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First Aid and Safety Education

by: Troy Leuschke

First Aid and Safety Education PHED 3300

Troy Leuschke
GPA 3.72

Keith Vroman

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Keith Vroman
Class Notes
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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Troy Leuschke on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHED 3300 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Keith Vroman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/213177/phed-3300-middle-tennessee-state-university in Physical Education at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Middle Tennessee State University Course Syllabus Spring 2012 Course First Aid amp Safety HLTH PHED 3300 Instructor Keith Vroman Office Phone 8985685 O ice MC 171A Office Hours lVLWml00PM230PM E39nail kvroman tsuedu TR 7 1100AM100PM All othe by Appointment Brief Smonsis and Course Overview an m skills necessary to help sustain life and minimize the consequences of injury or sudden illness until advanced medical care arrives The program also enphasizes prevention of injuries and illness with afocus on pesonal safety and health Goalsobjectives To foster a desire to seve others To enable the student to be ofhelp in an ennegency situation To learn what NOT to do in an ennegency situa ion Cell Phone Use pleasekeepall n L a 1 t c39 1 I II n 139 to the instructor and othaquot studa39lts in the class Class Requirements mu 1 i class activities 39 39 439 p 39 resuscitation 39 t the automated extenal de brillator AED M A 39 39L L uclassw A endance Pong ha i The only for Univesity approved travel or medical condition that requires immediate care 39 39 39 All 39 39 39 39L A absences for cetirication purposes Evaluation Your grade will be based on points earned from six quizzes nal exam two practical exams seven news articles and class participation for a total of 1000 points 6 quizzes plus Final Exam 7 Each is worth 100 points 700 points 2 practical exams Each is worth 50 points 100 points 7 news articles 100 points Class Participation 100 Grading Scale 7 A 90 and above B 8789 B 8386 B 8082 C 7779 C 7376 C 7072 D 6069 F 59 AND BELOW Reguired Text First Aid CPR and AED 63911 Edition 7 AAOS Available through Phillip s Bookstore First Aid and Safety Education Tentative Outline Jan12 7 Class Overview Review of Syllabus Jan 17 Chapter 1 amp 2 7 Background Information Action at an Emergency Jan 19 7 Chapter 3 7 The Human Body Jan 24 Quiz 1 Chapterl 2 amp 3 Jan 26 Chapter 4 amp 5 7 Finding Out What s Wrong CPR Jan 31 7 Chapter 5 amp 6 7 CPR Airway Obstruction AED Feb 2 7 CPR AED Skills Practice Feb 7 7 CPR AED Skills Practice Feb 9 7 CPR AED and Airway Obstruction Practical Exam 1 Feb 14 7 CPR AED and Airway Obstruction Practical Exam 1 Feb 16 7 Quiz 2 Chapters 4 5 amp 6 Feb 21 7 Chapter 7 amp 8 7 Shocld Bleeding Feb 23 7 Chapter 9 amp 10 7 Wounds Bandaging Wounds Feb 28 7 Chapter 11 7 FIRST AID WoundsBandaging and BURNS Skills Mar 1 7 Quiz 3 7 Chapters 7 8 9 10 amp1 1 Mar 6th and 8th Spring Break Mar 13 7 Chapter 12 7 Head and Spinal Injuries Mar 15 7 Chapter 13 7 Chest Abdominal and Pelvic Injuries Mar 20 7 Quiz 4 7 Chapters 12 amp 13 Mar 22 7 Chapter 14 amp 15 7 Bone Joint and Muscle Injuries Extremity Injuries Mar 27 Chapter 16 7 Splinting Extremities Splinting Skills Mar 29 7 Practical exam 2 Apr 3 Practical exam 2 Apr 5 7 Quiz 5 7 Chapters 14 15 amp 16 Apr 10 7 Chapter 17 amp 187 Sudden Illnesses Poisoning Chapter 19 7 Bites and Stings Apr 12 7 Chapter 20 amp 21 7 Cold Related Emergencies Heat Related Emergencies Apr 17 7 Quiz 6 7 Chapters 17 18 amp 19 Apr 19 Skills Makeup Apr 24 7News Articles Due FINAL REVIEW Apr 26 7 Study Day Final Exam Date J in Class C J 39 39 Final Do you have a lottery scholarship To retain Tennessee Education Lottery Scholarship eligibility you must earn a cumulative TELS GPA of 275 after 24 and 48 attempted hours and a cumulative TELS GPA of 30 thereafter You may qualify with a 275 cumulative GPA after 72 attempted hours and subsequent semesters if you are enrolled fulltime and maintain a semester GPA of at least 30 A grade of C D F orl in this class may negatively impact TELS eligibility Dropping a class after 14 days may also impact eligibility if you withdraw from this class and it results in an enrollment status of less than full time you may lose eligibility for your lottery scholarship Lottery recipients are eligible to receive the scholarship for a maximum of five years from the date of initial enrollment or until a bachelor degree is earned For additional Lottery rules please refer to your Lottery Statement of Understanding form review lottery requirements on the web at httpscholarshipswebmtsuedutelsconteligibilityhtm or contact the Financial Aid Office at 8982830 Reasonable Accommodations for Students with Disabilities If you have a disability that may require assistance or accommodations or if you have any questions related to any accommodation for testing note taking reading etc please speak with me as soon as possible You may also contact the Office of Disabled Student Services 8982783 with any questions about such serv1ces First Aid and Safety Education Keith Vroman HLTHPHED 3300 Spring 2012 I have entirely read and completely understand all information contained in the syllabus for the above named course term and instructor By my signature I agree to abide by the policies and procedures it contains I further understand that my failure to do so may affect my grade or delay the posting of it Speci cally I understand the following 0 that I make an explicit pledge that all work submitted shall be original and of my own creation and that any work discovered not to be will severely jeopardize my grade my standing in this course and my standing at Middle Tennessee State University 0 the attendance policy as contained in the syllabus 0 that I am to monitor the course web site and check my email daily for updates andor announcements as this will be a primary means through which the course instructor will be communicating with me from time to time Student S i gnature Date Confirmed Keith Vroman Chapter 2 Action at an Emergency Emergencies Are 0 dangerous 0 unusual and rare 0 different from one another 0 unforeseen urgent Bystander Actions 1 of4 A bystander is a vital link between emergency medical services EMS and the victim Bystander Actions 2 of 4 The bystander must make a series of decisions quickly and reliably Recognize the emergency 0 Decide to help 0 Call 911 if EMS is needed 0 Check the victim 0 Give first aid Bystander Actions 3 of 4 Bystanders are less likely to offer help in public places because they 0 lack knowledge 0 are confused about what is an emergency 0 are influenced by the characteristics of the emergency Bystander Actions 4 of 4 The quality of help provided by bystanders can be inadequate or potentially dangerous 0 Poor decisions can be made 0 Outdated and unproven first aid procedures may be used What Should Be Done What Should Be Done Recognize the Emergency Deciding to Help Recognize a glligreciate the importance of bystander s 39t 3933 Feel con dent enough about helping distance Be willing to take the time to help Put the potential risks of helping in perspective Feel comfortable about taking charge Feel comfortable about seeing or touching a victim who is bleeding is vomiting or appears dead Relationship Time exposed What Sh PU39d 3939 DOW What Should Be Done Decldlng Not to Help Ca 911 if EMS is needed It COUId be harmeI39 Wrong decisions include Helping doesn t matter Delay Obstacles can prevent helping 39 Bypassmg EMS Check the victim Give first aid No other bystanders are helping Seeking Medical Care When Is Immediate Transport Necessary Seeking Medical Care Know When to Call 911 39 CheSt pain laStS 2 Changes in vision Is the Vlctlm s condition life threatening minutes or more Dif culty Speaking Could the condition get worse on the way 39 Umomrmbd New Severe or persistent to the hospital 39 SUdden or 39V Pam vomiting or diarrhea 39 COUgh39ng 0rV0mltlng Change in mental Does the Vlctlm need the skls or blood status equipment of EMS Difficulty breathing Suicidal or homicidal shortness of breath Could the dlstance or traf c conditions fee39mgs SUdden dIZZII leSS o Wounds needlng cause delay weaknessi 0r fainting immediate medical care Is a spinal injury suspected Seeking Medical Care Wounds That Need Immediate Care Bleeding from a cut does not slow during the first minute of steady direct pressure Signs of shock occur Breathing is difficult because of a cut to the neck or chest A deep cut to the abdomen causes moderate to severe pain There is a cut to the eyeba A cut amputates or partially am putates an extremity Call 911 First Many victims should be moved only by trained personnel EMS personnel know what to do and are in radio contact with hospital physicians EMS care can increase a victim s chances of survival and rate of recovery An EMS ambulance can get a victim to the hospital quicker How to Call EMS 1 of3 Most communities dial 911 to receive emergency assistance Emergency numbers are usually listed on the inside front cover of telephone directories AblES ucx How to Call EMS 2 of3 Speak slowly and clearly Give the victim s location Give the phone number you are calling from and your name Describe what happened Give the number of people needing help Describe the victim s condition Do not hang up until instructed to do so How to Call EMS 3 of 3 Important Tips Teach children when and how to use 911 If you called 911 accidentally explain why Do not hang up Add EMS fire and police numbers to a list by your phone Rescuer Reactions It is not unusual to have adverse physical reactions during an emergency First aiders must stay alert and working Desensitization can be effective in eliminating fears and anxieties Posttraumatic stress disorder PTSD is a feeling of emotional letdown Scene Sizeup In 10 seconds look for hazards cause of the injury or iHness number of victims Disease Precautions First aiders must understand the risks of infectious diseases A communicable disease is a disease that can spread from one person to another Standard Precautions Developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC Assume that all victims are infected and can spread an organism that poses a risk from transmission of infectious diseases Handwashing 1 of 2 Wash before and after contact with a victim Use soap and water if possible Rub hands together for 15 to 20 seconds Wash wrists palms backs of hands and fingers Rinse Dry completely with a clean towel Handwashing 2 of 2 Use an alcohol based hand sanitizer if soap and water are not available Apply gel Rub hands together until hands are dry Personal Protective Equipment PPE Provides a barrier between the first aider and victim Exam gloves Most common PPE Should always be worn How to Remove Gloves How to Remove Gloves 1 of 4 2 of 4 Remove the second glove by Partially remove the first glove by pinching at the p39nch39ng the wrist exterior With the partially gloved hand How to Remove Gloves How to Remove Gloves 3 of 4 4 of 4 Pull the second Grasp both glove insideout gloves with your toward the free hand fingertips touching only the clean interior surfaces Other Personal Protective Cleaning Up Equipment Wear heavier gloves than lightweight Mouthtobarrier latex or Why39 devices Use absorbent barriers to soak up blood Recommended and other materials When Clean the area using soap and water administering D f t Eye protection Discard contaminated materials properly Gownsaprons Exposure to Blood or Body Fluids Wash contaminated area with soap and water Report incident to supervisor Contact personal physician Seek medical care if exposure was significant Diseases of Special Concern Bloodborne Diseases Bloodborne diseases are diseases carried by an infected person s blood such as 0 HIV 0 Hepatitis B virus HBV Hepatitis C virus HCV Diseases of Special Concern Airborne Diseases Airborne diseases are transmitted through the air by coughing or sneezing Tuberculosis 0 Severe acute respiratory syndrome SARS Death and Dying 1 of3 To assist a dying Offersimple clear person honest information if asked oAvoid negativity Use a gentle tone oAssure the Victim you Will locate and inform his or use a reassur39ng tOUCh39 her family Indicate that everything AHOW some hope that can be doneto help Do not volunteer W39 be information to others Death and Dying 2 of 3 The grieving process 0 Denial Anger Bargaining 0 Depression 0 Acceptance Death and Dying 3 of 3 To deal with a family member Leave the confirmation of death to a physician Allow survivors to grieve Provide simple honest clear information Offer support and comfort Do not leave an individual survivor alone but respect privacy Use a gentle tone Use a reassuring touch Chapter 3 The Human Body The Human Body First aiders must be familiar with the basic structure and functions of the human body The most important and sensitive organs include Lungs Heart Brain Spinal cord The Respiratory System 1 of 2 Death will result in about 4 to 6 minutes if the body s oxygen supply is cut Oxygen from air is made available to the blood through the respiratory system The Respiratory System 2 of 2 Respiration The Passage of Air Into and Out of the Lungs Mechanics of breathing Inhalation is breathing in Exhalation is breathing out Ventilation is a mechanical process that alternately increases and decreases the size of the chest cavity Respiratory Information Infants and Children Respiratory structures are smaller Easily obstructed ainvays Tongues take up more space in the mouth Trachea is more flexible Primary cause of cardiac arrest is an uncorrected respiratory problem Respiratory Rates Decreases at rest Increases during exercise Controlled by the brain Table 31 Normal Respiration Rate Ranges Signs of Inadequate Breathing A rate outside the normal range Cool or clammy skin that is pale or cyanotic Nasal flaring Respiration When Hard Muscular Work ls Performed Lungs cannot get rid of carbon dioxide Lungs cannot take in oxygen fast enough at the normal rate As carbon dioxide increases respiration increases Heart rate increases The Circulatory System 1 of 2 Blood Heart Blood vessels The Circulatory System 2 of 2 Blood carries nutrients and other products from the digestive tract Blood carries oxygen from the lungs Blood transports wastes Heart 2 of 4 Divided by a wall to create the right and left compartments Compartments are divided into two chambers Atrium above Ventricle below Heart 1 of 4 Pumps blood through the vessels A powerful hollow muscular organ About the size of a man s clenched fist Shaped like a pear Located in the left center of the chest Heart 3 of 4 During each contraction The heart pumps blood high in carbon dioxide and low in oxygen from the right ventricle to the lungs Oxygenrich blood is returned to the left atrium of the heart from the lungs Blood Vessels 1 of 4 Arteries Elastic muscular tubes that carry blood away from the heart Begin at the heart as two large tubes Pulmonary artery Carries blood to the lungs Aorta Carries blood to other parts of the body and divides into capillaries Heart 4 of 4 Left ventricle pushes oxygenrich blood to the rest of the body Right atrium receives oxygenpoor blood Blood Vessels 2 of 4 Capillaries A network of extremely fine vessels Oxygen and nourishment pass out of the bloodstream into the body s cells Cells discharge waste into the bloodstream In the lungs carbon dioxide is released and oxygen is absorbed Blood Vessels 3 of 4 Veins Become larger and larger Form major trunks that empty blood returning from the body into the right atrium Blood returning from the lungs goes into the left atrium Blood Vessels 4 of 4 Pulse Surge of blood that occurs each time the heart contracts Can be felt at any point where an artery lies near the skin surface Blood from a cut artery spurts Blood from a cut vein flows Blood Pressure Blood pressure is a measure of the pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the flexible arteries Locations for Feeling Pulses Carotid artery Femoral artery Radial artery Brachial artery Posterior tibial artery Dorsalis pedis artery Liquid portion Plasma 90 water Carries food materials Carries waste materials Blood Solid portion Red blood cells Give blood its color Carry oxygen White blood cells Defense against infection Platelets Essential for blood clot formation The Nervous System The nervous system is a complex collection of nerve cells neurons that coordinate the work of all parts of the human body and keep the individual in touch with the outside world Hypoperfusion Shock Inadequate circulation of blood through an organ Signs and symptoms include Pale or cyanotic cool clammy skin Rapid pulse Rapid breathing Restlessness anxiety or mental dullness Nausea and vomiting Reduction in total blood volume Low or decreasing blood pressure Subnormal body temperature Neurons Receive stimuli Transmit impulses Produce nerve impulses Cannot be regenerated Central Nervous System The Brain 1 of5 Headquarters of the human nervous system Most highly specialized organ Requires considerable oxygen 4 quot Three main subdivisions X I Cerebrum Cerebellum Brain stem Central Nervous System Central Nervous System Central Nervous System The Brain 2 of 5 The Brain 3 of 5 The Brain 4 of 5 Cerebrum I Divided into two hemispheres cerebellum 39 Bram Stem Controls functions such as sensation Extends from the base of the cerebrum to Located at the back of the cranium skull below the cerebrum Coordinates muscular activity and balance thought and associative memory The occipital lobe is the sight center The temporal lobes direct smell and the foramen magnum Controls breathing and heart rate hearing Central Nervous S stem Central Nervous System S I C d y Central Nervous System The Brain 5 of 5 mm or 1 f2 Spinal Cord 2 of 2 Cerebrospinal fluid ghgommn Of nerve 5337 Some fibers carry impulses in others Similar to blood plasma Exits the brain earW 39mpUISeS aWeY Circulates throughout the brain and spinal throu h the foramen 39 8pm nerVeS at d39fferent IeVeIS regUIate cord magngum actIVIties of various parts of the body Serves as a protective cushion Exchanges food and waste materials Vulnerable to injury Damage is usually irreversible Injury can cause paralysis Thirtyone pairs of spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord Peripheral Nervous System Autonomic Nervous System The Skeletal SyStem Made up of nerves that exit the spinal Controls I g zls ton has cord through an opening in the bony o Heart rate Bones are made of canal Digestion living cells Consists of the sensory and motor Sweating surrounded by hard nerves Other automatic body processes dePOSitS Of caICium If a nerve is seriously damaged the body part will not work Skull 1 of 3 Rests at the top of the spinal column Houses the brain certain glands and the centers of special senses Two parts Brain case cranium Face Skull 2 of3 Blood vessels and nerve trunks pass to and from the brain through openings in the skull Can be fractured Does not give The face extends from the eyebrows the chin to Spinal Column 1 of 2 Consists of irregularly shaped bones called vertebrae Lie on top of each other to form a strong flexible column Bound together by ligaments Can be damaged by disease or injury Skull 3 of3 Panelal hone 39 a rMaxIIla i Frontal bone Sphenoid bone 7 Temporal bone Middle and inlerlor nasal ooncha l l 2 w m V y quot J I r I 39 Tempura P39 bone t 1 quotquot Maxillae quot 1 177 Mandible K 2 r x Spinal Column 2 of 2 Careless handling of an injured person can further injure the cord and possiblythe person o A person with a j u back or neck injury I l must be handled with extreme care 59stst 1 3 Pelvis Formed by two hipbones and the sacrum Muscles help connect pelvic bones trunk thighs and legs Forms the floor of the abdominal cavity Holds the bladder rectum and internal parts of the reproductive organs Thorax Also known as the rib cage Made up of ribs and the sternum Injuries to the thorax can puncture the lungs and heart Lowest portion of the sternum is the xiphoid process Leg Bones 1 of 3 Upper leg thigh Femur Knee Knee joint Patella Leg Bones 2 of 3 Lower leg Tibia Femur av Fibula THIGH l l gt Patella knee cap 7 39 We KNEE Chapter 1 Background Information Why Is First Aid Important It is betterto know first aid and not need it than to need first aid and not know it First aiders do not diagnose Who Needs First Aid 1 of 7 Intentional and unintentional injuries constitute a majorthreat to public health and are referred to as the neglected epidemic Who Needs First Aid 2 of injuries Heated by first aiders Who Needs First Aid 3 of 7 Every year one in four people experiences a nonfatal injury serious enough to need medical care orto restrict activity for at least one day Sportsrelated nonfatal injuries are treated in hospital emergency departments more than any other type of unintentional injury Who Needs First Aid 4 of A delay of as little as 4 minutes when a person s heart stops can mean death Most injuries do not require lifesaving efforts Who Needs First Aid 5 of 7 Value to self Allows one to care for his or her injuries Allows one to direct others in proper care if they are too seriously injured Helps develop safety awareness and promote injury prevention Who Needs First Aid 6 of7 Value to others 0 Allows the trained person to offer proper assistance to family members coworkers acquaintances and strangers Who Needs First Aid 7 of 7 Value in remote areas Some settings demand that people be prepared to give first aid for an extended time Urban areas after a disaster Remote occupations Remote communities Developing countries Extra skills are sometimes required when delivering first aid in remote locations What Is First Aid 1 of3 First aid 0 is the immediate care given to a person who has been injured or is suddenly ill 0 does not take the place of proper medical care What Is First Aid 2 of3 First aid can mean 0 life versus death 0 rapid recovery versus long hospitalization temporary versus permanent disability What Is First Aid 3 of 3 First aid includes treatments that people can give themselves Recognizing a serious medical emergency and knowing how to get help could be crucial in saving a life First Aid Supplies The supplies should be customized to include items used on a regular basis A home first aid kit Personal medications A smaller number of items than a workplace kit First Aid Supplies Items Adhesive strip bandages ll X 3 Triangular bandage muslin 36quot40quot gtlt 36 40 x 52 56quot if X X X auz qa Sterileconl min roller uze 45quotwld Ol g th Waterproof tape ll x 5 yards P us adhesive tape 2 X 5 yd r DP Antibiotic ointmeni individual packets Workplace Kit Tabe13 gamma First Aid Kit Disposable medical exam gloves various sizes 2 pairs Minimum Quantity 20 Dispos n tantcold packs Sealable plastic bags quart size Padded malleable splint SAM Splint 4 X 36quot Emergency blanket Tw eeee rs Hand sanitizer 61 ethyl alcohol 39 a2 aste bag 35 gallon capacr y Mini flashlight and batteries List of local emergency telephone numbers Lu Nmmmmmb 03 a n 397 u 2 AA em eeeee Nixie First Aid and the Law A first aider can be sued but the risk can be minimized Obtain the victim s consent Follow the guidelines in Advanced First Aid CPR and AED Do not exceed your training level Explain any first aid you are about to give Once starting to care for a victim stay with that person Consent Consent is permission that the victim must give before first aid can be given It is unlawful to begin first aid without the victim s consent Touching another person without his or her consent is known as battery Expressed Consent Consent must be obtained from every alert mentally competent person of legalage A nod of the head or verbal indication is acceptable Implied Consent It is assumed or implied that an unresponsive victim would consent to lifesaving interventions An alert victim who does not resist the administrations of a first aider is also assumed to have given implied consent Consent Children and Mentally Incompetent Adults 1 of 2 Consent must be obtained from the parent or legal guardian of a child or mentally incompetent victim First aid should be given based on implied consent when a lifethreatening situation exists and a parent or guardian is not present Consent Children and Mentally Incompetent Adults 2 of 2 A police officer is the only person with the authority to restrain and transport a person against that person s will 0 Only intervene when directed by a police officer or when it is obvious that the victim is about to do something lifethreatening Refusing Help An alert and mentally competent adult can reject help If this happens 0 explain his or her condition to the victim what you intend to do and why it is necessary 0 call 911 0 try again to persuade the victim to accept care 0 make sure you have witnesses of the victim s refusal 0 consider calling the police Abandonment Once you have responded to an emergency you must not leave a victim who needs continuing first aid until another competent and trained person takes responsibility for the victim Negligence Failure to follow the accepted standards of care resulting in further injury to the victim Having a Duty to Act 1 of 3 You do not have to help a stranger unless you have a legal obligation to that person or you were involved in the events that led to the victim s injuries Having a Duty to Act 2 of 3 You have a duty to act if you 0 are designated by your employer as the person responsible for providing first aid to meet Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA requirements and are called to an injury scene 0 are licensed by the state to give emergency care and your state requires you to act regardless of whether you are on or off duty 0 have a preexisting relationship with the victim Having a Duty to Act 3 of 3 Different standards of care apply to different types of rescuers Emergency care related organizations and societies publish recommended first aid procedures Breaching That Duty An Act of Omission An act of omission is the failure to do what a reasonably prudent person with the same or similar training would do in the same or similar circumstances Breaching That Duty An Act of Commission An act of commission is doing something that a reasonably prudent person would not do under the same or similar circumstances Causing Injury and Damages Can include 0 Physical damage 0 Physical pain and suffering 0 Mental anguish 0 Medical expenses 0 Loss of earnings and earning capacity Confidentiality Only discuss information about the victim with those who have a medical need to know The law requires reporting rape abuse and gunshot wounds Good Samaritan Laws 1 of 3 Encourage people to assist others in distress by granting them immunity against lawsuits Good Samaritan Laws 2 of3 Good Samaritan laws protect the rescuer acting during an emergency acting in good faith with good intentions acting without compensation not guilty of malicious misconduct or gross negligence toward the victim Good Samaritan Laws 3 of 3 Good Samaritan laws do not protect first aiders who have caused further injury to a victim protect those who have poorly given first aid protect those who have exceeded the scope of training Injury Prevention 1 of 3 o It is easier to prevent an injury than it is to treat one Effective prevention uses a combination of the 3 Es Injury Prevention 2 of3 Education interventions attempt to change behavior through information Enforcement tries to reduce dangerous behaviors through the enforcement of laws and regulations Engineering interventions require no work on the part of the individual Injury Prevention 3 of 3 Table 14 Examples of Interventions EducationPersuasion EnforcementLaws EngineeringTechnology Swimming lessons Laws requiring seat belt and heir Air bags in cars Gun 55 elv course met use Helmets DVD showing a safety procedure message ohibitlon oi II Childresistant packaqlnq on Pr reworks Laws requiring personal flotation medications and chemicals L j 03 int detectors Building codes and inspections The Haddon Matrix 1 of 2 Strategy for identifying interventions can be applied to any type of illness or injury Preevent phase Interventions that attempt to stop or hinder Event phase Interventions that attempt to modify the consequences Postevent phase Focuses on returning the victim to the fullest of functioning The Haddon Matrix 2 of 2 Table 15 Sample Haddon Matrix Injury Type Preevenl Event Motor vehicle crash Drinking and driving Seal belt use laws Poisoning Labeling oftox ic Packaging poisons products in small nonlethal Drowning Constructing fences Wearing PFDs swimming pools Postevent Rapid EMS response National Poison Control telephone number CPR


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