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Speech and Language Development

by: Tate McGlynn DVM

Speech and Language Development CDIS 3250

Tate McGlynn DVM
GPA 3.73

Melinda Richards

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Melinda Richards
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tate McGlynn DVM on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CDIS 3250 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Melinda Richards in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/213172/cdis-3250-middle-tennessee-state-university in Communication Disorders & Sciences at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
CHAPTER I A Connection of Brains REVIEW the process by which infants acquire language 1 Intro who in here can read minds A What is communication anyway 1 they de ne it 2 List all forms of human communication class on board 3 What three elements MUST be present for communication to take place A transmitter B receiver C message B What is language 1 They de ne it 2 Language V expression 3 more complicated to describe than communication 1 Characteristics A arbitrary B ruleg0Vemed illustrate with Eng Syntax C changeable illustrate with Elizabethan Appalachian 2 Four main features o anguage A phonology B syntax C semantics D pragmatics C Speech the oral expression of language 1 Not interchangeable With quotlanguagequot 2 De ne speech 3 Speech V language A Birds have speech but not language Grey Parrot story B Also MR autistic may haVe ECHOLALIA what is that C Normal in children between 1824 mos I beyond that raises concerns 4 Language V Speech A what children born deaf do Babble normally then stop 7Dakota s Story B what other modes are aVailable to them 5 The Physiological Process of speech A coordination of what processes Describe them as they are named B use book s example of quotSTATISTICSquot to dissect speech act C speech is an 0Verlaid function discuss CHAPTER 2 Language Acquisition A Theoretical Journey 1 Introduction and Overview A Is language inborn or is it learned NATURE V NURTURE 1 Think of some skills for Nature V Nurture debate 2 Linguists language experts have debated in uences of genetics and environment about many subjecs including speech and language development B This chapter is designed to help sort out the theories that have been developed over the past 40 years and to consider how each has contributed to our understanding of how aspects of language emerge II The Behaviorist Approach A Focus is on what is measurable and observable 1 mental constructs internal mechanisms quottouchyfeelyquot not emphasized 2 do not deny their existence but quotwe cannot study what we cannot obsquot 3 viewpoint the environment is critical in shaping child s behavior 4 Imitation is key to acquiring language B Bohannon and WarrenLuebecker 1989 based on Watson 1924 and Skinner 1957 1 Language is not unique among human behaviors it is learned like everything else 2 Language is something we DO not something we HAVE C Controversial aspects of Behaviorist View 1 The child is passive during the process of language learning Bryen 1982 2 The child begins with an quotempty tankquot that others ll 3 Becomes a language user by imitating speech of others not by self discovery or experimentation by reinforcements received from speech models D Operant Conditioning BF Skinner 1957 1 What is an operant top p 19 2 The events that follow target behaviors reinforcers are critical to learning 3 The events that precede the target behaviors Stimulus are important because they can control whether these behaviors will be produced 4 Shaping behavior a occurs in gradual steps until the target behavior is leamed b ex child utterance quotwawaquot gt quotwadaquot gt quotwataquot gt quotwaterquot 5 Chaining a speech behaviors occur in sequences b discriminitive stimulus child s mother looks pretty c followed by commentcomplement d elicits mother39s response quotThank youquot e elicits child39s response to response quotyou re welcomequot E How these views came to be explanations of speech and language behavior 1 child acquires language as a result of selective reinforcement 2 over time the child will stop using productions not reinforced and use those which have been reinforced isn39t this Operant Conditioning 3 words are strung together into sentences from single words gt sentences begins with imitation 4 Staats 1971 proposed a version of imitation awhich held that a child will expand length of utterance based on parent39s expectations b single word level gt 2 and 3word level by expansion of utterance ex F The behaviorists believe that language is DOING or PERFORMING more than KNOWING 1 Skinner argued that all verbal behaviors serve one or 5 specific functions according to what they do a echoic imitation b tact labeling c mand request command d intraverbal no direct connection to what preceeded it e autoclitic two ways this works 1 responses in uenced by speaker and 2 accounts for linking words in sentences G Some behaviorists notably Staats 1971 believe that classical conditioning principles should be included in the explanation of language acquisition 1 compare with Pavlov s dogs 2 Staats39 argument is that a word is a neutral stimulus that acquires meaning only as the response is conditioned eg quotSit H Some of the limitations of Operant Conditioning Principles 1 Do not account adequately for creativity a dominant characteristic 2 Fails to account for the acquisition of meaning in the novel utterance 3 Whatever limitations exist there seems little doubt that learning does explain SOME ASPECTS of language acquisition


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