amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of one kilagram of pure water by one Celsius degree at normal atmospheric pressure Food calorie 7 the unit of food energy Food calories measure amounts of energy 1000 times greater than the units in scientific context 1 food calorie 1000 calories 1 kcal Celsius scale 7 a temperature scale based on an ice point of 0 and a steam point of 100 with 100 equal units or divisions between these points Celsius 7 a unit of temperature measurement on Celsius scale 1 C 18 F Fahrenheit scale 7 a temperature scale based on an ice point of 32 and a steam point of 212 with 180 equal units or divisions between these points Fahrenheit a unit of temperature measurement on Fahrenheit scale Kelvin scale 7 the absolute temperature scale that takes absolute zero as 0 K Kelvin K 7 the SI unit of temperature on Kelvin ab solute temperature scale 1 K 1 C Absolute zero the coldest theoretically possible temperature It is the point at which all thermodynamic activity motion ceases Phases of matter 7 the physical forms of matter 7 most commonly solid liquid and gas Gas 7 matter that is made up of rapidly moving molecules and assumes the shape and size of its container Gas has no definite volume or shape Liquid 7 an arrangement of molecules that may move and assume the shape of the container Liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape Solid 7 matter that has relatively fixed molecules and a definite shape and volume Page 1 of 2 REVIEW Chapter 1 Measurement Science comes from Latin word scientia meaning quotknowledgequot Sight gives us the most information about our environment Hearing ranks second All human senses sight hearing touch taste and smell have limitations and can be easily deceived Scientific method 7 an investigative process that holds that no concept or model of nature is valid unless the predictions it generates agree with experimental results Hypothesis 7 a tentative explanation of some regularity in nature Hypothesis must be tested and verified Experiment 7 the testing of a hypothesis carried out in a controlled manner The experimental results must be reproducible Scientific theory 7 a tested explanation of natural phenomena Scientific law 7 a concise statement about a fundamental relationship or regularity of nature Scientific laws state while theories explain British Imperial system 7 the system of units where the foot pound and second are the standards of length weight and time respectively Metric system 7 the decimal base 10 system of units employed predominantly throughout the world The mks system 7 the metric system that has the meter kilogram and second as the standard units of length mass and time respectively SI Intemational System of Units 7 a modernized version of the metric system that contains seven standard units Standard unit 7 an internationally accepted reference standard in other words a fixed and reproducible reference value used for the purpose of taking accurate measurements System of units 7 a group of standard units and their combinations Fundamental physical quantity 7 a physical quantity which is independent of any other quantity Fundamental physical quantities of classical mechanics are length time and mass Length 7 the measurement of space in any direction Time 7 the continuous forward flowing of events Mass 7 the amount of matter an object contains Weight is not a fundamental quantity Weight is the force of gravitational attraction on an object by a celestial body This force is different for different celestial bodies For example the Moon s gravitational attraction is one sixth 16 that on the Earth so an object on the Moon weighs l6 less than on the Earth That is 300 lb on the Earth will be 50 lb on the Moon Weight is mathematically expressed as w mg where w is weight m is mass of an object g 980 ms2 is acceleration of an object due to gravity Page 1 of 2 REVIEW Chapter 10 Nuclear Physics Element 7 a substance in which all the atoms have the same number of protons the same atomic number Z Atom 7 the smallest amount of an element Nucleus 7 the central core of an atom composed of protons and neutrons Protons 7 positively charged particles in the nuclei of atoms Neutrons 7 neutral particles found in the nuclei of atoms Nucleons 7 a collective term for neutrons and protons particles in the nucleus Strong nuclear force 7 the shortrange force of attraction that acts between two nucleons and holds the nucleus together Atomic number Z 7 the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom Neutron number N 7the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom Mass number A 7 the number of protons plus neutrons in a nucleus or the total number of nucleons Atomic mass 7 the weighted average mass of isotopes of the element in a naturally occurring sample given under its symbol in the period table in unified atomic mass units symbolized 11 All atomic masses are based on an atom of 12C Isotopes 7 forms of nuclei of an element that have the same numbers of protons but differ in their numbers of neutrons Nuclide 7 a particular species of isotopes of any element characterized by a de nite atomic number Z and mass numberA No stable nuclides exist that have Z greater than 83 Radioactivity 7 the spontaneous process of nuclei undergoing a change by the emitting particles or rays Radionuclides radioactive isotopes 7 types of nuclei that undergo radioactive decay Eveneven nuclides 7 stable nuclides that have an M number of both protons and neutrons Oddodd nuclides 7 unstable radioactive nuclides that have an number of both protons and neutrons Nuclear transmutation 7 radioactive nuclei can be changed into nuclei of other elements either through a nuclear reaction or through a radioactive decay Alpha x decay 7 a type of radioactive decay 7 the disintegration of a nucleus into a nucleus of another element with the emission of an alpha particle which is a helium nucleus Beta B decay 7 a type of radioactive decay 7 the disintegration of a nucleus into a nucleus of another element with the emission of a beta particle which is an electron Gamma y decay 7 a type of radioactive decay 7 an event in which a nucleus emits a gamma ray and becomes a less energetic form of the same nucleus Gamma rays have the greatest ability while alpha particles have the least ability to penetrate matter Halflife 7 the time it takes for half the nuclei in a given radioactive sample to decay Nuclear reaction 7 a particle can be added to a nucleus to change the nucleus into another element Nuclear reactions are used to create new elements Page 1 of 2
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