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Religion and Society

by: Eldora Olson

Religion and Society RS 2030

Eldora Olson
GPA 3.55


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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eldora Olson on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to RS 2030 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Gray-Hildenbrand in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/213190/rs-2030-middle-tennessee-state-university in Religious Studies at Middle Tennessee State University.

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Date Created: 09/23/15
Chapter 1 Laying the Foundation Stone forthe Third Temple Temple Mount Mughrabi Gate the one entrance through which nonMuslims could enter the Mount The nationalreligious Jews organized to pray at Temple Mount an act prohibited by both the Israeli and the Muslim authorities P1 The group planned to lay a large stone at the cornerstone ofthe Third Temple P The 1989 procession did not achieve its aim and was not allowed on the Temple Mount to lay the cornerstones the reaction ofthe Arab authorities and public was severe P1 Fall of 1989 Succot Festival The Arabs who were praying in the Muslim shrines began throwing stones at the Jews trying to conduct their festive P1 To the Jews the Temple Mount is the holiest place on earth the place where God manifested himselfto King David and where two Jewish Temples Solomon s Temple and the Second Temple were located P4 For the Muslims who took over Jerusalem from the Christian Byzantines in 638 the Temple Mount in Jerusalem is regarded a holy Muslim site third only to the mosques of Mecca and Medina in Arabia P5 In uenced by Jewish legends the Muslims also regard the Temple Mount the site where humanity will face the Last Judgment an event that will mark the end ofthe days P5 Christians do not want to control the Temple Mount and are perfectly content to let the Jews fight the battle win it and eventually build the Third Temple to the benefit of the Christian world P7 The Jews Muslims and Christians play their roles in the drama ofthe Temple Mount each guarding their own interest and pursuing their own goal P7 Chapter 2 The Temple Mount Location History and Contemporary Features Where Is The Temple Mount Forthe past 3000 years the Temple Mount has been an integral part ofthe city of Jerusalem P9 The beginning of Canaanite Jerusalem around 1850BCE preceded its conquest by King David of Israel by almost a thousand years P11 Since the twelfth century it has had the form of a lopsided square ofabout 25 acres surrounded by walls about 1 kilometer by 1 kilometer each P12 It has no lost its significance as a locus of intense holiness and a source of contention between nations and religions P13 A Short Historical Background This section provides only a short sketch of the long history ofthe Temple Mount and the city of Jerusalem P13 A scatter of pottery shards dating to the fourth millennium BCE unearthed in archaeological excavations on the eastern slopes of the City of David indicate that people had already found the site hospitable some 6000 years ago P13 The Canaanites established the first walled town in about 1850 BCE as one of several fortified settlements P13 Under Egyptian domination Jerusalem was known as Urusalim The name Jerusalem is thus almost 4000 years old one of the oldest known placenames ofa city that has been continuously occupied since P13 The Canaanite town survived until it fell to King David around 1000BCE P13 David s dynasty continued to rule Judah from its capital city and the Temple continued to function throughout this period conveniently named the First Temple period P13 In 586 BCE the Babylonian army laid a long siege on Jerusalem and eventually captured and destroyed both city and Temple P13 The population of the kingdom was exiled to Babylon where they remained for some fty years and wept when they remembered Zion and the Temple P 14 The Second Tempe Pen39od 538 BCE70 CE The Second Temple period was a time of many changes when the country frequently changed hands between foreign and Jewish rule P 14 In 538 BCE only fifty years after their country was destroyed Cyrus allowed the exiles of Judah to return to their homeland and rebuild their Temple P14 The uneventful period under Persian rule ended in 332 BCE when Alexander the Great conquered the Orient and put an end to the Persian kingdom PM The times of peace Judah enjoyed under the Ptolemaic rulers came to an end when the kingdom fell to the Seleucids P14 Heroic victories on the battle eld ended with the creation of an independent Jewish state ruled by the Hasmonean dynasty P14 The last Hasmonean king was succeeded in 37 CE by Herod who was placed on the throne by his powerful friends in Rome P14 Despite being rejected by the people and their religious authorities Herod gave the country a period of security and prosperity P14 With the death of King Herod in 4 BCE a period ofunrest began in Judah and the Romans appointed governors to rule the country with a rm hand P15 Several charismatic leaders preached against the political and religious situations ofthe country and promised better days to come P15 The most Famous of these was Jesus of the town of Nazareth in the Galilee who traveled around the villages in the vicinity preaching a message of peace and love and performing miracles P 15 During the stormy period the people of Judah where divided between moderates who believed in a peaceful existence under Roman rule despite it harsh measures and zealots who called for a war against the oppressors P15 The Second temple period thus ended with a disaster to the Jewish people who lost both their political and their religious center P15 The Roman Pen39od 70332 CE The 300 years of Roman rule in the country can be divided into two parts P15 The commanders of the conquering Roman legions stationed themselves in what was left of Herod s palace on the western hill while the soldiers were stationed in a camp within the city perhaps near the southwestern corner ofthe Temple Mount P15 In 132 CE the Roman emperor Hadrian decided to build a new pagan city on the site of Jerusalem P15 The Jews who remained in the country after its destruction in 70 CE again rebelled against the Romans P15 For three years Bar Kokhba led his army to victories and even captured Jerusalem P15 The Bar Kokhba Revolt known also as the Second War against the Romans ended with the total demolition of Jewish existence in Judah P15 The Byzantine Pen39od 332638 CE The Roman period in Palestine came to can end through internal changes that occurred in the empire P15 Forthe Eastern or Byzantine Empire a new capital Byzantium was built on the Bosphorus P15 In 332 CE the Byzantine emperor Constantine converted to Christianity and under his orders the entire Byzantine Empire became Christian P16 The Early Muslim Period 6381099 0 At the beginning ofthe seventh century a new religion Islam was born in the town of Mecca in Saudi Arabia P16 o The Muslims adopted the tradition of the holiness of Jerusalem and the temple Mount transferring to it the story ofthe Night Flight of Muhammad from Mecca to a faraway place aIAqsa from where he ascended to heaven to the presence of God P16 o The Muslims built two magnificent edi ces on the Mount the Dome ofthe Rock and the aIAqsa Mosque both standing to this day P16 o The Muslims built two magnificent edi ces on the Mount the Dome ofthe Rock and the aIAqsa Mosque both standing to this day P16 This early Muslim period lasted until 1099 when the Crusaders stormed Jerusalem and returned it to Christian rule P16 The Crusader Period 10991187 c The Crusader period lasted less than a hundred years and during that period Jerusalem was the capital of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem P16 o The Crusaders converted the Dome ofthe Rock on the Temple Mount to a Christian church and handed over the aIAqsa Mosque to the newly created Order of the Knights Templars to serve as their headquarters P16 The Late Muslim Period 11871919 c The next 730 years were a long period of Muslim rule overthe country and over Jerusalem P16 o The period is divided according to the ruling dynasties into Ayyubid 11781250 Mamluk 12501516 and Ottoman periods 15161919 P16 o The growing number of Jewish immigrants to the country and especially to Jerusalem created the need for new residential neighborhoods beyond the con nes of the Old City walls P17 o The Temple Mount is now only a tiny square on the extreme southeastern corner ofthe large city of Jerusalem P17 The Period of the British Mandate 19191948 o In the new worldorder that followed World War Britain one of the victorious countries obtained a mandate over Palestine that lasted for some thirty years P17 o The JewishArab conflicts centered at that time on the Jewish place of prayer at the Western Wall P17 o This period ended with the 1948 war between the contending parties which led to the creation of the State of Israel P17 The Israeli Jordanian and Again Israeli Periods The new State of Israel encompassed only part of Palestine P17 The New City was declared the capital ofthe State of Israel while the Old City and other Arab neighborhoods became part ofthe Jordanian West Bank P17 The future ofthe Temple Mount of Jerusalem and ofthe region as a whole is shrouded in mist P17 The Temple Mount Today The Temple Mount as it is today reflects the last 2000 years of its long history from the time of King Herod until the present P17 The Temple Mount is a large oblong of some 334 acres with a main northsouth axis P17 The shape and dimensions of the Temple Mount were established by the major construction work of King Herod whose architects and builders diverted a stream in the north and the more substantial Tyropeon stream in the southwest to create the planned shape P17 The upper platform is located more or less in the center of the Temple Mount P The lower platform on which the alAqsa Mosque is built surrounds the upper platform and occupies most of the area of the Temple Mount P18 Under the southern lower platform where the Temple Mount was substantially enlarged is an underground level The Upper Platform The upper platform is not located in the center of the Temple Mount but is shifted to the west P18 Eight flights of steps mount the upper platform two from the north two from the south one from the east and three from the west P18 All the flights of steps are surmounted by sets of decorative arches each different Known as The Scales they reflect the Muslim belief that one the Day of Judgment scales will be hung on the arches and the souls of the believers will be weighed to determine who was righteous and will be rewarded and who did evil and will be punished P20 The Rock The focus of this elevated platform is the sacred rock the highest surviving exposed bedrock on the entire Temple Mount P20 It is assumed and generally accepted that Solomon s Temple and then the Second Temple were built on the very rock and on this same rock the Dome of the Rock has been standing for the some thirteen centuries P20 On the north and south sides of the rock are several additional arti cial cuts which again may have been foundation trenches of walls P21 Other cuttings on the northern side of the rock and on the rock itselfare attributed to the Crusaders who built several altars overthe rock and next to it P21 The Muslims believe that this slab covers the entrance to Paradise P21 On the south side is a natural depression in a section ofthe rock that is separate from the main rock and adjacent to it P21 The Crusaders believed that the depression was the footprint of Jesus who stood here when he chased the moneychangers from the Temple P21 The Cave Under the Rock The original size ofthe cave was reduced when a wall was built on its southeastern side P22 The round hole in its ceiling suggests that this cave may have been a typial burial cave cut around 2000 BCE P22 The cave today has an oblong shape and various corners in it are believed to have been places of prayer of important personalities ofthe past the patriarch Abraham the prophet Elijah and other prophets King David and Solomon and Muhammad himself P22 The northwest corner ofthe cave is called the Seat ofthe Angel Gabriel the angel whose task will be to proclaim the end of the days P23 lt seemsthat during the First and Second Temple period the rock was covered by construction and thus was hidden from view and possibly may have been altogether unknown P23 The Dome ofthe Rock This magnificent edifice was built in 69192 by Caliph Abd al Malik ofthe Ummayad dynasty P23 This oldest of all Muslim structures has been preserved intact to this day although its external and internal ornamentation were at times replaced P23 lts plan is most unusual in Muslim architecture and is believed to have derived from earlier Christian prototypes P23 Other Structures on the upper Platform To the east ofthe Dome of theRock is the Dome of the Chain P25 The closest to the northwest honors Fatima the daughter of Muhammad and next to it is the Dome of the Ascent commemorating another place from where Muhammad ascended to heaven p25 lts floor is natural bedrock a fact that gave rise to an alternative theory concerning the location ofthe Jewish Temples P25 It has a very ornate entrance anked by two braided pillars probably taken from some ruined Crusader structure P25 0 Near the flight of steps that ascendsto the upper platform is the marble Summer Minbarpreacher s pulpit surmounted by a dome which marks an openair mosque for the used when there is an overflow of worshippers in the alAqsa Mosque P25 The Lower Platform The al Aqsa Mosque 0 Most of the area ofthe Temple Mount is occupied by the lower platform extending on all sides ofthe upper platform P25 0 This structure is specifically designed for communal prayer and is built in the typical style of such mosques with eight parallel rows of columns that hold the ceiling crating seven aisles between the columns P27 0 This is the oldest mosque in this part of the world and one of the largest and most important P27 0 Built between 705 and 715 on the unstable arti cial Herodian fill it was destroyed many times by earthquakes P27 0 The sections inside the mosque were built in various periods and therefore the building lacks the harmony and unity of the Dome of the Rock P27 0 The mosque has several additions both to the east and to the west of it P27 0 In the east wall of the mosque are the Mosque ofthe Forty and the Chapel of Zechariah both dating to the Crusader period P27 0 In front ofthe main entrance of the alAqsa Mosque stands the Chalice e Kas a fountain that provides water for washing the hands and feet ofthe worshippers who according to Muslim custom are obliged to enterthe mosque clean P28 Other Structures on the Lower Platform 0 The lower platform to the east ofthe AlAqsa Mosque as well as the entire length of its eastern and northeastern sides is empty of structures except for the muchrevered Solomon s Seat P29 0 King Solomon is one ofthe most highly esteemed personalities of the past and many legends are told about him in both Jewish and Muslim folklore P29 0 Built by the Crusaders who named it the Seat of Jesus this is an octagonal bedrockbased structure 0 Other structures in this section of the Mount are the early nineteenth century Dome ofSuleiman and a water fountain named after Sultan Suleiman P29 0 The narrow western side of the lower plaza is rich with structures designed for the comfort ofthe worshippers who enter the Temple Mount from the west P29 0 The Dome of Moses commemorates the prophet revered by Muslims and Jews alike P29 The Gates ofthe Temple Mount Entry to the Temple Mount is only from the north and the west P29 Three gates give access from the north seven from the west P29 Exit of nonMuslims was allowed through the Gate of the Cotton Merchants a highly ornate gate built in the Mamluk period P29 The blocked double Gate of Mercy known to Christians as the Golden Gate is in the east wall of the Temple Mount P29 In its present shape the gate was probably built toward the end ofthe Byzantine period as a triumphal gate to celebrate the victory ofthe emperor Heraclius over the Persians P29 The Underground Level The Temple Mount is studded with underground halls passages and water cisterns all hidden from the eye ofthe visitor P29 The gate was blocked at some point after the Crusader period P29 Solomon s Stables The southern section of the Temple Mount is an addition to the original con guration ofthe Mount the work of King Herod in the first century BCE P29 At present there is in the southeastern section an earth fill some 100 feet high and on it are rows of piers and archesthat hold the surface of the platform P29 The space on the southeastern part of this monumental addition has been known since the Crusader period as Solomon s Stables P30 It is very possible that other similar subterranean spaces exist on the southwestern part ofthe Temple Mount but there is no access to that part P30 The halls of Solomon s Stables now consist of tweleve rows of piers of different lengths P30 The fact that they are in secondary use indicates that the construction dates to a later date perhaps to the Early Muslim period when the entire Temple Mount was reshaped P30 Before recent research and careful examination of the structure it was assumed that in the time of Herod there was a system of piers and arches perhaps on two orthree levels underthe esplanade level P30 The Bordeaux pilgrim who visited Jerusalem in 333 CE attributed these spaces to Solomon s palace and noted especially one chamber roofed with one stone where he believed Solomon wrote his wisdom literature P31 Theodosius a fthcentury CE pilgrim alludes to a convent of virgins in these subterranean spaces who received their food from the walls above them and drew water from cisterns P31 The Crusading Knights Templars who had their headquarters in the aAqsa Mosque which they believed was Solomon s palace used these spaces for their horses P31 The Crusaders opened a gate in the south wall ofthe Temple Mount to facilitate exit and entrance to the Stables from the outside P31 Halfway down these steps is a small room where according to traditions Mary placed Jesus in his cradle after she presented him at the Temple P31 Underground Passage The entrances to the Herodian temple Mount from the south were through long from the south ere through long tunnels that passed under the artificial construction that held the platform P32 The Triple Gate and the Double Gate known together at the Hulda gate Hulda being a prophetess who resided in the late First Temple period in a house nearby P32 The arches that surmount the blooked triple Gate date to a period laterthan their original construction P32 A massive structure built sometimes in the Middle Ages Blocked most of the outer opening ofthe Double Gatep32 The shallow decorated arch that surmounts it dates perhaps to Early Muslim period a time of largescale repair and construction on the Temple Mount P32 A row of stout pillars that hold decorated domes divide the passage in two P32 These passages are well preserved despite the earthquakes that often damaged the mosque above it P34 A massive lintel that can be seen on the southwestern section ofthe west wall of the Temple Mount just to the south of the Western Wall suggests that here was another of the gates that gave access to the Herodian Temple Mount P34 The Mughrabi Gate its original name was most likely the Kiponos Gate but it is now known as Barclay s Gate honoring its discoverer James Barclay P32 Water Cisterns The Temple Mount is studded by thirtyseven water cisterns ofdifferent shapes depths sizes and dates P34 The oldest cisterns may have been cut as early as the Hasmonean period prior to Herod s major modi cation of the temple Mount and were designed to provide water for ritual use in the Temple and for the multitudes of pilgrims who congregated on the Mountp34 The unusual shape of some of the cisterns indicates that they were originally intended for other uses such storage or as secret passages but in time they were converted to their new use of holding water P34 Chapter 5 Legends Beliefs and Aspirations Regarding the Temple Mount The Temple Mount as a Locus of Legends The hill may have been a burial place for a group of seminomadic people who roamed the area around 2000 BCE P113 The notion that the hill may have been a holy site to the prelsraelites is further strengthened by the reference to the threshing floor on the hill which David purchased from Araavna the last Jebusite king of Jerusalem P113 Threshing floors were often also places where the dead were mourned perhaps because agriculture was conceived as a cycle of death burial and revival a cycle manifested in the mythologies of many peoples such as the ancient Egyptians Babylonians and Greeks P113 As time went by and the holiness of the two Jewish Temples became rmly established and even more so after they were destroyed numerous legends and myths were drawn to it increasing its religious significance P113 The need to add traditions of holiness to the holy Mount was especially felt after the destruction of the Second Temple and with it the loss of both the political and the religious independence of the Jewish people P114 Rabbi Joshua said that from the day the Temple was destroyed there has been no day without a curse the dew has not condensed and the flavor has left the fruit P114 The transformation ofthe Jewish people from a proud independent nation into a beaten and scattered group was so dramatic that some means had to be devised to heal and comfort them P114 The destruction ofthe Temple in 70 CE did not crush the spirit of the Jewish people but became the trigger transforming it from a nation centered on a Temple to scattered groups of people whose religious identity was preserved through prayers observance of the Law longings and legends P114 Furthermore the Temple became the locus of crucial events that were supposed to have taken place on it and of eventsthat will take place there in the future P114 This process of magnifying the destroyed Temple Mount and the rock in its center was probably a lengthy one and on the whole it is not known when how or by whom the legends and myths were born P114 Since Judaism is the oldest ofthe three religions that have stake in the Temple Mount many of the legends that were born out of the Jewish need to broaden the sanctity of the place were absorbed by the other two P114 The Christians moved most of the stories and legends from the rock on the Temple Mount to the rock of Golgotha Calvary in the nearby Church of the Holy Sepulcher P114 The Muslims in their turn transferred many of them to their holy Ka ba in faraway Mecca in Arabia P115 Many momentous events from the Creation of the World of the Last Judgment that were originally centered on the Temple Mount dispersed to other holy places and are now believed by the Christians and Muslims to be located in places other than where they were born P115 Jewish Myths and Legends On the Creation of Jewish Legends Relating to the Temple Mount The kernel of the myths relating to the Temple is found already in the prophetic books ofthe Bible P115 Ezekiel s Temple the Temple of the End of Days is very formal and is described in great details with exact measurements Ezekiel 4048 P115 The Temple Scroll sketches the plan of the Temple that should have been built in Jerusalem in place ofthe defiled one that existed in their time P115 After the Destruction ofthe Second Temple and the loss of national sovereignty popular imagination found some comfort for its loss by dwelling on the mythical connections between the Temple and where it stood P115 Although several legends are attributed to specific personalities they may have originated many years before they were written down and were transmitted bally over many generations P116 Some legends are unique quoted only once others appear and reappear in various forms P116 The Jewish legends and myths surrounding the Temple Mount are of a cryptic nature not developed into a mythology ofepic dimensions as for example is Greek mythology P116 The Navel of the Earth and the Foundation Stone The holiest spot on the Temple Mount is a bare rock covered since the seventh century CE by the Muslim Dome of the Rock KubbataSahra P116 ln Jewish lore the naval of the world is the center of holiness a place that connects all three worlds heacven earth and the netherworld p116 This stone of foundation is none other than the sacred rock on the Temple Mount P117 It is a rather materialistic description ofthe event in contrast with the spiritual biblical description according to which the world was created by God s utterance P117 According to one Talmudic opinion it was not only the entire universe that evolved from Even Shetiyya the human race too originated in it P117 Even Shetiyya as an Altar The significance of Even Shetiyya both in the Temples and after their destruction lies in its being an altar P117 The sages seriously debated the question of how exactly the rock functioned as an altar P117 When the Temple was destroyed the rock became exposed P117 According to this view the rock was located not inside the Temple but outside in the courtyard and it was in fact the sacri cial altarthat David on the orders of the prophet gad built on the threshing oor of Aravna the Jebusite and on which he sacri ced to God P117 The Binding of Isaac a momentous event that sealed the bond between Abraham and his seed and God and deeply influenced Jewish thought literature and legend took place on the same primeval altar that was also the navel of the earth giving the event cosmic dimensions P118 Even Shetiyya and Jacob s Dream Another outstanding event involving one of the patriarchs became connected with Even Shetiyya P118 The identification of BeitEl with the Temple Mount was made despite the fact that the location of BeitEl north of Jerusalem is clearly speci ed in the Bible P118 It may be of interest that in a lecture onthe IsraeliArab dispute over the Temple Mount given recently in Jerusalem by a Muslim scholar the lecture insisted that the Jewish temples were never built in Jersusalem but rather in BeilEl P118 In the identification of BeitEl with the bare rock on the Temple Mount the rock acquired an additional cosmic dimension as a link between the celestial and the earthly worlds P118 The stone thus connects the three cosmic realms eath heaven and the nethenNorld P118 Even Shetiyya Tehom and Subterranean Water The connection of Even Shetiyya with the tehomomethenNorld is expressed in other ways as well P118 The rock the navel ofthe earth is thus the entrance to tehom and the rock in fact guards the world from the frightening and threatening nethenNorld and makes sure it is kept in its proper place and does not burst out to destroy the world P118 The stone that tightly seals the opening of tehom and prevents its water from coming up and submerging the earth has another cosmic function of regulating all the waters of the world P119 Its purpose so this suggestion claims was to induce nature to imitate what the celebrants did namely increase the amount of water underthe navel ofthe earth and create an abundant supply of water for the whole world P119 Another legend attributes medicinal properties to the subterranean water that issues from Even Shetiyya P119 The Celestial Temple The sanctity ofthe destroyed terrestrial temple was greatly enhanced by the notion developed mainly afterthe destruction ofthe Second temple that the terrestrial Temple was but a reflection ofa celestial Temple built in heaven right over it P1 19 This celestial Temple is eternal and will remain forever in its place even though its mirror image the terrestrial Temple has been destroyed P119 The notion bestowed upon the earthy Temple a high spiritual dimension an aura that may have been feared removed when the structure was destroyed P119 Only when the gods were satisfied did Anu place these two goddesses on earth and give then to humankind and this is how civilization began P119 A Talmudic story tells that when God told Moses to build the Tabernacle God announced that actually he did not need the Tabernacle for himself because his Temple in heaven had already been built before the world was created P119 The Talmud quotes a discussion between the sagesconcerning the relationship between the two Temples P120 The rock on the summit of the Temple Mount was transformed into the Foundation Stone from which began the whole process of the creation of the world and the formation of humanity P120 It is a place of atonement being at the foundation ofthe altar on which the first humans and then the patriarchs sacrificed and then when the Temple was built over it all the Israelites did the same P120 Legends Relating to the Gate of Mercy The holy rock and the Temple built on it were not the only location on the Temple Mount that drew the creative imagination of the Jews P120 From the west from the Temple Mount esplanade one goes down several steps to enter the gate P120 From the other side ofthe wall outside the city are two blocked entrances which became the focus of many legends since it is not known why and when they were blocked P120 Others identified one of the blocked gates as a gate through which bridegrooms entered the Temple Mount during the Second Temple period and the other as the gate through which mourners enteredp120122 A medieval Jewish legend imposes upon the Gate of Mercy an important role in the End of Days that will precede the coming ofthe nal messiah Messiah been David P122 It is expected that when the messiah comes he will descend on the Mount of Olives and will be preceded by the Prophet Elijah who will blow the horn to proclaim his arrival P122 Jewish tradition claims that the Muslims blocked the Gate of Mercy in order to prevent this entry which will proclaim the End of the Days and furthermore located their cemetery in front of it P122 The expectation that the messiah will descend on the Mount of Olives derives from the prophecy of Zechariah that his feet shall stand in that day upon the mount of Olives which is before Jerusalem on the east and the mount of Olives shall cleave in the midst thereof Zechariah 144 P122 The role Zechariah allotted to the Mount of Olives on the Day of the Lord when the messiah will appear was taken up by the Christian tradition ofthe entry of Jesus into Jerusalem P122 The role of the eastern gate in momentous events was carried over to the Byzantine period when so it is claimed the victorious emperor Heraclius entered the city through the same gate after reclaiming the country from the Persians who had conquered it in 614 CE P122 The Crusaders opened the gates once a year on Palm Sunday and since their days it has never again been opened P122 Christian Myths and Legends The basic attitude of Christianity toward Jerusalem and the Temple Mount is based on Revelations 21 12 And I saw a new heaven and a new earth for the first heaven and the first earth were passed away and there was no more to see And John saw the holy city the New Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven prepared as a bride adorned for her husband And I heard a great voice out of heaven saying Behold the tabernacle of God is with men and he will dwell with themquot P122 There would be no need for a temple since God would dwell in the hearts ofthe people Thus at first Christianity tried to erase any vestiges ofthe holiness of Jerusalem and of the Temple Mount P123 Transference of Legends to the Rock of Golgotha Clvary With time Christianity adopted the notion ofa holy rock but because it strove to detach itself from Judaism and its holy places viewing their destruction as a proof of its own success it transported the sacred rock from the Temple Mount to the hill of Golgotha Calvary P123 A visible crack that runs from the top of the rock downward is believed to have been chiseled by the blood of Jesus on the cross P123 The act of creation of the world and of humanity represented by Adam was transferred to Golgotha and the detail that Adam was also buried there was added P123 The sacrifice of Jesus on the rock transformed the rock into an altar P123 Christian Ston es Relating to the Temple Mount 0 The Temple Mount still preserved some holiness forthe earyl Christians because it was the scene of several events in the life of Jesus of his brother Jacob James and other personalities of his era P123 It is also told that Satan tried to tempt Jesus near the Temple and that Zechariah son of Berachia a contemporary of Jesus was assassinated between the Temple and the altar P124 Studying Religion An Introduction through Cases By Gary Kessler Chapter 1 Thinking about Being a Student of Religion Qualities Worth Having Tlhook Openness Honesty Critical Intelligence Careful observing reading and listening Critical tolerance Why Study Religion NA 0301500 To satisfy a requirement for general or liberal education To discover the important role religion plays in the development of history and culture To develop a global perspective To develop a comparative perspective To have an occasion to reflect on the meaning of the good life To prepare for a career in the field of religious studies and other elds Chapter 2 The Field of Religious Studies Goals and Methods of Religious Studies 1 l A A Description Prototype Typology Interpretation Hermeneutics Comparison Explanation Causal Functional Structural Evaluation Firstorder Secondorder Chapter 3 On Defining Religion Some Possible Biases 1 2 3 4 5 Western ethnocentric bias Value bias Theory bias Gender bias Confusion of spirituality and religion Dimensions of Religion AQNA Intellectual Practical Experiential Social Chapter 4 Sacred Power Different Views of Sacred Power Tlhook Animism ancestors and totems Goddesses and gods Monotheism and deism Dualism divine Pantheism and monism Chapter 5 Sacred Stories Types of Myth 1 Cosmogoniccosmological 2 Etiological 3 Eschatological 4 Lesser endings 5 Death and the afterlife 6 Dine semidivine and demonic beings 7 Heroes and saviors 8 Transformations and incarnations 9 Kings wise people ascetics martyrs and saints Functions of Myths 1 The primary functions of myth are 1 Religious 2 Social 3 Psychological 4 Expressive 5 Ideological 2 Myths accomplish these functions by 1 Providing paradigms 2 Providing justifications 3 Providing ways to overcome conflict Semiotics the study of signs is divided into three parts 1 Pragmatics the study of the way people animals or machines use signs 2 Semantics the study of the meaning of signs 3 Syntax the study of the relations among signs Theories of Myth 1 Rationalistic 2 Functional 3 Symbolic 4 Phenomenological 5 Structural Relationships between Science and Religion 1 Opposition 2 Separation 3 Dialogue 4 Integration Chapter 6 Sacred Action Typology of Rituals 1 Technological rituals 2 Therapeutic and antitherapeutic rituals 3 Ideological rituals 4 Salvation rituals 5 Revitalization rituals Explanations of Sacrifice Exchanges and thanksgiving Substitutions Ways to channel and disguise violence Reneactments of primal events Communication between humans and superhuman Tlhook Functions of Sacred Time and Space 1 Provide spatial and temporal openings to superhuman power 2 Establish spatial and temporal boundaries 3 Orient people in time and space Major Types of Sacred Architecture 1 Shrines memorializing sacred tombs relics and places 2 Temples housing gods and serving as a place of sacrifice 3 Congregational structures providing assembly places Chapter 7 Experiencing the Sacred Types of Religious Experiences 1 Revelational a lndividualor communal b Exemplary or emissary prophets 2 Ecstatic a Possession b Out ofbody Two Types of Buddhist Meditation 1 Cultivation oftranquility right concentration 2 Cultivation of insight right mindfulness Additional Types of Religious Experiences Feelings of absolute dependence finitude Felings of awe or wonder numinous Feelings of unity mystical Feelings of confirmation Feelings of divine presence responsive a Miracles b Salvation 0 Sancti cation Tlhook Stace s Typology of mysticism 1 lntrovertive 2 Extrovertive Zaehner s Typology of Mysticism 1 Nature mysticism 2 Soul or monistic mysticism 3 Theistic mysticism Types of Yoga 1 Raja 2 Bhaskti 3 Karma 4 Jnana Chapter 8 Evil Types of Theodicies 1 Karma theodicies 2 Eschatologicaltheodicies a Thisworldly b OthenNorldly Theodicies of participation Dualistictheodicies Monotheistic or theological theodicies a Recompense b Free will c Soulmaking d Restricting God s power e Denying the existence of evil Antitheodicies a Submission b Protest Tlboo 0 Chapter 9 Religion and Morality Relations between Religion and Morality 1 Religion identifies and legitimates moral norms 2 Religion motivates people to follow moral norms and to renew their moral commitments 3 Religion criticizes some moral norms in the name ofa higher moralitiy Four Sources of Sharia Quran Sunna Analogical reasoning Consensus ofthe community AQNA Basic Confucian Ideas 1 Ren refers to benevolence or acting kindly towards others 2 Sbuand zbongrefer to not doing to others what you do not want done to you and doing what is best for others 3 Li refers to propriety or acting appropriately 4 Xiao refers to familial love and respect 5 Yi refers to doing what is fitting morality Deep Structure of Religious Moral Reasoning 1 Developing a moral point ofview 2 Believing in moral retribution 3 Overcoming moral paralysis and despair Typical Religious Patterns for Dealing with Profanity 1 Avoidance of profanity 2 Purification of profanity 3 Transcending the oppositions of profanitypurity Chapter 10 Organizing the Sacred Five Functional Prerequisites of Groups Recruitment and reproduction Socialization Production of satisfactory levels of goods and services Preservation of order Preservation of a sense of purpose Tlhook Five Dilemmas of lnstitutionalization The dilemma of mixed motivation They symbolic dilemma The dilemma of administrative order The dilemma of delimitation The dilemma of power Tlhook Types ofAuthority 1 Charismatic 2 Traditional 3 Legalrational Three Conditions Influencing the Rise ofWomen s Religion 1 Gender dissonance 2 Focus on women s maternal roles 3 A high degree ofautonomy from men Three Characteristics of Women s Religions 1 Focus on women s issues surrounding the role of being mothers 2 Explicit attention to the issue of patriarchy 3 ln form and content similarto maledominated religions Female Responses to Patriarchal Religions 1 Abandonment 2 Radicaltransformation 3 Reshaping 4 Reframing Chapter 11 Human Existence and Destiny Understanding of Sin Idolatry Rebellion Disobedience Transgression Alienation Fall from divine grace Bondage Selfishness lgnorance OOJNCDU39IAOONA Types of Sin 1 Venialmortal 2 Personalcommunal Christian Atonement Theories 1 Ransom 2 Satisfaction 3 Moral example Paths of Salvation 1 Merit 2 Faith 3 Worship Types of Salvation 1 Limited 2 Absolute


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