Social Psychology Week Four Notes
Social Psychology Week Four Notes 21198
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caspar Snyder on Friday September 19, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 21198 at University at Buffalo taught by Mark Seery in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 95 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/14
Social Psychology Week Four Notes Results and Implications a continuation from the most recent study in the notes 2 Change in number of crashes from baseline mean of 10 trials 0 Rate of crash 0 Low selfesteem no condition differences 0 During betting trial 0 High selfesteem worse after failure feedback throw caution to the wind 0 o More aggressive o Riskier strategy 0 Speed accuracy tradeoff Take home message 0 Ability to regulate selves affected by concerns related to selfesteem 0 Have to do something 0 Best interest to do well 0 Good selfregulation knowing and following own limits 0 Ex Pushing yourself to run a five minute mile instead of your usual six minute mile 0 Selfesteem issues threats can interfere with this Selfpresentation Creating impressions 0 Our default is to make ourselves more likeable Strategic selfpresentation process of convincing others of something about you in order to get something else 0 End goals a job help respect etc 0 Examples 0 Selfpromotion show you are competend I Confident I Not appropriate for ever situation 0 Supplication show you need help I Evoke sympathy Power of selfpresentation Leary et al 1994 Sociometer perspective 0 Social inclusion is our primary motivation Idea We do stupid things in order to be included 0 Risk health for selfpresentation 0 Research done by studying literature Examples 0 Tanning smoking fraternitiessororities not Wearing a helmet o Tanning Why do We do it I Best predictor concem with appearance and others impressions I Irony darker skin attractive yet devalued in our culture ie Slavery and racism I Risks 0 Skin cancer premature aging Wrinkles etc 0 Rates of melanoma has increased in the United States Eating How might it be linked 0 Our culture is focused on thinness In general 0 Bigger issue for men or Women 0 Women I Marketing is directed towards them Study Mori et al 1987 Previous researchtheory 0 Being thin eating lightly are feminine 0 With attractive male present selves in traditional feminine manner 0 Feminine more attractive Hypothesis Women should eat less around attractive men 0 Desirable versus unattractive men or other women 0 Doesn t address sexuality I Heterosexuality 0 Still grown up in the same culture Procedures Men and women Social interaction Manipulations 0 Same or opposite sex confederate 0 High or low desirability o Careful testing to develop perfect person 0 Questionnaire profile seen before interaction I Interests goals attached or not 0 Not attached more desirable 0 Works for friendship and relationships Procedures Fill out questionnaires See partner s responses Prepare 2min monologues to questions 0 Personalities of siblings etc Get acquainted interaction 0 Introduced 0 Experimented leaves bowls of snacks 0 Take turns answering questions Dependent variable 0 Weight of food eaten Results All ate less with oppositesex partner Women ate 6080 less around desirable men 0 Compares to undesirable or other Women Implications 0 Aren t consciously aware 0 Eating disorders 0 Implied presence of a man I Eat less 0 Audience of self presentation can be real or imagined Link to self maintenance Link 0 Less direct 0 In uence environment shape it 0 To make positive feedback more likely or negative feedback less 0 To get What you Want I Beyond changing our interpretation 0 Proactivepreemptive self maintenance I We re anticipating this Attributions Definition determined causes for outcomes 0 Ex Test performance 0 Internal something about you 0 Ability 0 Extemalz something in the situation 0 Luck other people etc blame others Selfhandicapping Definition creating impediments real or perceived to own performance so as to affect attributions for success and failure 0 Why you do Well or not Why would someone do this 0 Provides excuses Doing versus Talking Behavioral actually negatively affects performance 0 Ex Not trying 0 Not trying as hard as you can when auditioning Self report just talk about low performance expectations 0 Ex I haven t been feeling well 0 Study with friends before a test I Claiming a selfhandicap 0 Ex I hardly studied at all for this test 0 Similar benefits less destructive potential 0 Creates comparable excuse for failing I Not tangible Men more likely to do I to do something that actually hurts their performance Alcohol Jones and Berglas 1978 Starting point alcohol consumption a decrease in performance Alcohol consumption a decrease in expectation for performance I For you and others 0 Ex The person next to you Failure is not a surprise I Ex Job interview I Given the impediment how could you do Well 0 Not due to your ability 0 Made it impossible o Unfortunate choice 0 Extemal attribution inherent ability I Ability can change 0 Unstable I Could be a 40 student doesn t matter Success is a surprise I Do well in spite of impediment I What does that say about you 0 Could have done even better o Must be really good o Ex Usain Bolt pulled up at the end of the race and still broke the World record I Internal attribution 0 Stable Benefit regardless of outcome I Still hurts performance I Normally failure hurts o Minimizes pain I Makes you look better Other Ways to selfhandicap I Procrastinating 0 Study night before even though you had an entire Week I Lack of preparation 0 Not putting everything into it I Everyone does this Why is alcohol so appealing I Drinking versus procrastination While trying to Write an essay 0 a1cohol s fault o Procrastination creates anxiety I Obviously not fun 0 Alcohol also decreases anxiety I Takes edge off I Not as Worried about performance I Short lasting 0 Double benefit Selfhandicapping Way to avoid testing self I When afraid of What We might find out about our ability I What if you still fail after trying 0 No excuse I No ability 0 Devastating I Hurts Worse Can we use the same strategy for different reasons Tice 1991 High versus Low SelfEsteem I Idea self handicap when it fits goals 0 High selfesteem goal is to enhance success 0 Low selfesteem goal is to minimize failure I Only on important task 0 When domain is important 0 Academics versus video games with friends Intelligent Test Manipulation failure meaningful versus success meaningful 0 Failure only identifies very poor ability 0 Are you below a threshold 0 Success only identifies exceptional ability 0 Wants to differentiate Worse versus above average Chose music to listen to during the test 0 Music labeled on a scale from highly detracting to highly enhancing Hypothesis Why would anyone choose detracting 0 Behavioral self handicap 0 Thinks it affects attributions for failure and success Two Effects 0 Maintain self esteem when you fall short 0 Low self esteem in particular I Don t want to be a failure 0 Increase in self esteem if you do Well 0 High self esteem in particular I Not expecting to be bad Results Failure meaningful only possible to fail 0 High selfesteem should not care 0 Low selfesteem chose more detracting music Success meaningful only possible to excel 0 High selfesteem chose more detracting music 0 Most important to them Both handicap to fit their goal Stable versus Unstable Lupien Seery Almonte 2010 Compared discrepant and congruent high selfesteem 0 Report high selfesteem on explicit questionnaire 0 Discrepant have low implicit selfesteem o Unintentional automatic maybe unconscious I Measure with reaction time 0 Textbook shows how to do this 0 Discrepant high selfesteem similar to unstable igh selfesteem o Defensive Results same procedure When success meaningful discrepant high selfesteem selfhandicapped more than all others 0 Given defensiveness previously observed 0 enhancing success may actually be fear of not being the best 0 Not sure if they believe in themselves 39 Selfhandicap to avoid showing they are less than exceptional 0 Minimize this particular failure Unstable versus stable is similarly the same thing Implication Actual performance can be less important than its interpretation 0 Interpretation has implications for selfesteem 0 True for important domains Selfmaintenance is a powerful thing Moderation is key 0 lt s not the end of the world 0 Claim all the time and you ll only end up hurting yourself
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