Physics Problems Laboratory II
Physics Problems Laboratory II PHYS 2021
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gilda Wisozk on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHYS 2021 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Charles Higgins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/213130/phys-2021-middle-tennessee-state-university in Physics (Mtsu And Rodp) at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Modern Physics The Photoelectric Effect gtProcess of light causing the emission of electrons from a metal surface 0 Can be studies using this apparatus elect on 1 Haw 1 A jtwm AV Figure 1 Light of frequency f is incident on the emitter E which is encased in a bulb along with the collector C The ammeter A measures any current that flows through the circuit as a result of electrons being emitted by E and being collected by C 0 AV is the source voltage which has polarity At any time either the collector is positive and the emitter negative AV or viseversa AV 0 Emitted electrons are called photoelectrons o If AV is positive all electrons emitted by the emitter are collected by the collector and the current in this case is quotsaturatedquot o If AV is negative the charge repels many electrons from reaching the collector though some still do due to the electrons being emitted with Kinetic Energy KE 0 AV tells us how much work it takes to move a charge from one point to another 0 The magnitude of charge on an electron e is equal to 16 x 10 19 coulomb C 0 Work done by us can be calculated by W e AV 0 Work done by the electric field can be calculated by W e AV 0 At some value positive value for AV the current reaches a constant value 0 At some value for AV stopping potential the collector receives no electrons This is denoted with AVO o The maximum kinetic energy emitted by a metal surface can be calculated with KEmax e Avg 0 The frequency of incident radiation at which no photoelectrons are emitted is called the cutoff frequency f0 0 The Einstein Relation defines the energy of the incident light photons by E hf hCl where h Planck s Constant 6626E34 J s 0 Solving for Kinetic Energy KEmax hf w E w w the specific metal s work function 0 An electron Volt equals energy acquired by an electron accelerated by a 1V electric field leV 160 x 1039 J Modern Physics Into to Atomic Physics 0 The first quantum number is the principal quantum number n n can be any integer other than zero 0 The second quantum number is the orbital angular momentum quantum number I I can be any integer so long as it is not larger than n1 o The third quantum number is the magnetic quantum number m m can be any integer ranging from I to l o The last quantum number is the spin quantum number ms The only possible values for ms are 05 and 05 o The distance of an electron from the nucleus is denoted r o The radial part ofa hydrogen wavefunction is based only on n and land is denoted Rquot r o The angular part of a hydrogen wavefunction is based only on land m and is denotedAlmangles o The time portion of a hydrogen wavefunction is denoted Tnt nlml RnlrAlmlangleSTnt o The part of the hydrogen probability function related to the radial part of the wavefunction is denoted as Pnlr This function shows the probability of finding at electron in a hydrogen atom as a function of the distance from the nucleus Pnlr r2Rn1r2 o The radius ofa typical hydrogen atom in ground state is known as the Bohr Radius and is r0529x1039 m 0 Approximate atomic radii rnthe value of r where a Pnlr vs r graph has a maximum value for the quantum state n equals nzrjL o The number of bumps in a Pnr vs r graph is equal to n1 4 o The energy in a hydrogen hydrogen only is solvable with En where so is the electric 0 permittivity offree space constant 80885 x 10 12 CzN m2 m is the mass of an electron 911 x 10 31 kg e is the electroncharge magnitude 16 x 10 19 C h is Planck s constant 6626 x 1034 s The combination of these constants in the equation s form is known as the Rydberg Constant R and is equal to 10973730 1m It thus follows that 5 Jui 31 1 eV 16 x 1049i 0 A transition from one state to another must obey the selection rule which states that it can only occur ifl changes by or 1 o For a transition to take place ME E Eil If E is larger than E a single photon is emitted In a case ofviceversa a single photon is absorbed lAEifl E Eil hf he ith ith 1 1 photon lAEi l lEfEil hf 7 n fzn iz hCR quotTl quot72 1 415 1 1 o Wavelengths for hydrogen can be solved WIth m R Z 2 l he ni nf o All multielectron results are based on Hydrogen atoms and are thus approximate o lfall but one electron is removed from an atom with Z protons replace all e2 with Ze2 and use the hydrogen equations OeV 0544 eV 0850 eV lSleV 1 DEV 0544 eV 0850 eV 1516V 340 eV InaBusing E m39lgl39 136eV n infinin Ionized Electron L IL n 5 FourthExcited Slate n 4 ThirdExcited State 0 n 3 SecondExcited Stale n 2 FirstExcited Slate 1 39 7 11 x K O f Allergy0 4 I 391 n l Ground Slate n infinin Ionized Electron UL n 5 Fo39urlhExcilcd Stale n 4 Third Excited Slate n 3 SecondExcited Slate n 2 FirstExcited Slate I 3 ch g amp NY W26 q n 1 Ground State