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Chapter 6- KIN 2500: Human Anatomy

by: Meghan Davis

Chapter 6- KIN 2500: Human Anatomy 2500

Marketplace > Louisiana State University > Kinesiology > 2500 > Chapter 6 KIN 2500 Human Anatomy
Meghan Davis
Human Anatomy

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Chapter 6
Human Anatomy
One Day of Notes
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This 10 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Meghan Davis on Friday September 19, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to 2500 at Louisiana State University taught by Hargroder in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy in Kinesiology at Louisiana State University.

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Date Created: 09/19/14
Chapter 6 Tuesclay September 9 Z 14 0 Skeletal system 912 AM 0 An organ system with tissues that grow and change throughout life I Bones Bones of skeleton are complex organs containing all four tissue types Prirmrily connective tissue Extracellular rmtrix Functions El El El El 0 O 000 Support skeletal system Movement Hemopoesis direction of blood Storage of minerals Site for energy reserve Classi cation 0 Long bones longer than they are wide 0 EX femur Diaphysis shaft of the bone Elongated Cylindrical Epiphysis proxirml and distal Knobby enlarged Strengths the bone Attachment site for ligaments and tendons Metaphysis Epiphyseal line growth plate lies ir1 Articular cartilage covers the end of the bones the epiphysis at proximal and distal end P Reduce friction P Absorb shock at end of joint 0 Medullary cavity hollow yellow bone marrow in adults quot G I an ltgt ltgt ltgt 0 1 n1cat on an Ill Anion tau 0 Endosteum inner part of rnedullary cavity Contains all types of cells Covers rmjority of interr1al bone 0 Periosteum dense irregular tissue Covers exterior of bone except when it becomes articular cartilage Contains osteoprogenerious cells and osteoblasts Anatomy 2500 Page 1 O O 0 III Cells 000 39o439ausuIIs39 5 La Gun 0 Short bones almost square Equal in length and width 0 EX tarsal Flat bones make up most of the skull bones thinner than the others 0 EX rontal bone forehead Irregular bones change shaicas 3 Icgt39u go down the Vertebral column p VIDvIo pOC cpacoho Huiurn Osteoprogenitor cells mesinchyrnical stem cells found in outer and layer of bone endosteum and periosteum Osteoblasts form bone rmtrix Osteocytes maintain bone matrix and rmnage the mechanical stress that is put on bone Osteoclasts largest and help wristsglve boneandreleaseltalci11m an bdhion 50009033183 x ouitmauhoqta mu Anatomy 2500 Page 2 09xxttoo44 zoos rtuuca nu maoctauu lII1lVl39 6341100 zaov 504 4ao um u unntso rm aobcvnn ouoauu lbw ton varI Oshuiyh Iulomcth urunhrc bun trum II Composition of bone matrix 9 Organic components about one third of matrix cells collagen bers ground substance 9 Inorganic components not going to ask about I Comparison of compact and spongy bone 0 Compact Solid and relatively dense forms of surface of long bones and at bones The basic structural and mctional ur1it of rmture compact bone is the osteon Central canak protect and surrounds artery and veir1 Concentric lamellae rir1gs of bone around central canal Osteocytes housed in lacunae located between concentric larnellae Canaliculi channels the extend between lacunae Allows osteocytes to commlmicate and connect to one another Perforating canals where artery nerve and vein enter which then becomes central canal Circumferential lamellae rings of bone immediately internal to the perioste11m Interstitial lamellae leftover parts of osteons that have been partially absorbed ongy 0 Lattice work 0 Plates trabeculae 0 Dipole 0 No osteons 0 Trabeculae contains parallel larnellae 9 Flat bones within the skulk 9 Two layers of compact bone with spongy bone sandwiched between Coomgm G The McG anrHOI Comoamos Inc Petmssaon reamed Io reotooocoon or oosotay 000000000 9 S 0 penosteum Flat bone of skull Spongy bone diplo Periosleum Compact bone Anatomy 2500 Page 3 Vu VIl 3quotJ39jI amp III Ossi cation 9 The forrmtion and development of bone 9 Intrarnembranous ossi cation ltgt Develops from mesenchyme 0 Produce at bones of skull some facial bones rmndible central portion of clavicle 1 Ossi cation centers irom within thickened regions of rnesenchyme T Copyndni O McGr39rml Educabon Pemussaon required for ropmoucnon oc dosplay 2 Osteoid undergoes calci cation Covmgm O McomvHI sauna Pcnnuuon counted 001 muoducton or drsphy Osteoid undergoes calci ca on 3 Woven bone and surrounding periosteum fonn Anatomy 2500 Page 4 23 Wawn bone and surrcuwdng pcnastaum turn 39 mmkh39nm Oovlccrlsng Ia iovm my zmnoaaeum 4 Lamellar bone replaces woven bone as compact bone and spongy bone form liq ii 7 FI1 o39 As n 5 Q Larmmsv xvw 391ptxos 39 T I 7 mu tcrv as Dt oszi 0 and spans trcrc Ourn 39 Piano6rn V 1 I 1 W t H V y v Lamclar E 5 55e 0 y I 9 Endochondral ossi cation Starts with hyaline cartilage model Produce most bones of body The fetal hyaline cartilage model develops Cartilage calci es and a periosteal bone collar forms The prirmry ossi cation center forms in the diaphysis Secondary ossi cation centers form Ithe epiphyses Bone releases cartilage except the articular cartilage and epiphyseal plates Epiphyseal plates ossify and formepiphyseallir1es D U 39gtE quot O0 I tvv II Hernia 1 I 1qI39V39l4 401 KOIl397lTI u tn4 mu u Ivequotus j ugtuuw Q Cinvtgn l 39 I gunrcnn 39 3 39 39 39 ts vest Fcxnu q5u 39439s7 quot3939395 quot l Lnvu ulr t 0 R i ran y Mwg L 1 39 0 54I urn BIDS quotog I nu 1 o pd tu vc cl 39 W 5 Lax J17 min quot 39 rnrna1 1 5 ins 3quot 39C 2 393913911 x01s J 1 punk F0 Ahnv 114 3 aovv bra u In hrhn I quot 4 39 r5C39 5 uI ctQa4 39 quotY3939 39 39 x39 quot0 I110 luv u l39d 9 quotI 39 NUquotV V C quotsA39 r lJJ39JX n 39 39 39 WC39 nv 39 n 5 Eon taons union oavzv he U LD39 391op In 1 r Iquotlt4N LIlC O huvuu tum 910 gnu 51 up yuJ gt1 5151 twig 0 where is the prirmry bone formed diaphysis Test Question III Epiphyseal plate morphology 0 The epiphyseal plate is a layer of hyaline cartilage at the boundary of the epiphysis and diaphysis 0 Site of interstitial growth length 0 Consists of ve distinct microscopic zones P Zone of resting cartilage farthest away from medullary cavity Zone of proliferating cartilage beginning to multiply stacking of coins Mitotic cell division Zone of hypertrophic cartilage become larger and cease dividing Zone of calci ed cartilage deposit minerals Zone of ossi cation walls between lacunae breakdown and nukes channels for capillaries VVVV Anatomy 2500 Page 5 if 39 39 ll 35390 E cwd 4 quot P1 IilquotiE 39rJ3955i395 39lPquotquota39r1 ErIuI39g12E Iii393E39 E511 EI 39 El 3 n39r1riaIrrjrIuIIa1ra D3 9quot39quot r U i1r quotFI1 I3I runnu39ai fif quot1ai1g H E39 E39 lquotf39 mlgf lziljilp9 I H IrffquoteEI geaH 39Iia J HEIi X I339F El n 3IdII 393Ifiilsal39 H Ir 1 or J s3liEzlzl11rIIIJ IampI 5rIg39nl39Il11rE El UiEquota L 1r quot r uquot L39L39 DJquot 5 quotfLav J P 1 2weakest part F 45 strongest part III Growth 9 Interstitial growtlr 0 A long bone39s growth in length is referred to as 9 Appositional Growth 0 growth in a bone39s diameter is referred to as appositional growth Fm1I C run J391 u U ngnv5 1 v 4xr gun 1 mp rur39 ca from 4 u 391quotf ltgt 39 If V 0K 0K G Izu T Inn 539 T J 0 Bones grow in length and width III Blood supply and innervation 9 Bone is highly Vascularized 9 Four rmjor sets of blood vessels 0 Nutrient artery and vein 0 Metaphyseal arteries and veins 0 Epiphyseal arteries and veins 0 Periosteal arteries and Veins 9 Arterial supply to a rmture bone 0 Nutrient artery supplies the shaft of bone Anatomy 2500 Page 6 Covnoncfholoonulcowauoo Ix Pumouonooo uruoooacuovovoouoy quot2 391 Amculatcarulague A Epohysoallono Epiphyoul Arnoalax cameos III Maintaining homeostasis and promoting bone growth I Depend on 0 Hormones P Alter rate of Chondroblasts which alfects osteoblasts and eventually osteocytes Regulates ca1ci11m ltgt Vitamins are needed for nomnl bone growth and rmintenance P Bone remodeling 0 Exercise mechanical stress P Increases bone density III Fracture repair I Breaks in bones called fractures I Healing takes a few months or more and occurs in a series of steps I Types ogt4 juo oo M M I Classi cation Anatomy 2500 Page 7 gil ti 39 I39II1 4 39EJ39I9 iirleaua n 39 5 1 F i39 539al39l1F39IquotI39J39Eil lE39iIquot39l39f39IFIEl39lquotI5 rsnvaiIIamhaIerIu1quotiIrI 5 an dl iiII i ri39IIr jrm lni1nquotirdu iI1ud iusuI iPI39IAErr 39I39I39illquot5iIagIIiIel 19 IaurnI J39I 5 awiz 3lquot39IiE 391e wI39I39quot39III3939IIn39I rI391alnalr HIa1 li rclmrl 39 39I39riIIu l39JI39IJaI39iiuI aIIiriiInaIrLinil I21l elll lEII1I1aIihiaIrmrnirnInIrnIl HI39IIl1mIl39IlelillIIIh39qfIrgullrln r P 2surer E aI 1u n ul lluwuai IIru1hvrIliliniI IIyaIgiti lriurdu l391riIZlI39rhrraIInIii1 39I d finil iHniii1 uluIi InaJiu IhruIi Ir iul nu urrI39III1IJ F39IIiIrJ39IrIl39 IIIarI39pu1 I39di39 39II5i litiIar FiI39I39eiliIH 3939rIInrIg39I39IiII39aI39 0 IIpIl lIr1JIjn l39EI39IilIZII ll39 39 I Ilihr slll I2 Iaru1nra 39L39aiHI 7I39HLI3a IHIaiudIIIlii39edIlIInJdilE lnluunaail i Eli39I39lE39I IlIIllH1 H II1lIgn39dl39I39iIIilfE I139IniIIa39E39iII39JFI391quotIhiIr ll Tm VHIlil i39In39Ia39I39li139IJJa339rIIJrII F Jia39J ir39I39 quot13939 iquotrIllaErII39r II1irrII39urEa39e39r luliHInlInII Ehn Ian IHFFE Eidh llplrzan nI39IiilciII lin39in I339iulra I39i1IIJEIns1iI39izllirsizl LIliIl39 I39IquotJ E 17IiF39II39IIIIi IilIii1lI1ii1H1IHl IrIIIe5H39lil395 Inl l3939In39339Inaimaalr 3939IrI39 iIrr39iquot n IEIrIIilIHii lhrlaipIInrI1aJhmatrviraJulIiIahas l39Iiq lIIng 39iLllJ39I39IIrimaI1IrimIaIquotIIFrI IsquotI I39a1 n3939Iquot39I mi39h ImIaIl39IrI I3939iIr E7Imquot39IIrr FIII39IIa4rI3939IIh39IIIr5rIa Im 393gIr I aFa a 39 iquot C Equot 39 I39EIilI1lIIlI39I i39aIIrI5IIri Iimaprdnal 2l39ilIihj39iiJhILIIIfH39IEIfiI39ia39i39IIIi Tl391I39i939H5I FrmamnFm fjI39IHl1eliE I 0 5151 N IIIIIquot u Ilblm H I Repair C ppv IIOThoMOnuKICon9dI39u39lIc Pavvindusvoqbcdlanpoo ocbnotdbhy lhuruuurn ouumopvnn Fatytolo ht oin Muouch Qzavloanovurdoruhvn GAba0IorcuIbell 39 AnIdIba91 Onbvn 1VcIo co u bod inbcu III Bone markings Ccpyrvn u o rtnHlCaupuIuIrIr Puvnnuonnqundturaotoducnonotdsploy OHS 39 quot39f 2 4 an 31 ufp1 n W0 I lnlvkag mre u HF i I Articulating surface touching each other 0 Facet ribs 0 Head head of femur rounded epiphysis ltgt Trochleaz I Depressions ltgt Alveolus ltgt Fossa ltgt Sulcus I Projections for tendon and ligament attachment Anatomy 2500 Page 8 lu u Main hq uxanmujuu utatamn Faun hutmacawmons 31 Gina hhnnupw0 can tvupuIIlIu Egunqh hgoonaguuauuqt uu Lung ln Innua1 A hv unndoluluujolblnnldtouunn n kutwlupunm 11 ampuunIuQuIjIampampuIoampu taut Ii uudvh noan lJwQOIIOIon Card hugvluuiahun Faunn humusuguquuyuouu Okinawa bu 39J0wampIhunolum Crest Epicondyle Lir1e Process vertebrae Ramus ischium Spine Trochanter Tubercle Tuberosity enings and spaces Canal Fissure femur Forarnen Sir1us 000000000 00008 I Cartilages II Semirigid connective tissue 9 Weaker than bone but more exible and resilient 9 Mature cartilage is avascular 9 Takes longer to heal then bone III Cells 9 Chondroblasts produce rmtrix 9 Chondrocytes surrounded by rmtrix 0 Occupy srmll spaces called lacunae III Distribution 39 1 r Lu btll I uirul mr v quotr V Eulvg iuu vuhc E1gl i O f39u1u0 0 won Luau L cu1n11ry39IIo luauquot quotquotJ unnu rm uvv1in Itvvnnuy I9 LannaI II VI D491 HAll Iro1L39y39 Mavenn puma Cask Vms Jvlogr n rx IIn LZAIVOO tan rltnnr sl fan2uu run 1quotquot mi re fD I 1 grin fun Ivan A1 L39 rota1 4 a nu ll I 9 Hyaline articular cartilage between bone and bone 9 Fibrocartilage intervertebral disks pubic 9 Elastic ears nose III Functions 9 Supporting soft tissues 9 Gliding surface at articulations 9 Precursor model for bone growth III Growth patterns 9 Interstitial growtlr broke in length Mitosis dividing of chondrocytes 9 Appositional growth broke in width mitosis of stem cells in perichondrium Anatomy 2500 Page 9 0 I oufi u QT Iquotquotquotquotquot I39IIquot9quot39quot39 I3939 O nun psi avuov o DO 9r uI z 5 o quot 3 I 4 L f n n o1 0 Hoo V0 Ana 4 I 39v on Q and 4manna oia hi van a r4boy but an an pun his 1 rv ol 390 in rQI c innon 0 vvIna ow Va939 Aaravnpt 039we vu Ar 1 3canr quotquotquotquot 4 I I5 v1139u gt4c koyu on i lt 39r It curb In 00 I 9 Jan quotu39ltDA mp up quot 39 390 V I Aossa 1a vout In 39v our oIon honor V gb 49 laL4 cu rnuh rvuvvu vvx IsI Q N nc 0II Ligarnents Other supportive connective tissues 0 Aging of the skeletal system I During aging bone changes in two ways 1 Loose rmtrix deplete calcium level Cqruhl vi I39Cruv Hll E39Jul0 Plcfvwiss t uqutequot ft1 rcptzduun cl uiisclag I 0 Normal bone bn 1V5 an sun was 393 b Osteoporouc bone 1 jvtvrro 39jnu39r v 5 c H M39i 1T9 v o 395r un 0 Clinical connections I Pageants brittle bone disease I Acrornegaly over secretion of growth hormone I Rickets third world countries where diets are poor Anatomy 2500 Page 10


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