Human Development I
Human Development I ECE 2350
Popular in Course
Popular in Early Childhood and Family Studies (ECFS)
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vicente Blick on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ECE 2350 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Maryann Remsen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see /class/213140/ece-2350-middle-tennessee-state-university in Early Childhood and Family Studies (ECFS) at Middle Tennessee State University.
Reviews for Human Development I
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/23/15
Human Development I Remsen Chapters 1 and 2 Test Date September 20 Chapter 1 Entering a Child s World A Preview pg 2 The Study of Child Development Then and Now Child Development 7 scienti c study of systematic processes of change and stability in human children itariy Approaches 0 Baby biographies 7 journals kept to record the early development of a single child 0 Charles Darwin rst emphasized the developmental nature of infant behavior work gave baby biographies scienti c respectability ewlupmcnlul PS clmlog iemums 2 science 0 Stanley G Hall 7 published a book which then allowed for adolescence to be considered a separate period of development in the early 20Lh century Slmlyiug the Life pan 0 Child development birth to age 3 is a speci c section in the study of human development conception to death New Froulien 0 Digital technology has allowed scientists to further study development such as facial expressions temperament and basis of language The Study of Child Development and Basic Concepts The process of change and stability that developmental scientists study occur in all domains ofthe self and quot 39 all of 39 quot139 Domains of Fi39vll tl ll lli 0 Physical Development 7 growth of the body and brain sensory capacities motor skills and health 0 Cognitive Development 7 learning attention memory language thinking reasoning and creativity 0 Psychosocial Development 7 emotions personality and social relationships l cIimls uf DH t luplll ll 0 Social Construction 7 a concept or practice that may appear natural and obvious to those who accept it but in reality is an invention of a particular culture of society 0 Adolescence is viewed as pa1t of adulthood in some societies Chippewa Indians In uences on Development 0 Individual Differences 7 characteristics in uences and developmental outcomes that vary based on the child See table 11 on page 10 for Typical Major Developments in the 5 Periods of Child Development Heredity Environment and Maturation o Heredity 7 inbom traits or characteristics inherited from a child s biological parents 0 Environment 7 the world outside the self beginning in the womb and the learning that comes from experience 0 Socialization 7 a child s induction into the value system of the culture 0 Nature vs Nurture o Maturation 7 the unfolding of universal natural sequence of physical changes and behavior patterns onlnh nl Deselullmellit Family 0 Nuclear Family 7 a household unit generally consisting of one or two parents and their children 0 Extended Family 7 a multigenerational kinship network of grandparents aunts uncles cousins etc Culture and RaceEthnicity 0 Culture 7 refers to a society s total way of life including customs traditions laws knowledge and beliefs 0 Ethnic Group 7 consists of people united by a distinctive culture ancestry language or national origin 0 Acculturate 7 adapt by learning the language customs or attitudes needed to get along in the dominant culture while to preserve some of their cultural practices example immigrants in the United States 0 Race 7identif1able biological category 0 Ethnic Gloss 7 overgeneralization that obscures or blurs such variations in ethnicities Socioeconomic Status and Neighborhood 0 Socioeconomic Status SES 7 based on family income and the educational and occupational levels of the adults in the household 0 Risk Factors 7 conditions that increase the likelihood of a negative outcome Historical 1min The time in which people lived for example the Great Depression or Vietnam War Normative and Nnmmnmntm In uences o Normative 7 biological or environmental events that may affect many or most people of society in similar ways 0 Historical Generation 7 a group of people who experience the event at a formative time in their lives 0 Cohort 7 a group of people born at about the same time o Nonnormative 7 in uences are unusual events that have a major impact on individual lives because they disturb the expected life cycle Timing of lll llvllt f fsi rilim m Vusiliw l rrimls o Imprinting 7 instinctive form of learning in which during a critical period in early development a young animals forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees usually the mother Critical Period 7 speci c time when a given even or its absence has a profound specific impact on development Plasticity 7 Modifiability of performance Sensitive Periods 7times in development when a given event or its absence usually has a strong effect on development An Emeroing Consensus 1 All domains of development are interrelated 2 Normal Development includes a wide range of individual differences 3 Children help shape their development and in uence others responses to them Historical and cultural contexts strongly in uence development Early experience is important but children can be remarkably resilient D in 39 quotJ39 J affects J 39 1 throughout the life span 9399 Guidepost Review and Summary 7 Page 20 Chapter 2 7 A Child s World How We Discover It pg23 Basic Theoretical Issues 0 Theory 7 coherent set of logically related concepts that seeks to organize explain and predict data 0 Hypotheses 7 possible explanations for phenomena used to predict the outcome of research Issue I Is Donlupmrnt rtiw ul Runtin Mechanistic Model 0 John Locke s view of development is the mechanistic model 0 Mechanistic Model 7 model that views human development as a series of predictable responses to stimuli lwsm I Is Donlupnwnt rtiw ur Rourtiw OrganismicModel lsnu 2 Is 391 0 Jean Jacques Rousseau was the precursor of the organismic model Organismic Model 7 model that views human development as internally initiated by an active organism and as occurring in a sequence of qualitatively different stages I I lll39 DEM Continuous 7 gradual and incremental Discontinuous 7 abrupt or uneven Quantitative Change 7 change in number or amount such as in height weight or size of vocabulary Qualitative Change 7 change in kind structure or organization such as the change from nonverbal to verbal communication Theoretical Perspectives Five major perspectives underlie much in uential theory and research on different aspects of childhood development 959 7 underpinnings of behavior Psychoanalytic 7 unconscious emotions and drives Learning 7 studies observational behavior Cognitive 7 analyzes thought processes Contextual 7 impact of historical cultural and social context 39 39 Iquot 39I39I y and Iquot n See Table 21 on page 2829 for the Five Perspectives of Human Development Perspective 1 O Sigmund Freud Psychosexual Development PS CIIOIIIHIKI Psychoanalytic Perspective view of human development as being shaped by unconscious forces Believed that people i redirected to make it poss1ble to 11ve in society Three Hypothetical Parts of Personality 7the ID the ego and the superego I ID 7 pleasure principle I Ego 7 reality principle I Superego 7 contains the conscience Proposed that personality forms through unconscious childhood con icts between the inborn urges of the ID and the requirements of civilized life Psychosexual Development 7 in Freudian theory an m 39 39 a of personality development in infancy childhood and adolescence in which gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus and then to the genitals I Oral stage I Anal stage I Phallic stage 0 Oedipus complexpenis envy I Latency stage I Genital stage I Fixation can occur at any stage Erik Erikson Psychosocial Development 0 Modi ed and extended Freud s theory by emphasizing the in uence of society on the developing personality 0 Identity crisis 0 Pioneer in the LifeSpan perspective 0 Psychosocial Development7 in Erikson s i39 7 39 and culturally in uenced process of development of the ego or self I Each stages Taryyill 3 f quot I vquot Perspective 2 Learning 0 Learning Perspective 7 view of human development that holds the changes in behavior result from experience 0 Ivan Pavlov 7 classical conditioning 0 BF Skinner 7 operant conditioning Learning Theory 1 Behaviorism 1 o Behaviorism 7 mechanistic theory describing w u Classical Condltiom39ng 7lea1ning based on association of stimulus that does not ordinarily elicit a particular response with another stimulus that does elicit the response Operant Conditioning 7 learning based on association of behavior with consequences Reinforcement 7 in operant conditioning a process that increases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Punishment 7 in operant condition a process that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated Learning Theory 2 Social Learning Social Cognitive Theory child sees acts intemalizes and acts differently Social Learnin Theo 7 theory that behaviors are also la l i l o Reciprocal Theory 7 Albert Bandura s term for bidirectional forces that affect development g modeling iiu l iliiw Hem is Mm l ilil ig the such as Dad mowing the lawn one s capability to master challenged and achieve goals 39t l Spt Clh r 3 j uguilix 0 Cognitive Perspective 7 perspective that looks at development of mental processes such as thinking Jean Piaget s C ogm39tz39ve Stage Theory 0 Cognitive Stage Theory 7 Piaget s theory that children s cognitive development advances in 39nvolving qualitatively u l l o o Clm1cal Method 7 comb1ned observation with exible questioning to find out how children think 7 1 39 l n and equilibration o 39 39 the creation of mi w a g Ll lmu o Schemes 7 organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations I l o Accommodatio 7 changes in a cognitive structure to include new information Ll l achieved through a accommodation Lev Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory Y Wm M o Zon of Proximal Development ZPD 7 the difference between what a child can do alone and what the child can do with help The Information Processing Approach 0 Information Processing Approach ap roach to the study of cognitive Neo Piagetian Theorists Su est that children develop cognitively by becoming n Pcrspcctiu 4 lulllexluul o Contextual Perspective 7 view of child development that sees the individual as inseparable from the social context 39 Ml Wit 7 American Psychologist o l t 0 Bio cological Theory 7 Brofenbrenner s approach to understanding processes and context of child development that indenti es ve levels of environmental in uence 0 Five Levels of Environmental in uence microsystem mesosystem osystem t O Lu 0 39 one of which does 0 including values Pcrsprcth c a O 1O E L 5 1 539 39 I I quot 7 view of human development that focuses on evolutionary and biological bases of social behavior Evolved Mechanisms 7 behaviors that developed to solve problems in O adapting to earlier environments 0 391 ln 5 1 m1 39 39 quotwe as mym i ii lm that have evolved to increase survival of the species 0 Evolutionary Psychology 7 wiglwmim at I mm pltil39wwi w m and survival of the ttest to human psychology A Shifting Balance 0 Bidirectional 7 people change their world even as it changes them Research Methods age etc My L w 1quot of 1H U39EMLLUW I EXper1ences feelings be11 I Openended l l39 fs etc 7 system of established principles and processes of 39 9 under s quotl i 392 39 239 in such a way that d independent 1mm Mi 7 1 inapopulationJLsL ui llh39 of Data nllvrtinn See Table 24 on page 41 for Major Methods of Data Collection Diaries Visual Techniques Interviews and Questionnaires v 7 log such as what you ate everyday for a week 0 Visual Techniques 7 asking for a drawing or painting from participants t my me ll from one time to another 0 Operational De nition 7 de nition stated solely in terms of the operations or procedures used to produce or measure a phenomenon 0 Cognitive Neuroscience 7 study of links between neural processes and cognitive abilities I Bridges brain mind and behaVior I Uses brain imaging to understand neural pathways 0 MRI and PET Basic Resmrch Designs See Table 25 on page 43 for Basic Research Designs Case Studies 0 such as an individual or family I Flexible I Genie s study of deprived environment Ethnographic Studies 0 i 3w 7 7 w vinyls which uses a combination of methods including participant observation I Describes the pattern of relationships customs beliefs technology arts and traditions of a society I Qualitative or quantitative 39 7 research method in which the M being observed mi ll I Positive negative or no relationship 0 Variables that are related positively increase or decrease together 0 Variables that are negatively related when one decreases as one increases and vice versa 0 Figure 24 on page 44 for Correlation graph Experi m ents O u tl win mw 1 v i i 0 Experimental Group 7 the group receiving the treatmen under study 0 Control Group 7 a group of people similar to those in the experimental group who do not receive the treatment under study 0 i no i 7 m w n groups in sucha way in any group Developmental Research Designs 0 The two most common techniques for studying child development are crosssectional and longitudinal studies Cross Sectional Longitudinal and Sequential Studies o Sequential Study 7 study design that combines crosssectional and longitudinal studies See Table 26 on page 49 for CrossSection Longitudinal and Sequential Research 39nllztlmruth r Remgird o MetaAnalysis 7 statistical analysis of multiple studies 0 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development NICHD 0 National Children s Study Ethics of Research 0 Researchers are expected to be guided by three principles 1 Bene cence 2 Respect for autonomy 3 Justice Right to lnt m39meil nnsmt o Informed consent exists when participants voluntarily agree to be in a study are competent to give consent are aware of the risks as well as the potential bene ts hoidanre of Derrptiun Right to SelfEsteem Right to l rimt y iml Con dentiality Guidepost ReView and Summary 7 Page 52 KNOW FOR TEST Tuesday 920 Will have to compare 2 theorists and how they differ 7 table 21 pg 2829 Piaget discussion in essay Know difference between the 5 perspectives Scienti c Method Research Methods Methods of Data Collection itable 24 pg 41 Research Designs itable 25 pg 43 Review all tables Ethics of Research ReView Chapter 1