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Health and Wellness HLTH 1530
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessy Emmerich on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HLTH 1530 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Shannon Josey in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/213157/hlth-1530-middle-tennessee-state-university in Health Sciences at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Josey CHAPTER 8REPRODUCTIVE CHOICES Conception Pregnancy Childbirth 8 Contraceptive Choices I Conception Conception refers to the fertilization of on egg by 0 sperm Points to remember One ovo egg is released from one ovory into the Sperm will meet ovo in the follopion tube this is where takes place The fertilized ovo will move through the fallopian tube toward the uterus and implantation will occur in the plush layer of the endometriol lining This journey normally takes about 0 After 0 week of conception the fertilized egg becomes 0 blostocyst The blostocyst begins to form 2 layers The inner layer will become the embno The embryo is the developing child during the 2 months after conception The embryo will sustain nourishment from the endometriol tissue for weeks until the plocentoumbilicol cord hos fully developed Once the umbilical cord is formed it will be the sole provider of nourishment to the embryo This begins and the end of the trimester month beginning of the 2nd trimester the embryo now becomes 0 ill inquot T39 1 SIgns of Pregnancy 0 Ivlissed o amp Swelling 0 Extreme o and 2 Prenatal Care 3 Gestation o FULL TERM pregnancy is overoge months consisting of 3 EMESTERS 4 Labor amp Delivery Lobor begins when hormones change and controctions begin omniotic soc burst and water breaks of and dilation and effocement see chapter 7 notes where defined begins However important to note the pattern of labor con be different for every woman 2 ways to deliver 0 baby i Voginol Birth 2 Cesarean Section C section weellts long 9 III Concetion can be revented b contracetives ll C lll ll l i in it o e H A Types of Contraception3 million unintentional pregnancy stem from tailed contraceptives Choosing a Contraceptive Method Conception con be prevented by contraceptives Half of all pregnoncies approx 3 million ore unintentionol ond ore 0 result in foiled controceptives 7 DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONTRACEPTION Josey IAbstinence only guaranteed method of preventing pregnancy and STI and free 2Coitus Interuptus withdrawal method withdrawing penis from vaginal canal before ejaculation free but frustrating and risky DOES NOT PROTECT FROM STDs amp HIV 3 Fertility Awareness Method rhythm method natural birth control consisting of abstinence during the window of time around ovulation DOES NOT PROTECT FROM STDs amp HIV 4 ways to determine when ovulating can use i or all 4 I Basil Body Temperature 2 Cenical lvl ucus 3 Symptom Thermal 4 Calendar 4 Emergency Contraceptive allta Morning After Pill drug induced menstrual cycle After receiving a negative pregnancy test a prescription will be given The 1 series of pills are and must be taken within hours of intercourse to prevent of egg by sperm The second dose is taken 12 hours to prevent possible implantation Side effects nausea vomiting cramps abdominal pain 5 Sterilization permanent means of birth control by surgical method most popular among married couples Can be performed for male deferens amp female tubal ligation 6 Hormone Based Contraceptives contains female hormones either estrogen or progesterone or both 6 TYPES OF HORMONAL 1 Oral contraceptives A 3 TYPES OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES THE PILL I COMBINATION contains BOTH estrogen prevents ovulation progesterone prevents implantation 98 effective if used correctly and consistently take it some time everyday Combination Pill works by cutting the vas or hysterectomy Minipills are for Women Who are estrogen sensitive or breastfeeding They do not stop ovulation but they do inhibit implantation and alter cervical mucus l Stopping 2 Alter the so that it blocks the passage of the sperm 3 Prevents of the fertilized egg in the uterus gt 2 MINIPILLS CONTAINS PROGESTIN ON LY 96 effective if used correctly and consistently Minipill works by l Alter the cervical mucus so that it blocks the passage of the sperm 2 Prevents implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus 3 Extended Use Pills Examples such as Seasonale and Seasonique Hormonal Contraceptives containing active pills and are taken continuously for 3 4 months ADVANTAGES OF ALL ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES regular menstrual cycle some relief in PIvlS convenient fewer reduces likelihood of endometrial and ovarian cancers Josey N w A 01 O Tra nsdermal Patchthin DISADVANTAGES OF ALL ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES DOES NOT PROTECT FROM STDs amp HIV some side effects such os spotting weight goin nouseo ond vomiting breost tenderness decreosed sex PM quot omoxicillin tetracycline beige potch contoins hormones opplied to skin orm stomoch thigh buttocks chonge once or week except 4th week where no potch is worn ond or light period will occur drive ond hord to ila i i it Ii llquotquottl3 remember to toke n hove to hove prescription Vaginal Contraceptive Ringsoft flexible ring contoining estrogen ond progesterone ond is obout two inches in diometer Ploced in the vogino conol it is left in ploce for three weeks 21 doys ond token out for the remoining week After 7 doys or new ring is inserted Hormones ore octivoted ond releosed by body temperoture Side effects similor to those of birth control pills Injectable Contraceptive in US it is DepoProvera progesterone ONLY shot odministered every 3 months Side effects weight gain 55 lbs per year Implantable Contraceptive lmplanon smoll flexible rod obout size of motchstick thot ONLY contoins progesterone ond con be worn for up to 3 yeors This is inserted by doctor on the inside of upper orm under the skin Intrauterine Device IUD T shoped device thot hos or long string ond is inserted into the uterus through the cervix 2 types now available in the US i PoroGord contoins copper ond con be left in ploce for 12 yeors 2 Iviireno continuously releoses o smoll omount of the hormone progestin ond is effective for five yeors Must be inserted by or doctor ond cost 80 iOO 100 effective Side effects PID cromps bleeding uterine perforotion Barrier Contraceptives works by blocking the sperm from meeting the egg by meons of or physical barrier condoms diophrogm ond cervicol cop or chemical barrier fooms jellies creoms suppositories etc 6 TYPES OF BARRIER CONTRACEPTIVES 1 Male Condom sheoth wore over penis during intercourse Low cost ond 99 effective rote in lob but 85 user effective lowers risk of tronsmission of STIs ond HIV Use condoms only with nonoxynoI 9 There ore 3 types of mole condoms iLotex mode from m surgicol Iotex but protect ogoinst HIV 2 Noturol mode from sheep membrone does not protect from HIV 3 Polyurethone thinner much stronger thon Iotex more heot sensitive more comfortoble thon Iotex Alternotive for ppl who ore Iotex sensitive Advantages cheop convenient protection eosy to use Disadvantages spontoneity ond sensitivity plon oheod con breok or slip during intercourse CONDOMS CANNOT BE USED WITH PRODUCTS CONTAING MINERAL OIL BABY OILI The mineral oil will eat away the latex causing it to dissolve JoseyNFI 0 Chapter 12 SEXUAL HEALTH NOTE The amtomg Future Last page is numbered The numbers 01 the picture correspond with the amtomij Parts wumbevenl on the notes beLow I The Female Reproductive System internal and external A The EXTERNAL GENITALIA include all structures that are outwardly visible often referred to as the VULVA The vulva includes the lMons pubisrfatty tissue covering and protecting the pubic bone 2Labia majorar Outer lips or long folds of skin that covers the vaginal opening 3Labia minorai Inner lips or small folds of skin that lie within the labia majora 4Clitoris7 a small elongated erectile organ The most sexually sensitive structure of the female genital area 5Urethral Opening the opening from which urine is expelled 6Vagnal Openingr structure that accepts the penis and baby exits the body The only canal leading up to the primary internal reproductive organs 7Hymen7 thin connective tissue that covers the vaginal opening 3 types 8Perineum7 area of tissue between the vaginal opening and the anus 9Anus B The INTERNAL GENITALIA include the lOvaries7 two almondisize structures suspended on either side of the fallopian tubes Stores eggs ova releases egg during ovulation and produces female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone 2 Fallopian tubesr oviducts 2 flexible tubes extending from the uterus to the ovaries Serve as canals for ova one egg to travel to become fertilized by a sperm Where fertilization occurs 3Uterusr is the womb Hollow pear shaped muscular organ whose function is to provide a suitable environment for possible implanmtion of fertilized eg and contain the developing fetus for 9 months Has 3 layers aEndometrium7 bMyometriumr cPerimetrium JoseyNFI 0 Female Internal Can t D t 4C ervin is located at the lower end of the uterus It slightly extends into the vagina Sperm enters the uterus through this opening Important structure during childbirth bc of I Effacementi 2 Dilationi 5 Cervical Osr opening to the uterus 6 Vagnal canalr the passageway from the uterus to the outside of the body This passageway allows the menstrual flow to eXit from the uterus during female monthly cycle is the birth canal during childbirth and receives the penis during intercourse Th 1 N 0 U1 b0 9 0 gt O e Female Menstrual Cycle The hypothalamus gland sends a message to the pituitary gland to increase 2 of the 4 hormones responsible for ovulation the follicle stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone a FSH b LH The FSH and LH THEN send a signal to ovaries to start producing the last 2 hormones responsible for ovulation a Estrogen b Progesterone Now that estrogen levels are increased FSH automatically decreases since the egg is mature But LH continues to increase to trigger ovulation then One egg is released from the ovary and into the fallopian tube rthis process is called ovulation Now that the egg is released estrogen levels drops BUT progesterone levels continue to rise In the fallopian tube egg waits patiently for sperm NOTE Egg can live for up to 72 hrsl Ifegg and sperm m meet fertilization then mkes place in the fallopian tubes and conception occurs prregnancy DOES NOT occur estrogen and progesterone levels further drop which then cause Endometrial lining loses nourishment and dies then Endometrial lining is shed then menstruation occurs Scenario Sara normally has a 28day cycle February 9391 Her FIRST day of her menstrual cycle was 1 What day will she ovulate 2 What days will Sara be MOST fertile 3 If she has sex on February 153911 and ejaculation takes place will Sara get pregnant 4 What are the most safe days she can be sexually active III Menopause JoseyNFI 0 IV The Male Reproductive Anatomy internal and external A The EXTERNAL GENITALIA includes two structures 1 Penis7 organ that deposits sperm into the vagina during intercourse3 parts 2 M7 b Coronal ridger c Foreskinr A Circumcision Surgical removal of the foreskin that covers the tip of the penis Occurs in about 60 ofbaby boys in the US For Jewish and Muslim parents it is a religious choice but for most it is a preference The most common benefit is that it prevents the accumulation of oils and secretions 3959 under the foreskin which could cause swelling andor infection V39 Some studies showed that uncircumcised men are at higher risk for STD and urinary tract infections Careful washing ofgenitals and good hygiene can lower risk 2 Scrotumr located beneath the penis Two pouches of skin that enclose the testes B The INTERNAL GENITALIA include 3 Testesi 2 organs located in the scrotum Manufactures sperm and testosterone 4 Epididymi 7 a long coiled tube ft long that lies on top of the testes UI Vas deferensra tube that carries sperm from the epididymis into the urethra 6 Seminal vesiclesr provides storage area while sperm receive nutrients and other fluids that compose semen Joined with the vas deference to form the ejaculatory ducts These are the Male 7 Prostate glandr produces some seminal uid and adds chemicals to semen to help neutralize W1 vaginal fluid The prostrate gland secretes seminal fluid into the urethra during ejaculation Glands 8 Cowper s glandr are twoipeaisized structures on either side ofthe urethra and is connected via tiny duct Responsible for secreting fluid that lubricate urethra and neutralize any remaining uric acid aka urine 0 Urethrar passes through the center of the penis amp carries urine and semen out of the body a Ejaculationr rapid muscle contractions which eXpels seminal fluid out of the penis NOTE The s on this corresponds to the s on your notes Example 3 here see 3 on female intemal a s 39rnwe A Mi 39 I 5kth b remal Female W16 A Ex r la 39 5mm magma Femla 639 5 5 4 3 a lb39v JoseyNF 0 CHAPTER 6REPRODUCTIVE CHOICES Conception Pregnancy Childbirth amp Contraceptive Choices Conception Conception refers to the fertilization ofan egg by a sperm Points to remember One ova egg is released from one ovary into the fallopian tube Sperm will meet ova in the fallopian tube this is where fertilization takes place The fertilized ova will move through the fallopian tube toward the uterus and implantation will occur in the plush layer of the endometrium lining This journey normally takes about a week After a week of conception the fertilized egg becomes a blastocyst The blastocyst begins to form 2 layers The inner layer will become the embryo The embryo is the developing child during the 2 months after conception The embryo will sustain nourishment from the endometrial tissue for 810 weeks until the placentaumbilical cord has fully developed Once the umbilical cord is formed it will be the soul provider of nourishment to the embryo This begins and the end of the 1st trimester At 3r month beginning of the 2quotd trimester the embryo now becomes a fetus 11 DISCUSSION Early signs of Pregnancy Gestation Labor amp Delivery Complications Infertility 1Signs of Pregnancy 2 Prenatal Care 3 Gestation 4 Labor amp Delivery 111 Conception can be prevented by contraceptives A Types of Contraception 3 million unintentional pregnancy stem from failed contraceptives 1Abstinence best way 100 effective cost nothing 2C0itus Interuptus withdrawal of the penis before ejaculation 7585 effective free but frustrating and risky DOES NOT PROTECT FROM STDs amp HIV JoseyNFIU 3Natural Family Planning natural birth control consisting of abstinence during the most fertile phase of the menstrual cycle DOES NOT PROTECT FROM STDs amp HIV free however only 6086 effective 4 variations Basil Bod Temperature measures body s temperature to determine ovulation Cervical M ucus menstrual cycle changes the vagina mucus becomes yellowishwhite sticky clear and thick when most fertile Symptom Thermal combination of Basil Body Temp amp Cervical Mucus Calendar OR Rhythm M ethoal charts menstrual cycle over a year and determines when most fertile 4 Emergency Contraceptive aka Morning After Pilldrug induced menstrual cycle After receiving a negative pregnancy test a prescription will be given The lst series of pills are and must be taken within 72 hours of intercourse to prevent fertilization of egg by sperm The second dose is taken 12 hours to prevent possible implantation Side effectsnausea vomiting cramps abdominal pain 5 Sterilization permanent means of birth control by surgical method most popular among married couples Can be performed for male vasectomy amp female tubal ligation or hysterectomy Over 99 effective 6 Hormone Based Contraceptives 6 Types A Oral contraceptives use synthetic forms of either estrogen or progesterone or both Birth Control pills work by l Inhibit ovulation 2A1ter the cervical mucous so that it blocks the passage of the sperm 3Andor prevent implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterus 1 Two types of oral contraceptives the pill Minipills are for women who are estrogen sensitive or breastfeeding They do not stop ovulation but they do inhibit implantation and alter cervical a Combination 7 does all 3 mentioned above contains both estrogen prevents ovulation and progestin prevents implantation 98 effective if used correctly and consistently gt b Minigills does 1 amp 2 mentioned above Contains progestin only 96 effective if used correctly and consistently Advantages of both regular menstrual cycle some relief in PMS convenient spontaneity fewer ectopic pregnancies reduces likelihood of endometrial and ovarian cancers Disadvantages of both types DOES NOT PROTECT FROM STDs amp HIV some side effects such as spotting weight gain nausea and vomiting breast tenderness decreased sex drive and hard to remember to take WILL LOSE EFFECTIVENESS amoxicillin WITH OTHER MEDICATIONS SUCH AS tetracycline Can be costly without insurance B Depo Provera progesterone shot that last for 3 mths 99 effective cost 35125 Side effects very similar to that of Norplant especially weight gain and amenorrhea C Patch thin beige patch contains hormones applied to skin arm stomach thigh buttocks change once a week except 43911 week where no patch is worn JoseyNFIU D Vaginal Ring soft exible ring about two inches in diameter Placed in the vagina canal it is left in place for three weeks and taken out for the remaining week The ring releases synthetic estrogen and progestin to protect against pregnancy for one month Hormones are activated and released by body temperature Side effects headaches weight gain or loss breakthrough bleeding nausea and breast tenderness E Intrauterine Device IUD T shaped device that has a long string and is inserted into the uterus through the cervix 2 types now available in the US l ParaGard contains copper and can be left in place for 12 years 2 Mirena 7 continuously releases a small amount of the hormone progestin and is effective for five years Must be inserted by a doctor and cost 80100 100 effective Side effects PID cramps bleeding uterine perforation F Implanon progestinonly implant releases hormones that prevent pregnancy for 3 years The actual implant is a thin rod about the size of a matchstick This is inserted under the skin on the inside of the upper arm 7Bar139ier Contraceptives works by blocking the sperm from meeting the egg by means of a physical barrier condoms diaphragm and cervical cap or chemical barrier foams jellies creams suppositories etc 6 TYPES A Male Condomsheath wore over penis during intercourse Low cost and 99 effective rate in lab but 85 user effective lowers risk of transmission of STIs and HIV Use condoms only with nonoxynol9 There are 3 types of male condoms l Latex made from surgical latex but protect against HIV 2 Natural made from sheep membrane does not protect from HIV 3 Polyurethane thinner much stronger than latex more heatsensitive more comfortable than latex Alternative for people who are latex sensitive Advantages cheap convenient protection easy to use Disadvantages spontaneity and sensitivity plan ahead can break or slip during intercourse CANNOT BE USED WITH PRODUCTS CONTAING MINERAL OIL B Female Condom made of polyurethane has two rings and sheath and is inserted into the vagina with a tamponlike applicator Cost about 300 each Advantage is female is in control Disadvantage is they are difficult to insert most do not contain spermicide does not have high rate of risk reduction for STI and HIV as with male condoms C DiaphragIn shallow dome shaped cup with a exible rim It fits securely in the vagina to cover the cervix which prevents passage of sperm during intercourse Disadvantage messy inconvenient must remain inserted 68 hours after intercourse must reapply spermicide if intercourse is repeated increase risk of TSS Advantage protect cervix from infection lacks side effects most contain spermicide fitted by a health care specialist JoseyNFIU D Cervical Cap e g FemCap is a silicone cup shaped like a sailor s hat It ts securely in the vagina to cover the cervix Used by women who cannot use a diaphragm smaller than diaphragm and stays in place longer Disadvantage dif cult to insert may cause TSS has to be left 68 hrs after seX Advantage can be inserted 6 hrs prior Must be removed during menstruation should be tted by a health care specialist Sponge foam sponge that contains nonoxynol9 Inserted into the vagina and ts over cervix to create barrier against sperm Advantagessafe simple and convenient purchase at drugstore without a prescription does not need to be tted by a health care provider Disadvantage may be dif cult for some women to insert or remove can be messy and for some can cause irritation Vaginal spermicides the Ely type of chemical barrier Available in foams jellys creams and suppositories used together with other contraceptive can provide safe and effective birth control Minimal side effects may interfere with spontaneity and some brands and types can be irritating to genitals IV Abortion purposeful medical means of terminating a pregnancy Is not and should not be considered as a method of birth control 15 million abortions performed stem from failed birth control One type of abortion offered A RU 486 aka Abortion Pil steroid hormone that blocks progesterone production which causes the uterine lining to shed As a result patient having a drug induced menstrual cycle eXpels both embryo and endometrium F m Review for Test 3 Covers ALL Class notes covering Chapters 7 8 8 Test is Wedne sda Novem Lif yfm x39rzj Lg 39 be r 16 4113 4 A DON T FORGET A SCAN SHEET AND PENCIL FOR THE TEST My best advice is to study ALL of your notes All anatomy Pregnancy amp Conception and Contraception and the chapters in the text Don t forget to study the labeling sheet that was given in chapter 7 notes We will cover Contraceptives in class Monday s 29 amp 32 There are 54 questions on the exam The test consist of multiple choice true false and matching anatomy picture Remember there were things that we discussed in class that were not in the notes butl ask that you add it so hopefully you took good notes This review sheet will be very general but should still be helpful What is fertilization Where does fertilization occur Embryo implants into which structure of the uterus What is HCG What does HCG do What is Ovulation What happens during ovulation What does FSH do What does LH do What does estrogen do 0 What does progesterone do 1 What day of the cycle does a female normally ovulate if it is a 28 day cycle 12 During the menstrual cycle which layer of the uterus that is shed 13 How many days is a female able to get pregnant 14 How long can the egg survive in the fallopian tubes 15 How long can sperm live in the fallopian tubes 16 What is Ectopic Pregnancy HHWSWNQ FNERENNE 17 KNOW ALL internal and external Female anatomy structures see notes be able to label individual structure and know their functionimportance all on notes and picture is in text 18 KNOW ALL internal and external Male anatomy structures see notes be able to label individual structure and know their functionimportance all on notes and picture is in text 19 What are the male accessory glands Know all 3 and their purpose 20 Circumcision what part is removed 21 Circumcision reduces risk of what 22 What does dilation of the cervix mean 23 What does effacement of the cervix mean 24 Know difference between vaginal delivery and c section 25 What is an Episiotomy 26 Female sterilization aka tubal ligaion what is it and what part is cut 27 Hysterectomy what is it and what part is removed 28 Male sterilization vasectomy what is it and what part is cut 29 What is one medication causes oral contraceptives to lose effectiveness see notes 30 Each of the birth control methods all om notes hormone based pills vaginal ring IUD etc barrier contraceptives condoms diaphragms cervical caps how they work side effects ie antibiotics counteract the effectiveness of birth control pills therefore a backup method must be used when a female is on an antibiotics while taking her birth control pill 31 What is Pelvic In ammatory Disease PID 32 Emergency contraceptive what is it how does it work by what hour must you take it by
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