International Relations PS 3210
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taurean Paucek on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PS 3210 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Moses Tesi in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/213127/ps-3210-middle-tennessee-state-university in Political Science at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
International Relations 22712 1118 PM i 1 lriquotl l Munfnam A De ne International Relations i A study of interactions across national boundaries among the various actors that make up the national system B Identify the forms of interactions that IR deals with i Interaction must be across national boundaries ii con ict and wars iii Terrorism ivOlympic games C Various Actors in IR i State Actor 1 Nation State 2 State a an entity wterritory and the territory must have de ned borders b the state must also have people that identify wthat state c the state must have a Govt that is sovereign lst Govt that has ultimate power in all matters pertaining to the state d The state must be recognized by other states as being equal lst Exchange ambassador for diplomatic relations 3 Most dominate actors in the UN ii NonState Actor 1 MNC Multi National Corporation a Companies that have a HQ in one country but branches in many others b The purpose is pro t 2 NGO Non Governmental Organizations a Operate worldwide b Many subcategories 1st Humanitarian NGO s 01 Purpose is humanity eg Red Cross Doctors wout Borders 2nd Development NGO s 01 Long term relief effort development 02 E g OXfarm Care 3rd Philanthropic NGO s 01 Gives money for the work to get done 02 Work being on the development level 4th Advocacy NGO s 01 Goal is to change policy by lobbying Govt to change and do what they think is right 02 EG Green Peace 3 Intergovernmental Organizations a World Bank b UN United Nations c WHO World Health Organization D Intergovernmental Security and International Political Economy i Int l Security 1 Deals with issues of con ict and cooperation a Wars diplomacy terrorism ii Int l Political Economy 1 Political aspect of economic relations a Trade invest foreign aid development int l environmental issues iii Change and the theme of change 1 IR constantly changes a Size of population b War c Technology H d Policy s and leadership ALevels of Analysis A level of analysis is a perspective on IR based on a set of similar actors or processes that suggests possible explanations to why questions Pevehouse J on C Goldstein Joshua S 20110727 International Relations Brief 6th Edition Kindle Locations 813 814 Pearson HE Inc Kindle Edition i Three Levels of Analysis 1 Individual Level a Focuses attention on in uence that emanate from individuals 2 StateSocietal Level a Focuses attention on groups within the state b Ethnic group c Govt Analysis 1st Type of Govt in a countrystate 3 System Level a International system b Interactions between actors and how they in uence IR 4 Global Level Globalization a Deals wthe factors and in uences that are beyond individual states and their interactions b Stuff peoplestates have NO control over 1st E g terrorism Global Warming System a unit that functions as one due to the regular interactions of its part A Global Geography i Geographical space that constitutes the world are continents 1 Continents have several regions a Regions are the 7 land masses continents ii North South Division Division based upon wealth and social economic well being 1 Global North countries that are more industrialized and have a higher standard of living 2 Global South lower industrialization lower standard of living B Globalization A process of heightened interdependence and interconnections of states and societies brought about by a heightened level of transnational activities associated with trade production technology communication knowledge and nance i Growth in 1 international transactions global trade foreign direct investments modern communications knowledge 6 technological innovations ii Critiques of Globalization 1 Seen as undermining a country s independence C The Westphalian International System 16481815 i End of 30 years war ii Treaty of Westphalia 1 State Sovereignty a Sovereign on all matters relating to domestic Govt 1st Sovereignty rested in he sovereign king b Political Pluralism c Religious Pluralism d National Military e Impact of State Sovereignty on lntemational System 1st Anarchy 01 Obscene of central authority 02 End result a balance of power behavior 3 39 w m i y 1quot g quot A Treaty of Westphalia 1648 i Sovereignty ii Created the concept of the modern state 1 Treaty marked the beginning of the modern state iii System A single unit whose eXistence is due to each unit interacting with each other Thucydides 39 Wrote the History of the Peloponnesian War The cause of War Struggle for Power Maintaining Power Power is at the Gain Power root of it all B 1776 1815 i Importance and contributions of the French and American Revolutions 1 1776 American Revolution a sovereignty should be located in the people Popular Sovereignty 1st shifted the location of sovereignty control of power from the monarch to the people 2 1789 The French Revolution a sovereignty should be with the people Popular Sovereignty b contributed to Nationalism Nationalism 9 Citizenship Citizenship someone who enjoys the bene ts ts all the obligations established to be French leve39e en mass conscription into the army ii 1790 s 1815 1 Napoleonic Wars a Napoleon Bonaparte s ideals after the French Revolution 1st Liberty 2nd Equality 3rd Fraternity b Napoleon spread them by war c This war was equivalent to the 30 years war C l 815 I i 211d Restructure of the National System like 1648 A Hegemony i Control of International System B 1815 After Napoleonic War i restructure of International System ii Congress of Vienna Plan to prevent any future wars 1 Collective Security a Concept of Europe 2 Balance of Power a A situation where power is distributed evenly b Notion of the balance of power as a policy policy guide 1st Powers and actions of other countries Restructure all of your own power and policy to counteract theirs C Two 2 ways for country s to build their power using the principles of balance of power i Internal Capabilities ii Alliances 1 Balance of power built around alliances a Led to was is known in IR as the 19th century Balance of Power International System 2 An alliance deals with the security threat 3 Alliance also is a concentration of power D Bipolar International System i Power is concentrated on two dominate states or alliances E Multipolar International System i Power is concentrated in 4 or 5 dominate states or alliances F 19th century Balance of Power System i exible 1 countries not married to an alliance A 19th Century Balance of Power i Alliances Form of cooperation in the face of a common threat 1 Triple Power Alliance 2 Bntente Powers ii Collective Security 1 Approach to keep global peace and security through cooperation with other states where a threat to one state is a threat to all 2 Deterrence Method B Nationalism identi cation with and devotion to the interests of one nation Identity Politics Simple termExplanatory term The concept is used as the basis for action 1 Notion of a group of people who identify with each other Based on certain cultural characteristics should forma a basic unit of politics i Italian Uni cation 1870 Many Italian states came together by ghting each other because they had the same language ii Germany 1871 States that came together due to a common language B Imperialism control exerted by a foreign state whether directly or indirectly of the lands and of the people i Direct control 1 Colonialism involves foreign power control direct political economic social and cultural control over distant lands and people ii Indirect Control Imperialism 1 Involves political economic cultural control through means such as trade C Industrial Revolution i Revolutionized production Created the framework for the economic global economy ii Changes in technology were sparked iii Drove the quest for colonies The unstable 19th Century International System Ended at the beginning of WWI 1914 The system failed D Post WWI back to the International Drawing Board i Number of states increased ii League of Nations 1 Collapsed at WWII 2 Extension of collective security A Cold War International System 1914 i War between the two major dominate powers 1 USA 2 USSR ii Two different competing ideologies l Communism USSR 2 Democratic Capitalism USA iii Nuclear weapons 1 MAD Mutually Assured Destruction a Pros lst Nuclear doctrine created deterrence b Cons 1st Credibility 01 Whether the country has the weapons they say they have 02 Whether the country does what they say they will do believability 2 Nuclear Arms Race 3 Proxy Wars 3rd party wars a A super power helps a 3rd world country defeat another 3rd world country that is being helped by another super power 4 Global Expansionism To spread their respective ideologies and thus create a sphere of in uence for themselves 5 Action Reaction behavior of the Super Powers B US Policy i Containment the US strategypolicy to limit the Soviet Union to the areas where she was already and not go beyond that i Truman Doctrine N Notion that the US saw USSR as an expansionist power US wants USSR to stay where it is within its borders U 4 George Kennan notion of containment coined by him a US diplomat in the US embassy in Soviet Union b Was a sovietologist c Recommended to the US govt that they should draw a boundary line for USSR and keep the soviets inside it 5 USSR a Domestic insecurity resulting from economic system b Communist govt sprang forth and wanted to expand past the Soviet western border into eastern Europe ii Western country s NATO 1949 iii Eastern country s Warsaw Pact 1955 VIII A Characteristics of the Cold War Int l System B De ne Cold War C Truman Doctrine i US Foreign Policy ii Designed to aid or support countries who are under military economical or political crisis D Causes of the Cold War i A con ict of Interests 1 After WWII ii Ideological 1 Soviets had visions for Communism US with capitalism iii Misperception 1 Motives of each superpower was misinterpreted E Cold War ends in 91 with USSR collapse A Realist Approach to IR i Human nature is sel sh and con ictual 1 Examine human beings as individuals and see that their nature is biased 2 Unlikely to cooperate with each other 3 Resources are limited ii The International system is Anarchic Anarchy iii The state is the sole actor in the International system ivThe state is a rationale actor V The state is a unitary actor viNational Interest is the goal of the state in the Int l System vii The most important National Interest is National Security viii Power is the most important concept in Int l Relations iXPower Hans Morgenthau wrote Politics amongst Nations Remains the most important book in IR 1 Power to realists de ned in terms of military strength 2 Morality should be ignored in determining the behavior of states 3 Problem with the paradigm a Power seen to be both a means to an end or an end by itself b What constitutes power c Ignores nonstate actors d View of human nature B Neo Realist Theory More contemporary aspect of Realism i System focus approach 1 Structural aspect of the Int l System ii Elements 1 Structure of the Int l System 2 Power to be a control concept in Int l Relations but power is a means to an end 3 States remain the primary actors in Int l Relations a Their actions are driven by desire for survival or self defense 4 States differ in terms of their capabilities a It is the way in which capabilities are distributed in the Int l System that determines the structure of the system 5 Power is viewed as a means to an end a Contains 2 dimensions 1st Internal Efforts 01 activities policies within the state that increase economic capabilities or means military capabilities 2nd External Efforts 01 States embark on increasing their power with alliances with other state actors 6 The instinct desire for survival automatically propels the Int l System into a balance a Balance of Power to neo realist would occur whether states will it or not b Security Dilemma 1st Explains or describes the anarchy in the Int l System does to the behavior of states 01 Every state in its quest for power in its quest for survive makes other states feel insecurethreatened 7 When a Balance of Power is formed it then proceeds to control the behavior of states by constraining them and pushing them in certain directions for system stability C John Lewis Gaddis i Said that there was peace during the Cold War due to MAD with Nuclear Weapons D Realism vs Neo Realism i Power Realism 1 Sum total of the capabilities that states have that enable them to achieve their goals as they deal with other states A Geopolitical Elements i geographical characteristics of a country that give it an advantage over others 1 location 2 topography 3 size 4 climate 5 other natural elements B Population i How large a population determines military and industrial numbers ii Equality demographic education all determine Productivity iii Age C Natural Resources i Raw materials a country has D Economic Capacity i Economic Elements used for Gross Domestic Product GDP ii Industrial Strength and Output Production iii Technological Innovation and Development ivTransportation Infrastructure v Financial and Monetary Gains viCommunication Infrastructure EMilitary Strength i Size of a country s military ii Quality of military training readiness iii Organization ivLeadership V Morale F Political Qualities of the State i Intangible element cannot be quanti ed ii Leadership 1 Make policies to control the bureaucracy 2 Political leaders qualities a Not everyone has the qualities for leadership 1st Max Weber 01 Charisma I Makes the leader inspirational visionary efficient and effective 3 National Morale a Enthusiasm of the population in supporting the state 4 National Cohesiveness 5 The Type of Political System 1 TTVM39 quot39 l A Tangible and Intangible Power i Tangible Power 1 More substantive in nature and can be computed ii Intangible Power B Distribution of Power Polarity Concentration in the Int l System i Unipolar Hegemonic System 1 Power is concentrated in a single dominant state or alliance 2 Use its dominance to create the rules or in uence the creation of the rules that control the system 3 Dominant Actor a Enforce or insure compliance to those rules through punishment and rewards 4 Hegemonic Theory a The Hegemonic dominant power is providing a Public Good or Service 1st Peace and Stability 5 Status Quo maintaining the system the way it is ii Bipolar System 1 Stability that emerged was maintained by Deterrence MAD iii Multipolar System 1 Power is concentrated in five 5 or more dominate states a 19th Century lnt l System C Power Transition Theory i Argues that the system can change when you have rapid transition 1 Can change if an aspiring power challenges the dominate or leading power 2 Can change through hegemony a Dominant power wants to stay dominant XII 22712 1118 PM 22712 1118 PM III
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