Introduction to Earth Science
Introduction to Earth Science GEOL 1030
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Owen Boyle V on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1030 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Melissa Lobegeier in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 44 views. For similar materials see /class/213137/geol-1030-middle-tennessee-state-university in Geology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Plate Tectonics Chapter 7 Sunday anonei mi 1011 7th PM Alfred Wegener Most oeooie thuughtthe cumplemehtaiyshapeswereacuihcidehce AlfredWegeher proposed the nyootnesisoicontinentai onitin the book The Origin of Continents ono Oceans in 1915 g n i breakingapaitZDDmilliuhyeaisagu Thishypothesisstateothattnecontinents oiiiteo topiesentpositionsano thmughthe ocean crust continents broke Evidence arid rucktype matches paleuclimatesahciehtclimates glaciatiuhsl v i39 to Wegenei s proposal was its ihabilityto provide a mechanism Matching Mountain Ranges I Rock pes and mountain belts can be matched on either side of the Atlantic Distribution oiiossiis Mesusauius Age oithe Ocean Floor Oceaniioonisgeoiogicaiiyyoong riooi isyuuhgest heartheuceahic ridges Flour is oldest aluhgthe edges oi the oceans Centrifugal Forces or Tides Doesn twurk centniogaianotioaiioncesnotstnongenoogn Continental Crust Driits Through Oceans 5 H i 39 icebieakei ship Wegener39 Downfall Lack oia Mechanism Europe Almosttutal skepticism in North America Similarrucktypesahdages Ancientgiaciationoisame e Paleuclimate ancient climates oata ExamZNotesPagel Seafloor Topography Chapter 7 Sunday Donner a mu 13 PM The Sealloor Wegener s oontr39nentat drr39tt ny otnesr39s rnsoeoame known Sea oorToEograghx Tne sea uurgets deeoer aswe move away trorntne coast rr39rstgradoauyand tnen more quick y at Drawing Oceanic Ridge System midocean ridges 39 1 move away fromtrre oontr nents we come to an underwater r moantar39n range Found In aH ottne wortd s major ooeans 39 Q m a l Sooroeofdotoanr39oaotr39dr39ty To a r a DeepOcean Trenches at Found atongtne edges of some oontr39nents Can bevery tong Canoedotoaarnnesdeeottnetrenon Age ohhe Ocean Floo nrnn39ng r39ntotne sea oor nas netoed usdetenm39ne now otd the sea oor us O dest oceanic rocks are ess than 200 met39un years 0 otdest oontr39nentat rocks are4 bHHunyears otd 39H5 UH a Emmotespdoez Heat Flow Volcanoes amp Earthquakes Chapter 7 iiiirday Dctiibei 07 2012 133 PM Heat Flow raiian maama 39 sea oor 0 Made out ofbasalt a dark igneousruckthatfurmsfrum oooied rhagrha Heat is esoapihgrromthe Earth s ihterior Heatfiuwvaries r n Earthguakes Sealloor Spreading Hypothesis r at him t I it As this occurs existing roehs move away frumthe ridge renches The Earth is tomposed of 0 The cure inner and unterthe mantiethe crust we The outer oore isthe uniyiiquid crust iayer t Crustcan be separated into Oceanic crust 36 miies thick and made of basait 39 o rnhtihehtairru I Separated byaiinecaiied the Moho Key Layers The mantie and the crust are sph t into two key iayers o LithusphereandtheAsthenusphere here m l Averages over 100km az Asthenosphere beneath it ooeyi n E The soiid rock or the mantie uwspiasticaiiy over iohg periods or time mantie then movesthe crustt at 539 s I her in iiiitl w r another Emmotespagea Plate Boundaries Chapter 7 mm Duanym 2012 4 3 w Plat Euundan39ex Aumammmamensamengmamscumamnmeueugesmbounuanes n y m v ergenl nundzri x M051 dwergem bnundanesouurax nzeamz Hdges a manlzrldgemm rhlslsmllm ngmemeamumges R anzu hex HaDDEnsgt Micky llghrzll hd inn mayM 1 n an K unlymzunlzplurzsmnbzsubduzrzd EmZ mm Pig 3 Plate Tectonics Chapter 7 m vcmw M o Examp e A eunams andvnka EHLHWSKHE mnve emboundaw enfeanhuuakesasmaxessuapeagamsieazhmher s mmrm magma hex reams vnkamsm ence q 1 Commema VohamzAnsaVEpmduzed Examp es Caszades and mum gt Vnkannesonmmmem maamommemVekannesonmean meanrmean gt 5139 m m n r gt Vnkanoesareproduzedfmmme mekmg o Examp es ms Hem cantinenmn enlt nnvergence u sxansww maamammem mnvergeme um he sea nm 5 mnsumed Cmmnemsd0nmsubdunsnmsmadaremrusiupwardsmmrm moumams Examp e mea avas new um 5 mam mdesvnved Um shdmg p351 nne enemy M051 ransmrm rammam Wu segmems or mmrmean Hdges Examp e SanAndmasfeuklcahmrma San Franusm and LosAnge es are on dWerem mam Plzlete nn x Mnsnezmmz sunW Eanhuuakes and vnkannes sassouamd Mm mam mundane Nmezmm aznvwvmmemmd eofmaxes ExzemmrareLaseshkehmspmsandmamemumes Mantle Plumexznd Hnl Spnlx mm um nanawmxumnsammyazmaxusemaugmemame 0 Cream amvevnkamsm on Eanh s surfaze ma Seamnunlx I mnlmlundelseumnunmlnthatlsl OOmuAuomouubonrhese om Asxhep axesrmwed werhm spmszreaed undersea moumams Examp es Hawauan s ands lbL basam a mm man over bursam a cunt wlmnlsm Nm an m 5pm have vnkannes nm an vnkannes name from mums nvemenl nl mm Tndavwe use 3V5 Emba Vosmomng Saxe hxeslmremm mmmenr Vaneshnm essmanLmVearlDAmVrlm mvrlsmvr a Em 2 um Pzge s Earthquakes Chapter 7 Tuesday camber n9 JUJZ E ti PM Earthguakes and Plate Tecton 5 Most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries ii a l war lite ll lulk tum rawiir l tea tzl mslrtrlv when a sea oor earthquake results in the uplift ofpart ofthe sea oor the water above the sea oor is also uplifted starting a tsunami o Strudlt area ruptures releasing energvin an earthquake The other part heads across the ocean 707350 km amp lntraplate Earthquakes Mid or intrarplate earthquakes occur within the boundaries ofthe tectonic plates Less than 10 ofall earthquakes I New Madrid fault Zone I More than 4000 since 1974 Earth uake D n ha ing of Associated with movements along faults such as transform faults Elastic Rebound Theo is Strain change ofshape and stress force 1 St 55 with no strain 2 Stress produces strain 3 Faultbreaksrstrainenergyreleased 5 es the shock waves caused by the earthquake place within the Earth where earthquake waves originate is the point on the Earth39s surface directly above the focus l imairrai Ton es of Seismic Waves it aws through the Earth39s interior A J the wave PUSHrPULL BACKVFORTH a Secondarywaves s waves are slower transverse waves uprnowm as unima wet 4 Love Waves horizontal motion Exam 2 Notes Page 6 gt Rayleigh Waves vertical motion Exam 2 Notes Page 7 LocatingMeasuring Earthquakes Chapter 7 NEd ezd V OctDEE in 2012 l M w Loc the Earth uakes is Seismograph measures seismicmves and records them I This record is tailed a seism ogram Paper seismogramsmodern ones are digital F wave arrives first Primary mve 5 wave arrives second Secondarywave Surface waves arrive last but are the strongest note amplitude Seismographs can also detect nuclear explosions Determinin the Locati More distant seismographswill record the earth later required to determine earthquake position Circle equal to the epicenter distance is drawn around each station I We lo e circles intersect Measuring the Size of Earthguakes 3 i 2 amount ofdamage t er measures the strength ofearthquakes energy a Scale is logarithmic is 4 Does not have a maximum Wlue a s not adequately estimate the size ofverv large earthquakes Great Chilean Earthquake ms the largest magnitude recorded Moment Magnitude Scale measuresvery large earthquakes 4 Derive mm the shear strength ofthe faulted r0dlt Effects of Earthgua es Ground motion re landslides liquefaction land movement tsunami Earthguake Predic ion We cannot predict when an earthquake will occur location is easier I Patterns have been observe We can predict where an earthquake will occur i the area nf and Exam 2 Notes Page 8 E Ma amhic Rocks Chaptera mm mm 1 WM va as assume Prmsasmauhilvesroa mme Anhsmunor a w roa sheztedzndprssmedhmdoesunveilmuddnwouwbezn inamrozk as mmth m 5 I m pmmnom mam m a Vmomonimzumzhsxm mmm a w erozkszmeumor Mer a WSW Wm rmzrhk H Meswnez ur mmpr w mmMWWWWWMwmwmm WWWWWJMWWWNmg as us needed Var MMan mm goi as mwsmmw a WWW mm mm mme mwmm Wm WWW a sMWWmummmemumme a am mm m m Imuzxmospherescnpressme mlmmmm a 5m mmswmn ome 54mmquot mdmuenmwemom a Vezwnn orusuuudmuemmiress as a Mz anzuuvdmhemom ksDromusrecuzuhmn mam Dmemum sresszhaqesmewnmeonharoa ex NAMad mm mm unbe mm mm as am mum mm m Mmeubdue w duezud pressure ommgmsmss mm mm mug ham Wm WM mu mquot a mummmm mmmmsmss mm mm st um M zmowmsm cmn mmva Wmquot rods W m mnuuwnh 2 w 54W amm 1 mm pressure as Usua No Lusdsepbebwme mmmwummwmmmm Mswasmmmmmmmmsm mom mamame mmmmum mum mz msPgw Plate tectonics and Earthquakes 2111 1 Review a Lithosphere uppermost mantle and crust Rigid and hard b Asthenosphere part of the mantle Weaker and hotter than the lithosphere deforms plastically like molten wax c Plate Tectonics i Plate The lithosphere is broken into several plates ii Tectonics volcanic and earthquake activity Divergent boundaries i Step 1 continental rift valley forms 1 EX east African rift valley ii Step 2 narrow sea forms 1 EX red sea iii Step 3 ocean with oceanic ridge system 1 EX Atlantic ocean and midAtlantic ridge e Convergent boundaries i Oceanocean convergence two ocean plates 1 EX Aleutian islands ii Oceancontinent convergence one ocean and one continental plate 1 EX cascade mountains or Andes mountains iii Continentcontinent convergence two continental plates 1 EX Himalayas f Benioff zone earthquake zone is the area of deepening earthquakes 2 Transform Boundaries Plates slide past each other a No new crust is created or destroyed b Transform faults are strikeslip faults i Most join tow segments of an oceanic ridge ii Aid the movement of oceanic crustal material 1 EX San Andreas fault is a transform boundary P 3 Plate Tectonics a Most tectonic activity earthquakes and volcanoes is associated with plate boundaries b Generally no tectonic activity in the middle of plates c Except in rare cases like hot spots and mantle plumes 4 Mantle Plumes and Hot Spots a Mantle plumes narrow columns of hot rock that rise through the mantle i Create active volcanism on earth s surface ii Rare occasion ofvolcano in the middle of a tectonic plate b Hot Spot a point along the mantle plume at which magma is produced i Hot spots in the ocean result in seamounts c Seamount conical undersea mountains that rise 1000 s meters or more above the sea oor i Often aligned in chains Volcanic but are not earthquake prone ii Not associated with mid ocean ridges iii Plates move over hot spots and seamounts become a chain Plume is xed 5 Earthquakes shaking of the ground caused by the sudden release of energy by rocks in the earths surface a Most earthquakes occur at plate boundaries faults b Types of earthquakes 39 Divergent boundaries tension earthquakes shallow Transform boundaries shallow San Andreas Convergent boundaries 1 Shallow intermediate and deep eq due to the benioff zone being pushed deeper into the mantle Intraplate EQ 1 Mid or intra plate quakes occur within the boundaries of the tectonic plates 2 Less than 10 of all eq s 3 New Madrid fault zone a Larges eq recorded in US history occurred feb 7 1812 b Estimated 80 on Richter scale c Lead to the creation of realfoot lake c Causes of earthquakes i Elastic Rebound Theory 1 Stress put on the rocks with no movement strain sudden slip of rock along a fault 2 Stress produces strain 3 Fault breaks and the strain energy is released creates shockwaves vibrations within the earth d Seismic Waves the shock waves caused by the earthquake i Epicenter the point on the Earth s surface directly above the focus ii Focus the place within the Earth where earthquake waves originate iii 2 types ofwaves 1 Body waves pass through the earth s interior a Primary Waves Pwaves compressional the rock vibrates in a direction parallel to the direction of the wave Back and forth Secondary Waves S waves slower transverse waves Up and down 2 Surface waves travel along the Earth s surface a Cause the most earthquake damage b Love waves side to side motion c Rayleigh waves vertical motion iv Seismograph measures seismic waves and records them 1 The record is called the seismogram 2 Waves arrive in particular order a F wave primary wave b S wave secondary wave c Surface waves arrive last but are strongest H i ii39 2 P V Determining the location 1 3 stations required to determine earthquake position vi Measuring EQ 1 Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale measures the intensity by the amount of damage Developed in 1902 by Guiseppe Mercalli 2 Richter scale measure the strength of earthquakes a 2 limit that can be felt by people b 6 is significant c 9 caused the 2004 tsunami d scale is logarithmic i 10fold increase in ground motion a magnitude 6 is 10 times bigger than a magnitude 5 e There is no maximum value Does not adequately estimate the size of very large earthquakes 3 Moment Magnitude Scale measures very large earthquakes a Derived from the amount of displacement that occurs along a fault zone the area of the rupture surface and the shear strength of the faulted rock e Tsunami seismic sea waves produced by a large earthquake with a sub ocean epicenter Associated with convergent boundaries 1 i39 Part of the tsunami races towards land growing larger as it comes in to shore The other part heads across the ocean There is often more than one wave and the first wave is often not the biggest The tsunami can also last for hours 1 1700 in Japan 15ft from an eq that occurred near seatle f Earthquake prediction i We cannot predict when an earthquake will occur ii39 Cha ter 1 Earth Sc ence mm sememne m 2012 4 w s cMelhnd seem sasuenzewhuhmeanswwe vesmmugmheprunessknnwnasmean um Vrob em uuesmn n7 pume Arezansnfcnkeand eansermeeCokemesamemmeyem 2 Vropnseahvpmhesws Cans are mm beverage 5 mfferem 2 Makeapremumnhommehvpmhesws Thevwm behave m eren vmwa A Tesnhehvpmhesws 1quot anesmkSWMaHed a NHwHVpDKhesws R fwsuueedsle bemmesamenwl 5 VeerRewew ex Sueme AMremesemsknnwweugemamasevenmypmbabmworbemgmneu pubhepenepmn a XheDh mehesaazkofknowedgenraguess ramenwmumphsnverevewhaengewzanbe asuemmdalex Lawor GrawKV W Muns wavsapD VOLkham sRamrWemmup enfparswmnnv w Wanhvpmheswzesexp ammedaxaeuuavaeHJheswmp eronewsmme hke v Em aces Pigel Chapter 2 Minerals Moridav September w 2012 s 6PM Minerals I are the buiIding biocks of rocks A Minerais are an ordered arrangement of atoms 39 MineraIsare com sed ofeIements A I i r m B Rocks are aggregates mixtures of mineraIs rocks are buiId out of mineraIsI Compos n and Structure of M erals Elements EIements are the basic buiIding biocks of mineraIs I I i 1 i uu aIILC Morethan 100 are known Atoms SmaIIest particIes ofmatter smaIIest amount ofan eIementI Have aII the characteristics ofan eIement Structure of atoms A NucIeus protons and neutrons Each atom contains a nucIeus surrounded by a cIoud ofeIectrons ParticIes caIIed protons and neutrons form the nucIeus AII atoms ofan eIement have a constant number of protons in the nucIeus B Eiectrons The atomic numberofan eIement equaIsthe numberof its protons Atoms have aII characteristics of an eIement Isotopes and Radioactive Decay oi ai mi N 39 by iheuum uei u 39 nucIeus You can have a different number of neutrons but not protons y uumuei uu39 some are radioactive Insert exampIe of carbon 14 1 NaturaIIy occurring 2 Inorganic 3 Have a specific the micaI composition 4 CrystaIIine possess an orderIy internaI structure of atoms 5 Soiid Why Aren39t All Minerals the same a 39 39 different 39 Different structure I A i u I I c k are both made of pure carbon butthey have different structuresl Exam 1 Notes Page 2 Chapter 2 continued Mineral Groups lvlm i39iay Septernbii 1m 2039 2 8 47 PM m g Elements to Form Minerals Elements combine with each otherto form a wide variety of minerals chemical compoundsl The i 39 will lm iy din i in physical 39 me elements that combined to form it 39 Example Salt gt NaCl which ls sodium and chlorine 39 m and chlorine are poisonous separate but togetherform salt and make it edible eral Is ice a Naturally occurring Ves Inorganic Specific Chemical composition Ves Crystalline Solid Ves Therefore ice is a mineral Crystalline Solids Crystalline solids have atoms ordered in a regular repeating 3D lattice grid layerl Can39t always tell them from the large scale Physical propertiesTopazyes erals RockFor ng gt Afew dozen m I The M erals erals are called the Hi 10xygen0l 55 icon Sil 2Aluminum All 6ronFel 3CalciumCal 7SodiumNal 4PotassiumKl 8MagnesiumMgl gt The most abundant atoms in Earth39s crust are 466 by weightl 277 by weightl RockForming silicates st common mineral group a Account for more than 09 ofEarth39s crust Containthe siliconoxygen tetrahedron Feldspars are the most plentiful group Most silicate minerals crystallize from molten rock as it cools S conOxygen Tetrahedron Building block of most ofthe minerals on earth Si04l Often combines with a metal Four oxygen atoms surrounding a much smaller silicon atom The siliconoxygen tetrahedral and metal join togetherin avariety of ways chains sheets etcl relatively law density it39s lightl Light in color Not magnetic Si04l 39 on or magnesium High density it39s heavyl Dark in color magnetic Fe Mgl Exam 1 Notes Page 3 SiliconOxygen Tetrahedron Monday Seprsmbsi i39 PM gle ate Tetrahedron 2 metai atoms for every siiicon atom a Fe M 2 Si02 Olivine Grou p Si ngie siiicate tetrahedron Green heavy and hard because ofthe high metai content aIn ate One metai for every siiicon atom Dark Pyroxene Group A singie chain siiicate Pyrozene group exampieAugitei Dark and hard because ofthe high metai content Amphibole Group Adoubie chain siiicate Amphiboie Group ex Hornbiendei Simiiarto pyroxenes because are dark and hard because ofthe high metai content t ates Two siiicon atoms for every one metai atom Mica Grou p Fiakey because ofthe sandwich iayers Not heavy or dark as there is iittie metai Fram work cate 3D structure no metai Aii siiicon and oxy e Lightin coior beca n use there is not metai Exampie Quartz white and iight as there is no metai Feldspar Group White and iight coiored as there is no metai The most pientifui group ofsiiicate minerais Exampies Piagiociase Feidspar Potassium Feidspar N ate Minerals ons Do not contain the siiiconoxygen tetrahedra Compose of 8 ofthe Earth39s crust Carbohydrates caicite and doio mite Evaporites haiite and gypsum found in sedimentary rocks Tetrahedra Chains Sheets Framework metai1siiicon Exam 1 Notes Page 4 Potassium Cleavage Properties of Minerals iuesday September 11 2012 3 LL PM Color a bad method 39from impurities or contaminates Corundum is pure aiuminum oxide AiZ 03 A Exampie Rubies are corundum contaminated with chromium i Biue sapphires are corundum contaminated with titanium Luster m he way a minerai surface refiects iight Two main categories metaiiic and nonmetaiiic Metaiiic iuster iuster of poiished metai M 39 39 riiiii earth re innit iikv are waxy Hardness ooks at the scratch resistance of various minerai Mohs scaie of hardness A Fingernaii25 A Giass Piate 55 Streak m the coiorofa minerai s powdered form The minerai is rubbed against an ungiazed porceiain piate to powder it Cgstal Form Ha t um I i i i meyua eroomtogiu y y p39 reguiar geometric shapes caiied crystais describesthe tendency ofa minerai or rockto break aiong preferred pianes of weakness up i I I p preaK iuugu unace irreguiai 39 ineguiai nauuieyorsmooth Specific Gravity Density good method 39 39 39 qmmeueu we we r a H p i Exampie Gaiena has a specific gravity of 7276 so it feeis heavy other Properties Inciude opacity HCL reaction magnetism odor and fiavor HCL Reaction Hm k It Exam 1 Notes Page 5 Chapter 3 Igneous Rocks Manuay septemucr 10 am 5 w my a naturally formed consoldated materal made of one or more types of mneral 4 Example Concrete s not a rock a R ck c cle shows the lnterrelatlonshlps among thethree rocktypes rerfo m d rocks rockthat has formed from cooled magma Two markers of gneous rocks a Physrcaltexture a Chemcal composton Phx al Texture Texture descrlbes the overall appearance o an g shape and arrangement of ts lnterlocklng crysta Two Types of Igneous Rocks r or p u rocks that are cooled from lnSIde the Earth a Cooled slowly so there are rains blg crystals neous rock based on the 5 Is m yawquot o volcanlc formed from lava a materal smlarto magma but as on th surface ofthe Earth Cooled galaHy n a ror water so there are small grans small crystals Also called ample ObSIdlan small gran materals Examples of lntrusIVeExtruslve The Torres peaks are made out of grante an gneous rock ex Torres del Palne Chle Granlte IS coarse grained cause It is lntrusne Hawal s made out of basalt and gneous rock Basalt s flnergralned because t s extrusne lava flows on the surface gt If somethng s coarsergrained you can see the crystals the rock If S nee a mlcroscope to see It lons arrange themselues nto orderly patterns wgt Texture or crystal Slze determned by rate of coolng a Slow rate produces large crystals a Fast rate produces mcroscopc crystals Very fast rate produces glass Two crystal Slzes lndlcates two rates of coolng neral grams and coolng happens so galckythat mnerals do not ance to crystalllze exampl ObSIdlan Vesrcles are cavltles or holes created by dlssolved gases n laua Exnm 1 Nate Pugs s Igneous Rocks Thursday September 13 mt ll so w Chem39strx of gneous Rocks of magma typ of rock forms from t For pretty much all rocks slcate 502 s the ma or component 45 to 75 ave a coarsergralned an lnergralned rock foreach chemlcal composmon slcates Quartz and Eeldspar llght colored Granite or Felsic Rocks Are hlgh n slcates e 70 slcate by welght Low In metal Examples Granlte coarsergralned and Rhyollte flnergralned Basaltic or Ma Are low n slcate about 50 by welght Also referred to as maflc because of magnesmm anderrum Iron Replaced by magnesmm ron and calcium Contaln substantlal darksrlrcate mnerals and calcmmrrlch plagloclase feldspar dark n color hlgh n metal Examples Gabbro coarsergralned and Basalt flnergralned Andesite or lntermedlate Rocks n ate e use they are halfway r 70 by welght e and pyroxene Examples Dlorlte coarsecgralned and AndeSIte flnergralned Ultrama c Roc v o d pyroxene Only form underground only coarsergralned Example Perldotlte coarsergralned Drawmg Exnm 1 Nate Pugs 7 Chapter 35 Sedimentary Rocks wum v mamt Sediments anks emmem cams rmm w saurtes a ram ma Mmeramagmemsr am memama mmherwg a ENgaHued amsaanlex Seaway msuhiancesmssmve Wmema ma irv my rrsgmemsgmeamgemermmmem a Semmemaw rem Larmmxt smaHer gramsarehgmer and can he anedmnher amzhev mm m mundmg39iagxededgesgmwamwazhmarezranwart samemnera saremareresxgammwaamamg a uuam durameandresxgammweahermgsancanwzhstandamwfzrmwan a remspammsnamesmuamwmmawmamanspm mlumsPgex mlumsPgw Sedimentary Rocks WWW 1 1 Yurm nn n1 necrth my mhmcamn mEgeneraherM furthepratesseszha amen semmemmm semmemaw rack sin9 in Hamlinm accurswhentransvanedmmma mmesm reg werhumen yams 5mm dasemgaher yamsmg hs 39gu nelnlilszdlmgnhlv Rm 3 semmemawhrema marse mgmamagmmsmamnyme seawemranm cunnumum marse aundedfrxmems quotam g mam umsandyans Buss an raundedgrams 125fedsvarand angmar yans Nazmucmransvan emematmn m mud and cm amammmmmewem 5 a mg Fmeyanedmcksr m amp mam szdlmzmzrv My mam maena zhm magma w hem whenquot mavrenwzaedm i Wmmamam WWWquot a mum evapameslsmwaer mmmmgr mm 2 m shddmgsmermeer ackmgtwgama m m m wemawmck 1 memewemaeamww 5 5 mm 9 WW Fassmaummng mamemn hmmanema uvanhemeusa mmmmma m mama mm mm mme m mamma hmegane mg up mymmmmmw W argmwwfi man39qu mum mu rmth immu mEfmmlhE Dmvamanafwam ma mm remams Mastcmwwan arefmm ma ml msPgem m Him Pug u Chapter 9 Volcanism Tliili day Karlreinbel H ZHLZ i m PM Volta c Eru t ans av agma that reaches the surface Not all volcanic eruptions are the same Hamiian volcanism isn39t explosive ex quotsmooth ow39 But othervolcanoes are explosive 4 Mt St Helens r May18th 1980 death toll 57 Why are some Volcanoes so Explosive Two factors A Magm k a measure ofhow resistant a uid is to ow A Honeyis about 10000 times more viscous than water leastviscous r flows easilyBasall Ma c most viscous r stickyRhyolite Felsic Factors that Affect Viscosity Temperature hotter magmas are lessviscous Composition silica content a High silic high viscosity ex felsic lava or lluid ex malic lava A owsilic Dissolved Gases a Gas content affects magma mobili A Gases expand near the surface and extrude law A olence ofan eruption is related to howeasilygases escape from m L Pressurized gas explodes oumrd when the magma comes to the surface a n n xplosion luid basaltic lavas are generally inactive Highlyviscous magmas trap gas and produce explosive eruptions o as Exam 1 Notespage 12 Featu res of Volcanoes dav aer tembel 132U12 2 mm 1 Explosive Volcanoes I Need Viscous and gas lled lava a Heated gas becomes explosive a nscous law keeps the gas from escaping I Visco 39 means sticky 4 Lila means runny I Hamquot 4 In the middle ofthe ocean 4 Ocean crust is made out ofbasalt Basaltic Lava A Basaltisma c runnynot explosive I Mt St Helens gt a Mt St Helensisin the Cascade Mountains 39 39 of a volcano r A 6 l l 4 Andesite is intermediate between ma c and felsic This means that itis unpredictable quotW39s 5quot 3quot 393 Materials extruded during an eruption gt Lava ows 77 v a Basaltic lavas are more uid runny Types ofbasaltic aw 4 lava resembles braids in ropes ough jagged blocks maln vent secondary cons 4 lava gt Volcanic Gases Most gas released is water Vupur I Also turban diuxide and other gases a Our atmosphere was builtby ancient volcanoes gt Pyroclastic Materials quot re fragmentsquot I Cause a large number ofvolcano fatalities Volcanoes and Climate Large volcano explosions can add dust into the atmosphere L I liner 0 Pyroclastic flow air with ow t r ofvo tano General Features of Volcanoes Openingat summit crater or caldera t the surface opening connected to the magma chambervia a pipe Exam 1 NotesPage l3 Types of Volca noes Thursday EptEmbEl 23 2D12 El DA PM Sh Id Volcano Broad slightly domed Primarilymade ofbasaltic lluid lava NUEE ardent a Loa in Hawaii a au Generally large size I Constructed of solidi ed lava ows Broad as lowviscositylava malic I TheVre so broad because lava ows far until the ocean Cinder Cone Built from ejectedlaw fragments loose Steep slope angle loose pebbles Frequently occur in groups Not glued together can easily collapse Small ventvolcano made ofpyroclasticfragments Lava comes out of bottom Comgosite Cone or Stratavolcano Most are adjacent to the pacilicocean Mt Helens Rainer Large size explosive volcanoes Rhyolite or Andesite Interrbedded lavas and pyroclastic materia s Mostviolent type ofactivitv Vesuvius most adjacent to Paci c Ocean Alternating layers ofpyroclastic fragments and solidi ed law Lahar 4 often produce nuee ardente Sometimes produce a lahar ery pyroclastic ow made ofhot gases infused with ash French 4 Flows down sides ofa volcano at speeds up to 125 mph a Exampl l uii La Montagne Pelee through St Pierre in mVolcanicmud ow 4 Snow and glaciers can be melted by pyroclastic ow during an eruption a ExampleMNewdo de Ruiz Armero Exam 1 Notes Page 14 Au 1 wamr aman mme mum smzhe amasvhers kmmssa vemwatermfarmcarh Weathering r er mthedestmcnv vmcesszhat hangeracks awe same the pmscaw remwa wrack Luwaw vyer Wersar amer emherlng mm m we mam w Dreakmg mm mm muer pm demmvasesmcksw akerwgzhe merna grunuresaf 3am remavmgar a dmgdemems mankalwealherl Me T A 4x m 5 messed LmNNwswsy Asaver wngratk mvressurexsreeased Yherackexvmdsa rem m racks m m racks a Draduce evahatmn ames waterfreelesmzhe ratksmd Exvams mam EDDHS a tremendaus autwam farce Yew saweakemmesahweam wwwan create afreele andzhHWUde szmmsgrwmriksandmdg hemckavan Dlhervmzzsses 4 Sakheae EktwstasgrwmavenxngsmzhemckandDumaulwams a emgermure change re ar masz rack racks hemlzalwemherlm measpmmamssmwater mammumsmw Ammapaperyeumamw 9 zmsxsachemcawemmn MasWDanmzagemmmemxca mmhenngxsw ter a Watermnlamsmvg n my can he arm a myng schemcaw we a Farmsmsthmno EIXVgEnmmnmmE Add mi way mmmnemm gasesmmeatmasvheremfarm mm AndranhasavHa esszhanSU 3mm mmm DaHuuan am andwmm mam rack m m T9 Hzcua Earhand mam BarnumandmwatermDND QEWmssa vesamematena s 33 macanzemssmve manmcwater mmmmu
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