New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Modern Political Theory

by: Taurean Paucek

Modern Political Theory PS 4920

Taurean Paucek
GPA 3.56

Robb McDaniel

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Robb McDaniel
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Political Science

This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Taurean Paucek on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PS 4920 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Robb McDaniel in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/213129/ps-4920-middle-tennessee-state-university in Political Science at Middle Tennessee State University.


Reviews for Modern Political Theory


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/23/15
Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 1 Tammy Mezera Dr Rob McDaniel PS 4920 April 30 2012 Modern Political Theory Study Guide for the Final Key Names and Terms Hegel GWF Hegel He s not a communist or a socialist He s a very in uential German philosopher Young Hegelians try to adapt Hegel s though to all areas of life Marx grew up as a young Hegelian The Romantics in uenced Hegel so did Rousseau and Kant Kant argues if the world moves toward selfdetermined republics there might develop worldwide peace Kant is a Liberal Republican Hegel is ambitious and radical He s simple and complicated He explains history as a development of selfconsciousness As history goes on we become more aware of who we are as individual and societies His theory developed during the French Revolution when Napoleon is ruling He sees this as an embodiment of human progression Hegel takes Locke and ips him around Hegel says Locke s idea of human origin in peace freedom and equality is not where we cam from but where we re going When Napoleon rides into Germany declaring self governance equality and nationality it was the first fruits We are emerging out of a world of barbarism and into a world of freedom and rationality Hegel believes History has a teleological direction led by the hand of God not through church but through politics MetaphysicsiGeistsoul and mind reason God History is the unfolding of reason and God showing himself He said God lacked self awareness but got it when humanity got it We are autonomous human beings who are free and cooperative when we are more selfaware They arrive at selfawareness though the bloody mess of con ict Hegel says God is reason soul mind and Spirit He is the unfolding of reason in Human experience We are manifestations of God s self awareness Hegel throws out the Father and Son and embraces only the Holy Spirit Not really the Christian God It s a divine metaphysical existence Master slave dialecticiHegel describes a process of dialectic We must make all factual reality more rational At first humans are little more than animals who are free but ignorant As a result of freedom we decide which desires to gratify and which to ignore We look to other people to decide what is right We lose the privacy of our own existence Rather than wanting food we want the food others want We establish our won identity in relation to the people surrounding us We understand ourselves by relation to others Father sister lawyer etc Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 2 We begin in childhood obedience That leads to teenage rebellion It s a destructive negative moment We reject what we are given We become someone different We begin to know something then we begin to reconcile some of what was negated to reach adult maturity Dialectic looks like this Childhood 9Teenage Rebellion 9Adulthood the sum Thesis 9 Antithesis 9 Synthesis Societies are formed the same way as individual human beings Hegel argues we begin in barbarism Humans are driven by con ict Each really wants to be recognized by the others which results in a battle to the death Hegel says true society begins when somebody does not want to die if you don t kill me Iwill be your slave So slavemaster relationship emerges from barbarism Consciousness This is what drives History Throughout history lines are drawn by those who recognize themselves as humans and those who recognize that person as human The human must be recognized by a subhuman but that is not all that satisfying The slave knows he s human but no one recognizes him as such The slaves develop a plan to trick the master into thinking real freedom is to be a slave It s a peaceful slave rebellion Stoicism is an example of this Epictetus was a slave Christianity says real freedom is n being a slave to God The dialectic is Master thesis 9 Slave antithesis 9 Christianity synthesis The aim of Christianity is to unite all men and women in brotherhood Hegel says slaves made up Christianity to get free It s the cunning of reason The slaves may or may not know what they are doing Hegel says that being a slave is such an unsatisfying position that slavery will be abolished Karl Marx 1818 1883 Marx s critique of Hegel Marx thinks Geist holy spirit is abstract metaphysical garbage He says to stand Hegel on his feet Contradictions are less spiritual but more material It s not consciousness driving history but its labor Its Economics We come to know who we are by what we make Like Locke man is known by what he makes Hegel is too conservative We have not reached the end of history by arriving at this conscious state Marx says we are not at the end of History as Hegel believed when Napoleon came to Prussia and Germany became a nation He says we are in the next to the last stage of an economically driven history We have to work out the final master slave contradiction between owners and laborers There are Modes of Production or stages of class con ict 1 Tribe men dominate as hunters Patriarchal society where there are Chieftains who rule the familytribe with slaves below the family tribal structure 2 City a united group of tribes where chieftains organize production There is a line between the citizen class and the slave class 3 Feudalism Tribe gives way to a more complex organization in the city and in the country Antagonisms develop between town and Country They clash until empires arise The countryside becomes dominant because of what is produced from the land 4 Capitalism There are emergences of guilds and tradesmen who are apprentices Joumeymen masters This leads to a new antagonized middle class who revolts and creates the new rich Capitalism is collapsing and leading to 5 Communism Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 3 Material forces of production MFP is where you must begin MFP is the deer you hunt the bow you use and the re to cook the deer when in a tribe Tribes develop as an association It s called the Social Relation of Production The association organized the economic activity among the different groups in the tribe There will be a development of Political leadership After all of this we get consciousness There will form a tribal form of consciousness There will be stories about hunting expeditions and what the different genders do Identities will develop around the economic structure of the society Is a byproduct or result of the way we live His ideas about society are materialistic It rationalizes why we do what we do It turns Hegel on his head Consciousness is a byproduct not a driver We develop more advanced production WE develop metals and agriculture We form a new organization The City The City struggles to be born out of the old tribes Athens Sparta Troy etc The social relationships and Political leadership develops anew consciousness also develops by philosophy and play writes and sophists The philosophy is about polis and how it is best governed New changes in material Forces of Production lead us to new structures and consciousness Marx is arguing that material Forces have moved on and the old capitalists are cling to power The philosopher does not drive this He s a midwife Marx is to nurse the new order into being He s not causing the shift only helping people understand the shift that s coming Marx said the Industrial Revolution has created the situation for the shift to push out the old forces This is the direction history is moving The laws of history are already in motion Capitalism in its won time is necessary and good in its place in history It eliminates the stratified classes of the Feudal system Capitalism has its own 4 f 4 who quot quot the new 39 order They are philosophers for their time Locke was right for Capitalism He was right for his time Homo Faber man is known by what he makes Economics drives consciousness Bourgeoisie amp proletariat Capitalism consolidates all class con ict into tow groups The middle class bourgeoisie and the working proletariat In capitalism the Bourgeoisie who threw off feudalism are now the ruling class or property owners The Proletariat are the laboring class Bourgeois values The Bourgeoisie value accumulating things Decisions are consumer driven The old patriarchal family structure is broken down by the individualism fostered in a capitalistic society Exploitation is okay if it gets you what you want Hobbes Property is what matters Everyone is a slave to the company or the business Everything is about profit Communism Communism eliminates the classes and sets the stage for a neverending utopia Marx argued the French and American revolutions were against the old feudal orders There wanted liberty equality and citizenshipCapitalism socialism communism Where the state withers away communism will emerge Capitalism is supported by the State The State emerges to protect property Marx says religion is the opiate of masses that lulls you to sleep in your oppression and exploitation You think you are blessed now and will be rewarded later Marx says the communist shift is inevitable and its going to happen when the conditions are right The revolution will mostly be bloody to get rid of the wealthy class or they will be absorbed to usher in Socialism The state will wither away to be replaced by decentralized Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 4 worker republics The state will disappear to be replaced by voluntary worker republics to free men from individual drives to free them to pursue creativity where work is revelatory The Dictatorship 0f the proletariat The revolution will mostly be bloody to get rid of the wealthy class or they will be absorbed to usher in Socialism Socialism is a violent exploitative stage Socialism is inverted capitalism The reforms include Abolition of property in land Abolition of inheritance of wealth progressive tax structiure centralization of transportation centralization of communication centralization of banking nationalization of all industry Liability of ALL for labor capitalists must work free education fro all children abolish town and country distinctions Socialism sets up rewards for work The bourgeois state The dominant ideas are the ideas of the ruling class The ideas that dominate in capitalism are the interests of the holders of capital Freedom is a radically individual atom trying to bounce around and accumulate property with no limits in the nature Hobbes Men only have a market value based on what others think your price is Locke says you own yourself and what you work on is an extension of you in a market driven system Capitalist citizenship is to protect the rights of ownership It protects the power of dominant groups and their exploitations of the people on the bottom The apparatus of the state is to crush revolt of workers At first the federal government squashed all worker rebellion Capitalism consolidates all class con ict into tow groups The middle class bourgeoisie and the proletariat In capitalism the Bourgeoisie who threw off feudalism are now the ruling class or property owners Family under feudalism was led by the patriarch oldest male whose authority ultimately comes from God That doesn t work in Capitalism You can do better than your father You only have the amount of children you can afford You meet and marry people in your won class Everything is an economic exchange Marriage is not lasting It s a contractual relationship Kids are an economic calculation designed to provide for your future We want to recreate the nuclear family but that is still smaller than the extended feudal family Consumer markets are about choice so if you promote more capitalism you have to accept the market choice of homosexuality Capitalism a1rives in revolution and continues to seek to extend itself outward Colonialism and imperialism are part of the way capitalism is spread Feudalism is stagnant Capital is rapidly moving outward always trying to sell something people are not even aware they needed or wanted Every aspect of your life is thoroughly marketized Free trade the word for exploitation veiled in religious and political illusions naked shameless direct brutal exploitation Capitalism sows the seed of its own destruction It s a fast burning ame Feudalism was slow As capitalism develops the bourgeoisie becomes smaller and the proletariat becomes larger Boom and bust cycles create more instability Subsistence becomes more difficult to manage Workers begin to organize for higher wages and less hours It eventually is overthrown by violent revolution when the workers become so miserable they rise up and kill the capitalists Kierkegaard 18151855 Danish contemporary of Marx The Present Age The present age is like a bored and lazy fat emperor The age of publicity and advertisement and people gossip constantly He is trying to find the truth for which he could live and die His perspective is a sacrificial Christianity So bored and pathetic we no longer experience the world through the tensions of good and evil It s bland and passive He s a bit fundamentalist Religion is paradoxical and irrational Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 5 Re ection vs Passion Kierkegaard would like a truth for which he could live and die He hates the present age that is a world of re ection without passion Without passionate intensity we get lost in our own subjectivity We give ourselves the illusion of being risk takers but it is an orchestrated spectacle He celebrates the individual who breaks from conformity He s tired of fake Christian goodness Loss of Authority Religion gives authority that transcends the barrenness of modern life We have lost all sense authority there is no authority of which we can rebel When you don t have anything to rebel against what do you do The church has become so like the world there is nothing for it to rebel against the world because it is the world Thinking that we have achieved progress leaves us with nothing Ressentiment is a sense of hostility directed at that which one identi es as the cause of one s frustration that is an assignment of blame for one s frustration The sense of weakness or inferiority and perhaps jealousy in the face of the quotcausequot generates a rej ectingjustify value system or morality which attacks or denies the perceived source of one s frustration The ego creates an enemy in order to insulate itself from culpability Christian inwardness Kierkegaard is a religious revolutionist and existentialist Many of the most important Christian thinkers have been tortured souls In order to get right with God they have to repent the inner darknesses of their souls They become students of human psychology due to this Those who look into their darkness even farther see themselves Life s stages Stage l is the Aesthetic where man seeks to find himself in worldly pleasures Stage 2 is the Ethical Stage when man realizes he can t find himself from the outside so he looks inward and evaluates his moral choices and begins to live ethically as opposed to the aesthetic man Stage 3 is the Religious stage This is where you take the leap of faith to have a deep experience with God and live a truly Christian life What you are is less important than knowing whether you exist at all Existentialism The Leap of Faith the Story of Christ is scandalous and absurd and requires a leap of faith out of the dialectic You need ateleological suspension of the ethical whereby you take a leap of faith into the irrational Aesthetic 9 ethical real religion To be authentic means to stand out against the mainstream culture Nietzsche The death of God In Parable of The madman Nietzsche wrote We have killed God We are his murderers Are we not strained through an infinite nothing Are we Gravediggers burying God How will we comfort ourselves Must we become God to be worthy of killing God This deed is still distant from them yet they have done it themselves We ve butchered Christianity and turned it into something else He wants the Theology and church to go God is not God He exists only based on human belief God could shape a culture but the people no longer react that way Churches are tombs of God There s a death of Christendom It s over We are unmoored from our shore and we are now driftingHuman beings lack the selfawareness to realize they ve Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 6 killed God Nietzsche claims to have discovered the selfdestruction of Christianity Marx claimed to have discovered the selfdestruction of Capitalism collapsing in on its own contradictions In this way Nietzsche predicts the collapse of Christianity in on itself With Christianity gone you have to give up truth goodness and evil The polarity of good and evil is unsustainable We have to give up morality and human dignity You have no soul No purpose or meaning You re a silly animal on a cold barren rock There is no equality based on the creator Nih ism Out of a crisis of belief from looking to Western Culture for answers you will nd that you believe in nothing Christian values are revealed as bankrupt None of our ideas are selfsustaining or plausible You only believe in your existence for a sense of power Your existence isn t provable at all The stages of Nihilism are 1 No goal to existence 2 No system 3 No other world of truth or good beyond this one Once you come to these realizations you then recognize the truth that there is no truth It s a lifegiving post Christianity perspective Health vitality and strength enable us to live Christianity is a way to die or live as hollow shells The free spirit Is the nondogmatic thinker who is not tied down to any philosophy or so called truth He is unattached to anything even to the idea of being unattached He must often wear a mask because he is usually seen as dangerous The Will to Truth All philosophers believe in good and truth but we have to give that up and the will to truth We seek it We want it Why not seek untruth It s a condition of life We love our lies and they give us the strength to live Truth is a woman whose heart needs to be won A philosopher is a philosopher because he can t get a woman so he tries to understand truth Symbolically castrates the philosophers in the preface of Good and Evil Tyronismnewbie A new prince is a tyro They approach truth like a teenager acts at a prom He says Christianity is powerful but unreal but we must respect it Inverting Plato Plato and Socrates poisoned the West with Goodness and truth They are evil They say truth is out there just oating around Christianity Platonizes goodness and truth through faith and obedience in the Church whereby you don t need a philosopher He says we must turn truth on its head and replace it with perspective Truth is a survival method to get around death We seek truth in politics and religion When we turn the will to truth on itself and ask the truth about truth we find there is no truth Descartes s I think therefore I am is stupid How do you know you think You assume you think and exist You are someone different in the day than in the night The point of believing in an I as a subject is so you can push blame and take credit It s a problem Western Civilization is a long lie beginning with Plato Noble Fictions Will to Power We are creatures of power Bound constrained and under pressure from con icting positions Free will is more wish tan reality We never really know who we are Our lives are puzzles Our lives are pieced together fragments which we call our identity Our identities are stories we tell ourselves about ourselves but we are never sure it s entirely true and real We are lost and have no stable identity Our identity is an elaborate ruse or selfdeception It s fragments of truth and untruthThe will to power is what this is called we are really seeking Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 7 untruth The will to power says the world exists in constant ux or change with no purpose We are bent on selfpreservation but Power is about selfovercoming We must struggle to change and become more and better Overman vs Last Man Last man plays by the rules and accepts his place in the system Nietzsche celebrates the Overman who invents truth creates it and imposes it That s the goal of a life welllived He d have to turn hatred and pity against itself The model is Caesar with the soul of Christ Jesus has atransformational effect Jesus says don t judge Accept the world as it is Paul is the problem who institutes a system of rules and the afterlife Jesus was about embracing this world on its own terms without judgment Jesus dies so we need Caesar to rule with might to impose values Legislate for others Nietzsche likes old testament more than the new He says this transformation only comes by rejecting the old one We should love our fate and embrace the world as it is Overman is an artist Aristocratic RadicalismiThe only reliable politics is Aristocratic and not equal anti egalitarian in all of its forms Every enhancement of man comes from an aristocratic society that needs slavery in one form or another Overcoming of ma in a supra moral sense Class structure that creates inequality Order creates inner turmoil that inspires people to push and struggle against constraints Great human beings aren t created in a society defined by equality It inspires people to reach higher to replace man with the selfovercoming of man The noble class is always the barbarian class who were stringer and more whole beasts Society doesn t begin in contract and consent but in force and conquest and that is a mark of nobility An old society mellows into decadence spirit of corruption who are taken over by a new barbarian animal class One should not yield to humanitarian illusions The ruling class must be parasitic so we can climb higher and turn our faces to the sun and shine as the lower class He is class and race oriented Life is about becoming perfect Equality should only apply to people who are really equal Resist the sentiment of weakness Exploitation is a natural force Subjugation is essential to life itself Even when people treat others as equal it doesn t mean they are Emphasize your superiority Tragic CultureiTragic Culture is where life and art involve giving yourself up Pour yourself into your creation Artists are all misanthropic They pour anger and resentment into something to create beauty They understand the world They are twisted That makes them produce a masterpiece We are all just silly animals sitting on a cold barren rock and one day we re all going to die There is no afterlife just this life Embrace life in its joy hardship suffering misery and pain Expect nothing to change Look at it from a standpoint of art The moral judgment of artists is not clouded They really see and experience life Christian moral judgment is about controlling our behavior power more than your soul Religion is not about truth but about power It skews your View Take off your mask of morality and live in the ugly beauty of the here and now Trans valuation 0f Values He wants to invert Plato and Christianity Like Kierkegaard who sees the Aesthetic life as the lowest level next is the ethical and the highest is religious Nietzsche turns that around completely The aesthetic is the highest and religion is the lowest way to live Forget the other world and live wholly in this one Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 8 Art Truth and Morality everyone cannot understand Art Men must and should suffer Don t help people That creates mediocrity Suffering brings creativity Postmodem politics are suspicious of truth art and diversity Its an attempt to save Marx by using Nietzsche Replace Marx with Nietzsche s relativism An emancipated world with truth and hierarchies are dismantled so we can live freely It a left wing version of Nietzsche Nietzsche thinks when you replace the will to truth you are left with the will to power which the left wouldn t like because it s brutal and exploitative F acismiMussolini s war contributes to a nation s vitality Fascism can include Militarism nationalism and racism Fascists don t necessarily have a racist component but the Nazis do It is postIndustrial and Antiintellectual Gobineau Race theory amp anti Semitism Marquis De Sade associated with Porn Sadistic comes from his name He was an 18 century porn author Said women are objects of sexual desire to be manipulated and enjoyed and subjected to male power He was sick and depraved German Counterenlightenment included Herder and Fichte who were early champions of nationalism Nations are most cohesive when anchored in ethnicity Different nations had different talents to contribute to the greater populations Gobineau says a nation rises to power when its race is pure and vigorous but its diluted through race mixing He s a mid 1800 s writer and a friend of de Tocqueville He believes in a hierarchy of pigment and inequality of human races Going on in Europe He was in uential in France and Germany Gobineau picked up by German writer Woltman racial struggle central to evolutionary progress Europe is evidence of the superiority of the white or Arian race There is a problem of scarcity of resources Lower races breeding at fast rate trying to hem in the Arians He s a social Darwinist A lot of rhetorical power develops in late 193911 and early 20Lh century Europe Fascism means to unify or bind Mussolini was able to bind the people together in nationalism Fastened together by a rope for a common purpose Nazis develop national unity based on the race theory and the superiority of the Arian race Parasites must not only be subjugated but also terminated Martin Heidegger is a philosopher but not much of a political scientist Schmitt is not much of a philosopher but more of a political scientist Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 9 Carl Schmitt25chmitt is a staunch Catholic Jurist just like Scalia As Hitler s power rises he becomes more sympathetic He brings the Hindenburg disillusionment with Wymar Republic Nazi Documentarian Founding principals of liberalism were obsolete and outdated He was born in 1888 He died in 1985 He wrote brutal attacks on the UN later in his life He s a reactionary His early analysis is that liberalism misunderstands human existentialism Nothing is abstract and vague The political dimension of human nature is left out of liberalism Man is fundamentally a dangerous creature Man is inherently evil and is always capable of killing another and always at risk of violent death in a state of nature Covenant gets you out State of nature exists in the national scene Freedom vs fascism Schmitt thinks Rousseau s conception of the common will in a small city state should be created in a large common nation That kind of democracy doesn t care about the rules liberalism puts in place True democracy treats equals equally and unequals unequally Nietzsche Social homogeneity makes people equal You must subjugate and exploit those who don t t into the homogeneity Nonhomogeneity must be eliminated Real democracy works like Athens or Sparta No mixing with different people who are the enemy The Political A sphere of political life that is distinct from all others There are various spheres of human life Each sphere is de ned by two opposite values The de ning polarity is friend and enemy This comes from Plato This is the guardian class of Plato They recognize the enemy This is THE de ning sphere of the Political Schmitt argues this distinction cannot be understood as an abstraction It is concrete and a lived distinction Only the active participants can tell the difference and settle the con icts The enemy may appear ugly but this is irrelevant What matters is the enemy attacks you way of life and should be fought defeated and killed There is difference between personal foe and an enemy Enemies are enemies of the state They can only be known in that moment of con ict It is dealt with in the moment of threat This is called decisionism The state is the best institution to determine the enemy These same problems exist in the state Liberalism obscures the political Politics is seen as a dirty business Liberals don t think anything is worth dying for Hobbes and Lockeiavoid dying The state is the enemy for liberals If you eliminate the State you WILL die Schmitt wants to get past all the talk of the parliament and just get decisions made by a democratic dictator Af rm the leader who will protect everyone and their way of life Caused people to fear fascism The law doesn t matter Brutality is useful to defend ourselves Internal partisan divisions weaken our external resolve Counter Enlightenment A reaction to everythin in the enlightenment There is a movement in the late 1800 s in Europe that explodes in the 19 century movement that promoted science reason education for the masses and leads to progress It believes in reason and progress in morally elevated and scienti cally advanced societies who strive to be independent of powerful hierarchies There is a strong reaction which comes together in the counterenlightenment Rousseau was the rst to critique the enlightenment Joseph De Maitre is a French Aristocrat who felt pushed aside He was younger than Rousseau He defended the monarchy and aristocracy People not capable of self government through reason Powerful emotional attachments to strong orders give us purpose for civic order and discipline Must operate on a Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 10 symbolic level Catholic attachment to gaze upward The people need not only a powerful church but a strong monarchy to look up to as well He longs for day when everyone basked in the glow of the Pope and King Humans are not driven by abstract ideas we are creatures of power animated more by circumstances than anything else It s our social position that means something not the greater circumstance of humanity Differences give purpose Pannationalism seeks to unite ethnicities across national lines into one transnational form of government who view themselves as a chosen people who are greater and better than any other group of people Zionism is this You have an identity in a particular nation state They think their identity is the chosen race Racism the category of race is a modern concept Color deference didn t exist in the ancient world so much Division by distinct races as an idea comes to exist more in the Enlightenment as rational sensibility to make more sense out of the world Conquest brought slavery Race becomes a retroactive legitimation of a power conquest It s all very tentative and there is no worked out theory Racial Theory begins with the idea that Ham son of Noah who mocked his dad while drunk and naked became the African People This is known as the Curse of Ham theory Pseudo scientific means of classifying humans picked up by counter enlightenment to emphasize differences Democratic dictatorship Schmitt wants to get past all the talk of the parliament and just get decisions made by a democratic dictator Affirm the leader who will protect everyone and their way of life Caused people to fear fascism The law doesn t matter Brutality is useful to defend ourselves Internal partisan divisions weaken our external resolve Democratic Dictatorship is executive centered democracy rather than parliamentary centered as with liberalism A Dictator can act in decisionism He doesn t have to talk about it with a bunch of people who can never agree He can act swiftly to protect the state from any enemy There is strength and vitality in an executive centered democracy with out free speech and secret ballots and the legislature The will of the unified mass is the living existentially present embodiment of the Public will People hear their own voices channeled through the dictator when he speaks True democracy Hitler was given powers to calm unrest He suspended the German Constitution to embody the unified will of the people Schmitt mocks free elections Sympathetic to Lenin s and Mussolini s rise to power Democratic dictatorship is powerfully masculine The Problems of Parliament you can t get anything done People hate them and they can never make a quick decision Friends and enemies Slavery is necessary because it recognizes differences The enemy is anyone who is not a member of the homogenous group Eliminate heterogeneity Subjugate the weak alien and estranged to slavery or elimination Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 11 George Orwell George Orwell George Orwell is not his real name He was born Eric Blair in 1903 ito a lower middle class family He dies in 1950 He was prepschool educated at Eaton He skipped Oxford to join the Imperial Police Force and went to Burma He became a bitter enemy of imperialist projects Lived a hobo life sleeping on sofas and oors He wrote 1984 in 1948 Animal Farm focused on Communist as a brutal satire on communism 1984 is critical of Authoritarianism He was a democratic socialist He believed that was the only real answer to fascists Stalinists and totalitarianism He makes a brutal critique on Socialism Orwell was commissioned by the socialist book club for The Lion and the Unicom They didn t like it and disagreed with it but had to publish it under legal action The English CharacteriThere is a very distinguishable characteristic about England that makes you feel at home English aren t known for art or philosophy so much They are more selfdeprecating in their patriotism in England Its cautious and selfcritical English culture is more curious and less chest thumping He reminds the British who they are and how they will not fall to such a dangerous patriotism He is trying to tell the English who they are as propaganda English peculiarity is not very unifying It s private and converts to the liberty of the individual To have a home and do what you choose and not exploit anyone is very English They are not about a movement To the hypocrisy of the Empire English lack of standing armies is a good thing There has never been a naval dictatorship It s a different sensibility The English loathe swaggering officers and are likely to throw rotten food at them for too much swagger The English are unaware of their empire British military members do not go around in uniform when off duty and wear civilian clothes in public life There has to be a dividing line The English would laugh at the Goose Step Its only used in countries where people don t dare laugh at the military English respect for the law over state and over power is profound The English don t live in terror of the military Justice liberty and objective truth are believed in referencing Nietzsche though they are illusions The illusions are strong pushing back corruption even though the monied class has unequal power and representation by elections Our perceptions of culture matter Blimps amp LeftistsiOrwell criticizes the English left They get their cookery from Paris and Politics from Moscow The left ignores the power ofpatriotism He said it is possible to be an intelligent patriot The Leftists only have allegiance to an abstract world view He said the Blimps are full of hot air and are those who love the ag and they are morons They don t know anything They are prone to give sympathy to the fascists The left is intelligent and the right is patriotic and that equals a big bad equation The right values class over culture and nationality so it leaves them open to fascism Democratic Socialism Orwell wanted democracy with more power concentrated in the House of Commons He also wanted to nationalize all industry to make the people more economically equal within a reasonable range Not exactly equal but close enough Leo Strauss Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 12 Positivism amp historicism Positivism is a value neutral science Ultimately derived from Max Weber We can know facts but not values Approach facts from a neutral stand point We can have tools to gure out how things work This for Strauss is an abdication of judgment of what is good or bad or useless It makes us oblivious to changes going on without serious judgment We assume goodness of democracy and don t know why How can you study politics and not know why Historicism is when we can t judge questions of value you can t judge values of anyone What matters is history and how it reveals values but not grounded in nature itself The way Heidegger jumped on the Nazi bandwagon because I was the next big thing without questioning the values of doing it Political Philosophy is to do philosophy It is to be politic about something Philosophers are outsiders asking questions They get answers but usually subversive It mans being careful what you say and teach about politics can make problems to act with prudence Plato and Aristotle teach how to do political philosophy Philosophy and Gentlemen Philosophy is a study for the gentleman class because he has the money to apply toward a good education Appetites drive the vulgar masses Gentlemen are driven by stability Philosophers are best standing behind the scenes but don t tell the truth Noble Lies True philosophers must teach between the margins Hide the truth The lies are in the beginning and end of writing but the truth is hidden in the middle Lies often repeated The truth is told once Philosophers whisper in the ear of the gentleman Esoteric Teaching Esoteric is a secret teaching plus an exoteric or public teaching to teach students what they are capable of understanding Truth is elusive The decpetions or exoteric teaching are at the front and back of the book Esoteric truth is hidden in the middle Philosophers contradict themselves but believe the contradictions more than the stuff he repeats Ancients and Modems We must go back and study the ancients to figure out what went wrong with the modern philosophers Greek regimes are the Monarchy the Aristocracy and the Democracy or Polis He likes the Aristocracy the most In the modern era with have Liberalism Communism and Fascism Communism and Fascism are tyrannies so Liberalism is the best of what we have as far as modern regimes Athens and Jerusalem Defending Athens the Greek and the Jew are aware of the origins of western thought They are different with different outlooks The bible says the good life is reverent obedience to God Greeks say the good life is good life of wisdom and contemplation The claims of revealed religion cannot be disproved because a monotheistic God cannot be disproved because a monotheistic is not refutable They both want certainty about Athens and Jerusalem Philosophers should respect most orthodox religions that aren t trying to reconcile faith and philosophy Celebrate Jewish and Islamic traditions kept separate and respectful to one another Keep Politics and religion separate Three Waves of Modernity Wave l was Machiavelli Wave 2 was with Rousseau Wave 3 Nietzsche With each stage things get worse We must go back to the political Greeks to make it better For Marx it s getting better by economics For Strauss things are getting worse in philosophical realm His mentor became a Nazi which represents Philosophical collapse Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 13 Machiavelli is the founder of modern thought Columbus of politics discovering a new continent but its not inhabitable He lowers the standards of Political Philosophy to set his sights on the real He abandoned political standards altogether Not concerned with the best regime but what works He said public virtue is private vice Masculinity Power winning success become virtue for Machiavelli There is no place for the philosopher Obtaining and maintaining power is all that matters Preserving lives and elevating power is the goal Hobbes and Locke This leads to liberalism Rather than talking about what is natural and what is virtue we talk about natural rights and freedoms to make choices in your own name That is a lower goal There is no guidance in the choices Liberalism wont make any judgments of virtue to maintain a good regime Machiavelli pave the way to liberalism Wave 2 comes after liberalism Rousseau critiques Hobbes and Locke Says we can t know nature of humans because of the social contract Social contract creates equality where individual wills come together in a nation This leads to communism Wave 3 Rousseau paves the way for communism A degradation with a moral patriotism devoted to equality It s worse Sacri ce your soul for greater equality Liberalism isn t good but its better than communism which leads to Nietzsche who debunks the idea of equality and morality He gives us Caesar with the soul Christ with a goal of creating hardship for the sake of art It creates fate No morals No religion We replace will to truth with the will to power which gives us fascism The third wave is the current wave that abdicates moral judgment for a belief in history itself WE resign ourselves to fate and forces of history Hannah Arendt Martin Heidegger W0rld alienati0n In modern politics we begin with a classless society Marx Kierkegaard and Nietzsche and Schmidt all describe this People feel alone disorientated and alienated From this we organize a totalitarian movement They believe in the movement and have something to believe in Mass Society Authoritarianismn These institutions are fundamentally organized like pyramids They have a top authority They have a strict hierarchy The Catholic Church is the prime example of this There is God and the pope at the top and everyone else stacked down This system restricts freedom but does not abolish it It all seems legitimate You obey those above you because you have a natural respect for authority Authority is a device you can t ignore It isn t inherently bad but it isn t the worst possible thing you can get Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 14 T0taita1ianism Marx Kierkegaard and Nietzsche and Schmidt all describe this People feel alone disorientated and alienated From this we organize a totalitarian movement They believe in the movement and have something to believe in What matters is that you stand with the leaders and whatever they say today even if it is different from what they said yesterday Loyalty to the party beyond all else If the movement is successful it creates a fullblown totalitarian system It has two primary institutions the secret police and the camp concentration Dictatorships operate through the military but often that is too conservative of a system But a totalitarian system cannot have stable institutions The camps begin in Western imperialism British camps in South Africa American camps in the tropics Dictatorial terror is only against state opponents Totalitarianism seeks to destroy innocence It tries to create a society were no one trusts anyone else and all citizens are subject to trusting the leader of the stateIt is structured like an onion There is at the center a rotten core that is a conspiratorial center There are various layers emanating from that core This is the basic structure The leader in the center organizes a conspiratorial faction that runs everything else This hides how crazy the center is Outside the leader we get the inner circle then the elite formations the party members higher and lower then the party sympathizers along for the ride but not completely on board and then everyone else Reality is kept at bay within the onion The only people you confront are those who are similar or slightly crazier than you are like North Korea Only clear cut examples for hear are Stalin s Russia and Hitler s Germany Lenin and Mussolini don t count because they loosened things up Mussolini was tyrant You need a large country to run a totalitarian country she would probably be surprised by North Korea and Cambodia She contests Mao s line that power comes from the end of a gun Violence comes from the end of the gun barrel She supports an opposite pyramid where power comes from below and goes up Violence happens within Modern politics is all about the rise of the individual The problem with this is that the authority structures lose their credibility Modern politics is one revolution right after another All modern structures are leaving Conservatives lament this but can t do anything about this Conservatives and liberals are confused conservatives because they want structures and liberals because they think freedom is the best thing to achieve and the only way to achieve it is little or no more structures Tyranny One leader consolidates all power to him and keeps it through Violence Having leveled the masses so that all are the same the top remain suspended on a bayonet at the top If you don t obey he will kill you Similar to Hobbes This is a terrible fonn of equality The tyrant is so different from others that he does not seem human The tyrant rules with no legitimacy and no law and no checks and does what he wants Political freedom is abolished Public vs P139ivate P0is and Family One of the strengths of the Greeks is that they separated the distinct spheres of human life There is the public world of human life and the private realm Public is the political world and the private realm of the family There is the natural distinction between children and parents Families are all about providing for the substances of life Economics is management of the home So Home Ec is redundant Having provided for the household it liberates the head of the household to engage in the political realm Politics naturally speaking is where no one rules Ruler ship is from the household trying to engage Modern Political Theory Study Guide Spring 12 Final 15 where the politics work Isonomy Locke does not go far enough in separating these spheres The family life is all about getting the necessities of life It is about freedom Private life is secondary to the public life Somebody who can give great speeches and accomplish great deeds Freedom and the Public Sphere Freedom must only exist in the public sense among those dealing with each others If it exists in the private sense it means the only meaningful thing is stuff and it causes violence to nature in the process You become free by interacting with others who are your equal Conservativism in the family and education is necessary Can t have it any other way But democracy is killed by conservatism Liberalism is needed in the public sphere They are always trying to level the conservatism in the private sphere This is deadly to the family sphere Arendt wants to support authority in the private sphere and the radical egalitarian liberalism in the public sphere Similar to Romans 13 Corporations take the place of the family in the private sphere The best description of this is at the bottom of 152 and top of 153 the manifestation of principles Politics is like Performance Theater It is improv It is defined by the ability to improv and make a vision that endures It is that ability to create in the moment which is ultimate freedom History of authority and freedom She is distinctively the most political thinker of our time She embraces politics as the solution to everything Politics is communication not violence like others have said A democracy emerge not because of capitalism but because of other things in other places get in the way and politics emerges to free that performance art politics The Human Condition Labor work and action The Politics of Hell Autho ty She thinks authority is gone We can t bring the past back She argues that we need to think and go into a different direction To provide a relief from this alienation The problem is that conservatives and liberals don t know what is going on Conservatives value structure and use violence to get there They substitute violence for force Liberalism celebrates individualism but is worried this freedom is leaving Because we live in a welfare state Arendt looks for her own way out Currently our purpose and existence is due to our consumer culture We are interdependent whether we recognize it or not What liberalism is focus on the atomized individual too far Power Violence Key Issues you will need to consider Renaissance It is with the Renaissance that we get the idea that we re breaking into something new Reformation Enlightenment Locke is the father of all enlightenment Plenitude potestatis The Pope s responsibility to judge leaders and nations The Pope is able to appoint high officials The Pope becomes a very active political player around the 13th Century and can encourage kings to lead troops into battle By the 14th and 15th Century the Pope begins leading people into battle Florentine politics Machiavelli was a citizen of Florence Republican form of gov t on and off for centuries independent selfgoverning citystate Republican liberty Teaching quotevilquot MachiavelliHe was considered a teacher of evil because he speaks down on the Catholic Church says that Louis X messed up when he gave the Pope power Moses is a good model because he had a lot of power llkicked the Egyptian s asses and led a group of people to a place where they could live and have a community together Machiavelli didn t care about the biblical aspect of Moses moreso the power aspect He basically said that Jesus was weak because he died but Moses was not Jesus Cesare Borgia The Medici Prophet amp founding Virtuampfortuna Machiavelli Virtue Machiavelli redefines is as the boldness about taking charge of events and succeeding you have to build something out of nothing Machiavelli says that the Sunday school definition of virtue will get you killed in politics Virtue for Machiavelli is about showing your power and not thinking about it twice Virtue is about success in his new definition Now there are limits dictated by practicality there are some things that you just cannot get away with so you have to be smart about it if you need to kill your enemy s wife and kids to consolidate power in a place where it is needed this is perfectly fine Machiavelli believes that you should never take your power for granted Being defenseless makes you contemptible Fortune strength cunning and all qualities to succeed and master to maintain power Historical progress The economy of violence Machiavelli Fight fire with fire figuring out which applications of violence will stop the spread of the violence once it gets out of hand one way to do this is cruelty Be prepared to go in and do everything you need to do at the beginning If you do it at the beginning over time you will use a lot less The last thing you want to do in a war is strengthen strong powers and weaken weak powers Love vs fear Machiavelli In Chapter 17 he says that being feared is much safer than being loved if you have to pick between being loved and feared since you cannot be both People are more afraid to defend a man that they love vs a man they fear because fear involves punishment that they cannot escape if they don t abide Even Christianity has to make use of fear in order to retain allegiance and submission you do right because you fear that God will condemn you to hell you don t do right out of pure love alone Hatred is dangerous because it makes people come after you avoid taking people s property raping their women etc Crime amp glory MachiavelliViolent anarchy is the worse Brutal suppressing violence crushes descent Some uses of violence prevent you from being able to effectively govern Managing appearance is important but you can t let things spin out of control The people vs the noblesAristotleMachiavelliAristotle says Nobles justice involves proportionate equality everyone rewarded based on contribution and merit This really means inequality because only the rich will prosper Aristotle says People the states should treat us all equally Aristotle says when you break this down they re both wrong There are ways to balance out these competing ideas quotgolden meanquotMachiavelli says the nobles want to oppress the people Machiavelli says that the people do not want to be oppressed One of Machiavelli s critiques of people like Aristotle is that there isn t always a middle ground or quotgolden mean You have to choose sometimes Machiavelli would side with the people it s easier to satisfy the needs of the people not to be oppressed Hobbesian science The political art Hobbes The art of politics will save us from our natural condition It is not by the grace of God note that Hobbes hates the state of nature Divine right of kings English Civil War Hobbesl 1649 the king is captured and killed n1642 Cromwell takes over England as their lord protector ruling at first with rump parliament which means it is the part of long parliament that was left was purged all of those scheming monarchies who supported Charles I It created a brief period called the when England did not have a king Cromwell rules as a puritan military dictator In 1660 Cromwell dies and the parliaments return the Stuarts emerging Charles II during a period known as the restoration During this time it is all about hierarchy and power Hobbes fled in 1640 to France and hang out with other English royalists who are in self imposed exons During this time Hobbes publish his first major works In 1640 published the Elements of Law In 1642 he first original works on politics one being the De Cire or The Citizen which is his first systematic formulation of his political theory In 1651 Hobbes publishes Leviathan which represent the monster power of the state It defends monarch and absolute monarchy It does so in original ways It rejects the preferred theory of the Stuarts and their allies which is divided by the kings However Hobbes does not have much patience for that view He thinks it is intellectual evil and it cannot stand to much scrutiny Hobbes throws out the standard party line in justifying royal authority Left wing of EnglandThe Levellers human beings are born free and equal individuals entitled to natural rights and legal protections Due process of the law freedom of speech and religion Hobbes adopts the Levellers understanding of human nature ideas as to saying if you follow them to their conclusions they lead not to a republican but instead to a king Causing the people on the left not to like his idea because he is taking their ideas using them for different reasons Those on the right because he throws away the party line and conceal most of the arguments to his proposition Hobbes divides his own solution into England religious crisis It goes against the Catholic and Anglings party lines Despite the conflicts Hobbes appeals to Parliament to return to England in 1652 Hobbes is seen as a loyal defender of the monarchy Thinkers who doubted that there was no such thing as truth Friends with Bacon thinker I can trust my senses We can trust our sensory giving truth about how we live Michelle Monteigne thinker challenges the truth Decartes thinker Are there truths that can t be answered I THINK THAT I EXIST If he doubt everything he can t doubt his existence because he thinks feel There is one truth which is I exist Hobbes gives one truth quothe does not want to diequot Motion amp rest HobbesGalileoHobbes wanted to create a geometry of the human motion and politics Galileo where Hobbes gather his model of science from Galileo thinks about the world relationship to physics The world we live in is not at rest instead moving in motion It is a challenge of the world The Mid Europe believed that they were the center of the universe They were at rest and everything had moved around them Humanity was god creation The purpose of the human life was to seek rest Medieval believed you seek rest in internal blessedness ofGod presence Classics Plato and Aristotle seek in complementation One way to put the wisdom of philosophers above the political virtues of statements and citizens is that philosophy allows you reach at a state at rest Whereas politics is about change and conflict and mediation ofdispute Rest is good and Motion is badhobbes Galileo believed differently that we are always in motion and the world under us is always moving even if we cannot feel it Motion is the natural state of human existence It upsets the nature of science assumption of ethic religion and politics at the same time Hobbes appreciated that in ways that Galileo probably doesn t Hobbes state to understand politics you must simplify and reduce what appears to be complex motions In chapter 2 of Leviathan quotwhen a thing is motion it will internally be in motionquot Motion is what it is meant to do The question of Hobbes was quotwhat are the first human motionsquot He states we could break it down by looking at human beings in terms of their passions because that what moves us humans Appetites amp aversions HobbesThere are some things that we have appetite for and what we want therefore we seek out We move towards them as if there is a magnetic attraction There are aversions that repel you to run in the opposite direction4620Human life is driven by appetite and aversions the things that we want and the things that we need Theology vs philosophy Human reason The state of nature HobbesLocke We are born free and equal and we are entitled to natural rights Hobbes says that this is not good because there is a twofold equality equality of murder and conceit Causes or war amp peace HobbesQuarreI refer to p185 Competition9gain Diffidence the opposite of confidence fearful insecure people who are quarrelling over this are looking for safety and security9safety Glory trifles These are the things that lead us to war but they are not all equivalent p 188 quotThe Passions that encline men to peacequot Natural equality The summummalum Hobbes There is no 39 there is a 39 and that is the fear of death All this means is that there is no one thing that is good for everybody but there is one thing that s bad for everyonefear Good law amp good counsel Liberalism Church amp state Locke Locke argues for a very tolerant minimally dogmatic version of Christianity quotThe church itself is a thing absolutely separate and distinct from the commonwealth The boundaries on both sides are fixed and immovable He juggles heaven and earth together the things most remote and opposite who mixes these two societies which are on their original end business and in everything perfectly distinct and infinitely different from each otherquot this is just separation of church and state When you create government you create it to protect your property but that says nothing about your belief You never turn over your right to define your belief to the state As a result of that church and state should be separate and church should not discriminate against religious belief or impose their belief on others Locke is comfortable with some degree of establishment he doesn t necessarily believe that you have to get rid of statechurches although he does believe in religious tolerance and that the laws shouldn t discriminate between different religions Generally you should accommodate other faiths He does make 2 exceptions there are 2 groups that are so religiously radical that they can t really be tolerated Atheists they can t be trusted or expected to abide by their contracts since they don t swear an oath to God thus they don t believe there are any consequences for their actions and Catholics because they are such authoritarian assholes that to be a Catholic is in such contradiction to living in a free society that you just can t tolerate their policies The Glorious RevolutionLocke It is a bloodless revolution The culmination of the exclusionary crisis is that Parliament decides to bring in a new royal line German monarchs from Holland William and Maryand James army folds and disintegrate as William and Mary move to England and as a result of this Parliament wins They replaced the old absolutist monarchy of the Stewarts with a new constitutional monarchy in which the Kings are accountable to Parliament t replaces the old absolutist monarchy claimed by the Stewarts James and Charles II with a new constitutional monarchy where the King and Parliament officially share power And where Parliament as they do in the Glorious Revolution claims the authority to depose Kings where necessary and replace them with other monarchs Latitudinarians Locke Later in his life he was associated with a faction of the Anglican Church known as the Latitudinarians which is a very moderate peaceful tolerant sect of the Episcopalian Church Sir Robert Filmer Sir Robert Filmer writes a book of monarchist political theory called Patriarcha which he obviously celebrates patriarch His argument In the bible when God creates the world and created Adam the bible says he gave Adam dominion over the Earth and the creatures that walked upon it This means that Adam is the first king Being that God gave him this dominion this means that the creatures walking the Earth are his subjects Not only are they his subjects but he owns them They are his property this doesn t just apply to animals but people as well Adams gives this power to his eldest son and then his eldest son and so on until the king that rules you now This means that the king owns you and you are his property Locke believes that the Divine Right of Kings is an idiotic theory and it doesn t make a lot of sense The judicious Hooker The thinker that Locke refers to in a positive way as helping him make his case is Richard Hooker who Locke refers to as the lljudicious Hooker Hooker was a late 16th C medieval political theorist who had argued that government imamates form the community and is ultimately subordinate to the rule of law so Locke sees Hooker as a much more reputable source than Hobbes Nature vs war Paternal vs political power Locke Locke argues that there is a big difference between political power and parental power in the beginning of the Second Treatise Your nation is notjust one big family with a benevolent father figure at the top who must be obeyed People who come and tell you that the government is your daddy and that you have to do whatever he tells you usually want to enslave you This can be thought of as a rejoiner to Hobbes Hobbes says that you need that authority figure you need obedience he needs to create unity he needs to be able to define what your opinions are and to tell you what the truth is and have absolute legislative and judicial authority For Locke this is very dangerous Many most persistent misunderstandings about government result from a confusion between fatherhood and political leadership Why do parents exist To take care of the kids until they get old enough to know what reason is The kind of power that we give parents to govern their children who are naturally unequal is not the same kind of power we should give to the state who is presumably governing adults who in the nature of things are equal one with another The kind of obedience that you owe your parents when you re a child is an utterly inappropriate metaphor for how you should deal with government Locke says that people in government don t have any special knowledge or any special claim to privilege Because of that they should not treat you like children You don t have to submit in the same way and on top of that the purpose of parents is to develop children until they reach a point of maturity and rationality That is legitimate hierarchy Parents and children are not equals but it is also time limiting because parents don t have indefinite authority over their children Once you develop reason your obligation to obey your parents are limited Paternal ties should be based on affection and limited in duration There are limits in scope because parents can t do whatever they want to their children For example you can t kill your children because it violates the laws of nature It s arbitrary and unreasonable Political power is a relationship that takes place between mature adults who are by nature equals refer to p4 of the book There are ways that political authority is stronger than parental authority because the state can kill you You create government to regulate property and keep us safe Political power is the legitimate use of force for the public good which means preserving individuals and species by regulating their property a relationship that occurs amongst rational adults who don t have to be kept obedient by some big daddy Government is limited Freedom amp equality Locke Because government is a thing that takes place amongst equals Locke tells us that we are born by nature to a condition which he describes as quotperfect freedom and equality one that dictates human reciprocity If I give something to you I expect something of equal value in return There is no one above or below you there is no hierarchy there are no classes or kings in the state of nature Spoilage The origin of money Three powers ofgovernment Consent Locke You give consent when you take advantage of society s benefits This is called tacit consent implied not expressed According to Locke if you re under a government and you don t want to give it consent you can leave In actuality this isn t very practical because other countries might not take you in Locke says that if you want to leave there are limits You can t take your property with you bc your property exists under the protection of the government that regulates it You have no individual right to take your stuff with you when you go Consent is primarily implied which is good enough for Locke Locke argues that government is grounded in consent in two ways Original consent to the establishment of government way back in the day that consent in order to leave the state of nature and create a government would have been unanimous all the people coming together and agreeing to form a government From a practical standpoint this is unreasonable to expect once government is in place You would thus have to replace unanimous consent with majority rule Once that contract is in effect the consent of the majority rules and is in place by representation parliament David Hume David Hume 17111776 was a key figure in the Scottish Enlightenment He is the most important political writer connected to the Scottish Enlightenment and he s probably best known for developing a theory of knowledge known as empiricism which he adapts and develops from Locke although Hume makes significant criticisms of Locke along the way What binds them both together as empiricists is their belief that the experience of the senses is the origin of knowledge and their skepticism about metaphysical doctrines that go beyond sensory experience Unlike Locke Hume is much more directly critical of Christianity and theistic conceptions of God After all what sensory evidence do we have of God s existence The one big piece of evidence that people often use to suggest the existence of God is the creation Hume says that from a scientific standpoint that really doesn t tell us anything about God Much of the world sucks There are lots of places you can t really live with lots of violence and cruelty and as a result of that the nasty bits of the universe tend to counteract the beautiful suggesting something other than a perfectly good and benevolent God Hume argues that belief in God is not only indemonstrable it is also somewhat illogical and dangerous insofar as it tends to lead toward fanaticism Hume implies empiricism to suggest that there are problems with theistic perceptions of God and religious belief Hume is significant primarily for his critique of Locke s theory of social contract The critique of contract Hume lays out his critique in a very famous essay from 1748 called Of the Original Contract Hume s argument divine right of kings and social contract are both stupid theories Neither of them have any actual evidence behind them They don t meet the tests of empiricism They should really be understood not as empirical claims about how government began Hume says that government really begins with conquest Somebody came over kicked ass and they set up a government That didn t necessarily make it legitimate but it set it up That is where government begins It s not divine right or social contract It s force or coercion conquest If you think about contract theory it breaks down on different levels both empirical and conceptual Empirical where do we find such a contract in history We don t And even if we did form an agreement back in the past that set up government that doesn t justify ongoing consent because the whole tacit consent argument doesn t make any sense You can t really suggest that people consent by not leaving because after all people don t have the absolute freedom to go and choose where they want to live A poor peasant or artisan can just get out and leave and governments aren t just going to allow massive amounts of people out of their borders There is a conceptual problem social contract theory usually argues that our political allegiance is anchored in fidelity to the promises we make Fidelity to the promises that you make in the private realm is one thing and allegiance to the state in the public realm is a completely different thing Both of them should be justified independently as based in your general interests Hume doesn t think that there s any one form of government that s mandated by the laws of nature or the principles of political allegiance It s generally better to have a mixed and balanced government or constitutional monarchy that protects property that preserves people s traditional values and so on Hume s argument is basically a conservative argument and Hume is more conservative than Locke He believes that you are obliged to obey all forms of government even absolutist ones as long as they provide you with some form of security you should go along with that system Religion amp toleration The Encyclopaedia Diderot ampd Alembert Voltaire Montesquieu Separation of powers The importance of size Deism vs theism Paris amp Geneva The arts amp sciences The nature of virtue Making appearances The General Will Modern man39s quotprogressquot Amour de soi Amour proper The search for quotnaturequot Two natural instincts The Hottentots The origin of inequality The golden age Utilita rianism Tabula rasa Tyranny of the majority Individuality The harm principle Freedoms of conscience The value of debate


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.