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by: Floy Quitzon III

Microbiology BIOL 2230

Floy Quitzon III
GPA 3.63

John Zamora

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John Zamora
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This 43 page Class Notes was uploaded by Floy Quitzon III on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2230 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by John Zamora in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/213208/biol-2230-middle-tennessee-state-university in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Microscope 163 21723 Anton van Leeuwenhoek first person to see bacteria 18401905 Ernst Abbe and Resolution resolution is what defines 1881 Paul Ehrlich and vital stain living cell absorbs starch and dead cells do not 1884 Hans Christian Gram and differential stain separates microorganisms into groups Theory of Spontaneous Generation hypothesis that living organisms can originate from nonliving matter 1668 Francesco Redi and ies with meat 182 21895 Louis Pasteur 0 Found that organisms found in putrefying materials originated from microorganisms present in the air and on the surfaces of the containers that held the materials Cells are constantly being deposited on all objects and that they grow when conditions are favorable o Aseptic technique mechanism of handling equipment so that equipment stars sterile and bacteria that are being used do not become contaminated with other bacteria helps with transferring microbes o Sterilization by heat I Killed all bacteria or other microorganisms in or on objects 0 Swan neck ask countered the idea that boiling affected the air in the sealed ask so that it could no longer support spontaneous generation I Nutrients could be heated to boiling and sterilized but when cooled air was allowed to reenter but bends in the neck presented particulate matter from entering the main body of ask causing contamination Disproved spontaneous generation 0 Created vaccines for rabies anthrax and fowl cholera 18431910 Robert Koch and germ theory of disease proved that a s u ecific microoranism causes a secific disease L wiialu f um imam HIMquot J1 v many chemicals were able to kill the disease but the patient also died Microbial Ph siolo and Genetics with Neurospora sp fungi 1 t 0 took Xrays of mold and found that genes direct the manufacture of proteins that control the basic metabolic functions 0 genes produce enzymes Chapter 2 SiX Kingdoms of living forms Plant Animal Fungi Moneran Protista Archaea o Eukaryote has nucleus containing DNA I Fungimold yeast slime mold I Protista o Algaephotosynthetic o Protozoannot photosynthetic I Animal I Plants 0 Prokaryotic DNA is held in the middle of the cell not in a nucleus I Archaea archaebacteria lt were believed to be the oldest form ofa living thing 0 Methanogenic halophilic thermophilic I MoneranEubacteria o Bacteria bluereen a a and chlamyd1a Microscopy light microscopes 0 Bright field or compound microscope I prokaryotes lack contrast with surrounding media Have to stain bacteria to use J l I Uses UV or blue light and special dyes 0 Phase contrast microscope I Increases the contrast between the cell and the media without stain I Main advantage is in studying living cells 0 Dark field microscope I Greatest contrast between cell and media I Only the outlines of the organisms are seen Electron Microscopes 0 Uses electrons instead of light and requires certain techniques I Transmission Electron Microscopy TEM 0 Thin sectioning shows internal structure Shadow casting Negative staining stains background Freeze etching 0 Sample is frozen rapidly and then fractured along natural planes ofweakness to show its internal structure 0 Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM 0 Shows external morphology chemical composition and crystalline structure Prokaryotic Cell THE PROKA OTE BASIC STRUCTURE FOUR STRUCTURES IN ALL PROKAIYOTES 1 ADDITIONAL STRUCTURES DNA ribosomes and cytoplasm CYTOPLASM Jellylike uid inside cell RIBOSOMES Granular bodies in the cytoplasm that convert genetic information into protein structure CELL WALL Protects and gives shape to the cell PILI Hairlike projections that help cells attach to other surfaces FLAGELLUM Whiplike projections that aids in cellular movement DNA One or more circular loops containing genetic information TEM 10000X Figure 33 wnmls LifeHI Guide To Biology o zmow H Freeman and Company Stalk Budding and appendaged bacten39a Hamemws smaller cells than eukaryotic cell membrane cell wall and cytoplasmic content are common to all bacteria do NOT have membrane containing organelles 5080A thick 1s a r1g1d crosslinked network outside the cell membrane 0 Made of amino acids and sugars Functions 0 provide protection from osmotic lysis o to determine a cells shape rigidity Gram stain physical stain o Gram positive I thick peptidoglycan I lack polysaccharide layer I crosslinking ofpeptidoglycan is by a peptide bridge I have teichoic acids acidic polysaccharides on the outside of the cell wall I treatment with lysozyme yields protoplasts 0 lysozyme dissolves peptidoglycan found in saliva and tears o Gram negative I thin peptidoglycan I composed of 2 layers 0 outer layer lipid lipopolysaccharide and protein D l V o inner layer peptidoglycan 0 direct crosslinking ofpeptidoglycan treatment with lysozyme yields spheroplasts not many peptidoglycan sheets cytoplasm still intact connection between outer layer and peptidoglycan instead of peptidoglycan to cytoplasm Cell Membrane o semipermeable lipoprotein structure located inside the cell wall 0 75 to 100 A in thickness 0 little mechanical strength 0 function permeability barrier 0 Outside o Insggg blue area is hydrophobic o l 7 Hynmpnmc groups 3 ydmphobic 1 mp roups I V g 31 i 339 quot Ml I V 39 W5 quot A k W79 W k i flaw 28le k H l ls Phospholipid I molecule 7 Integral membrane pvoxems Cytoplasmic Content 0 Ribosomes I 60 RNA and 40 protein I Sedimentation rate 70 S 30 S 50 S 0 Has a big subunit and a small subunit because ofhow it oats S Svedbergunitunit ofsedimentation measuredwith centrifuge function protein synthesismake more protein 0 Nucleoid I contains DNA 1 chromosome that is highly folded supercoiled circle I contains CaH and MgH o DNAhas a J charge so Caand Mg allow strands to come oge her Capsule Slime Layer or Glycocalyx o biofilm or protective coating that allows bacteria to grow 0 a gel like structure composed of complex polysaccharides nitrogen containing compounds and polypeptides o varies in thickness density and adherence 0 Function prevent desiccation resist phagocytosis resist bacteriophages I aid in attachment 0 thicksticky capsule 0 thin slimy slimelayer 0 unknown glycocalyx Bacterial Endospores quotspore stain o Resistant to heat drying chemical disinfection stains radiation I Combination of all ofthese are able to kill spores 0 Ca and dipicolinic acid found in spores o Sporulation when conditions become unfavorable I Bacterial cell protects DNA insidebacteria thatholds spores l l l r it o Germinatlon when favorable cond1tlons return I Bacteria pops out of spore and is much bigger and is vegetative Bacterial Flagella 0 Function motility I Move like a propeller clockwise or counterclockwise o Ty u es la all r lilmll ilquotln li l 3ll o 1 agella I Amphitrichous o 2 agella on opposite ends I Lophotrichous 0 Several agella all close together in a clump I Peritrichous 0 Several agella spread evenly throughout bacteria 0 Amphi Lopho and Peritri can go side to side but if they want to go up or down they have to stop and reorient 0 Not all bacteria have agella and those that do have different numbers and different arrangements 0 Helical structure composed of protein agellin o Rotation of hook protein causes motion a Penmahous Tumbe b Polar reversible flagella agella ED Q 5 pushed W 393 V ccw rotation cw rotation l CW rotation Bundled M Polar unidirectional flagella flagella CCW rotation f gt Cell gt l l W Flagella bu dled cw rotation feg gnts Imam CW rotation Bacterial movement 0 ChemotaXis b I Flagellar movement across a chemical gradient 0 PhototaXis d I Flagellar movement across a light gradient 0 Due to light Fimbrae and Pili 0 FL Short straight filamentous protein structures on surface of cell I Solid proteins I Function help organism stick 0 Pili Short straight filamentous hollow protein structure on surface of cell I Purpose allow DNA transfer between bacteria I Viruses can attach an infect through pili Gas vesicle 0 Found in cyanobacteria I Uses sunlight in photosynthesis to produce 02 O U 3 SD D m 7 SJ CD SD m 1 1 s O 1 s 1 CD o Composed only of protein I Doesn t have membranes like other vesicles 0 Very rigid I Able to store gas because of this 0 2 proteins I vaA pleasted sheet folded 0 Can stretch and contract 0 Size of gas vesicle is dependent on this protein G C perpendicular to vaA 0 nuclear or cytoplasmic aggregates of stainable substances usually proteins I typically represent sites of viral multiplication in a bacterium or a eukaryotic cell I usually consist of viral capsid proteins I Not all bacteria have them 0 PolyBhydroxybutyric acid PlIE 0 Can be converted into plastic 0 Glyco gen starch 0 P01 hosphate o Magnetosomes Eukaryotic Cell 0 Structurally more compleX than prokaryote I Membrane containing organelles mitochondria nucleus golgi apparatus o Ribosomes make proteins I Sedimentation rate 80S o 60S 40S I slightly bigger than ribosomes in prokaryotes composed of two parts or subunits made ofprotein and RNAwhose major function is protein synthesis 0 cell membrane contains sterols cholesterols for mechanical strength polyene antibiotics bind to stero s transport proteins and regulation 0 lets some chemicals in and some out 0 receptor proteins and communication 0 recognition proteins and identi cation as different cells from each other because ofthese proteins 39ek rrscenwar wroumiaw fsbog rimah primalquot febepidr pr okein39 nding phasphullpldblla r 0 Cell structure 0 Mitochondria Has cytoskeleton not found in bacteria ofprotein fibers 1 Microfilaments and 2 Microtubules 0 Functions ofthe fibers 0 cel shape 0 cell movement 0 organelle movement 0 cell division me size as bacteria Membrane 5 lack sterols Contain own DNA circular and supercoiled Contain own ribosomes 705 Inner membrane Oulsr membrane Function roduction of ATP Chloroplasts O 0 00000 O Membranes lack sterols Contain green pigment chlorophyll I Absorbs sunlight amp converts solar energy into electrical energy Contain own DNA circular and supercoiled Contain own ribosomes 70 S Function production of glucose Lumen of the chloroplast is called the Stroma Stroma contains large amounts 0 quot I RubisCO is key enzyme inCaIvin cycle photosynthesis Relation to bacteria I It was suggested that chloroplasts and mitochondria are descendants of ancient prokaryotic cells rimar end 39 39 I Several lines of evidence support this i V W o Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain DNA Eukaryotic nuclei contain genes derived from bacteria Mitochondria and chloroplasts contain their own ribosomes Antibiotic specificity Molecular phylogeny ENDOSYMBIOSIS ANCESTIAL UKAIYOTI 0 0 INGSTIAI PIOKAIVO pro cient at convening food and oxygen into energy INVAGINATION ANCESTIAL EUKAIYOT Plasma membrane ff Antestra eukaryote engulfs prokaryote Plasma membrane folds in on Itself Ancestral eukaryote Inner compartments and prakaryote merge organelles are formed 9 Mitochondriaquot Overtime the engulfed prokaryote evolves into an organelle such as a mitochondrion or a chloroplast q Olganelles may have developed by endosymbiosls or lnvaginotion or a combination of the two long not manyand Ciliashort usually tons together 0 Cilia and agella are protein microtubule extensions of the plasma membrane I 1 Aid in movement of simple organisms 9 tubules on outside 2 tubules in center central microtubules basal body bottom of agellacilia doublets 2 tubules connected to make each of the 9 tubules center has two single tubules not connected Nucleus o v 4 r H ar envelope Membrane bou mmr ribosomes DNA in chromosomes DNA and proteins More than one chromosome per cell and different sizes 0 Nuclear pores proteins and rRNA can go through the nucleus but DNA cannot leave nucleus 7 rough endoplasmic reticulum 10 3 smooth endoplasmic reticulum O Golgi Apparatus membranous sacs associated with ER a Processing and transport of proteins lipids b Synthesis and transport of polysaccharides vesicles complex 11 THE ENDOMEMBRANE SYSTEM AT WORK Smooth ER Rough ER 1 0 Transport vesicle buds from the quot l smooth or rough ER 9 Transport vesicle fuses with Golgi O O 39 O t du t ts I I Zips us mpmg con en 0 Golgi apparatus modi es the molecules as they move through Transport its successive chambers veside o 7 Transport 39 Modi ed molecules bud off from the Golgi apparatus as a transport Golgi vesicle 5Q apparatus 9 Vesicle may fuse with the plasma Tl aI ISPOYt membrane dumping contents cle outside the cell for delivery elsewhere in the organism Lysosomes are Golgiderived vesicles containing digestive enzymes I Used to digest bacteria I Used to digest worn out cell parts 0 Ex mitochondria not working gt call parts used for something else 0 Causes the breakdown of the cell wall by cleaving the two amino sugars in the glycan layer of the peptidoglycan Cell Division 0 Mitosis exact identity and number of chromosomesretained I asexual reproduction for unicellular organisms growth and maintenance and repair multicellular organisms o Meiosishalf number of chromosomes retained I is used for sexual reproduction I A reductional division resulting in haploid cells I Involves two sequential divisions resulting in four cells I Produces cells that are genetically different Chapter 17 Diversity of Eukaryotic Organisms Uses 185 rRNA genes for phylogeny of eukaryotes Relationship of 18S rRNA genes is much less strong for eukaryotes than 165 rRNA genes are for prokaryotes Phylogenies have been constructed using other genes ie tubulin RNA polymerase and ATPase 12 Algae New insights have arisen because of these new phylogenies ie fungi and animals are closely related Eukaryotic molecular phylogeny is still being refined Photosynthetic eukaryotic microorganisms Diverse morphology unicellular to colonial 0 Can be motile Simplest unicellular 0 Example Chlamydomonas sp Aggregate attached together coenobium Embedded in mucilage tetrasporal o Sticky sugary material used as glue but is able to be removed Colony 0 Some cells do certain things like help with photosynthesis Green Algae Red Algae Fungi ChlorophytaChloroghytes 0 Key genera Chlamydomonas sp Volvox sp Chlorella sp Closely related to plants Most green algae inhabit freshwater but some are marine or terrestrial Can be unicellular to multicellular Have sexual and asexual reproduction Endoll39thl39c algae grow inside porous rocks OOOOO Rhodophyta rh0d0ghytes Key genera Cyanidioschyzon Polysiphonia Galdieria o Cyanidioschyzon merolae are unusually small 1 2 pm in diameter 0 Ponsiphonia a Marine Red Algae o Galdieria a Red Alga Mostly marine but some freshwater and terrestrial Red color is from ghycoe thrin an accessory pigment other than chlorophyll o Absorbs more light than green algae General terms 0 yeast unicellular fungi o hyphae mass of branching filaments o mycelium whole mass of hyphae septate hyphae have visible crosswalls 0 non septate hyphae have NO crosswalls Two forms of division sexual and asexual classification was based on the sexual cycle 0 Chytridiomycetes quotChytridsquot I Example Butrachochytrium sp I Infects amphibians O 13 I Nonseptate I Oldest most primative fungi I Coenocytic hyphae I Asexual reproduction with zoospores o Glomeromycetes small group I Example Geosiph0n pyrl39forml39s I nonseptate I Coenocytic hyphae I Dependant on symbiosis with land plants 0 Plants grow better because it helps create more surface area for the plant to absorb nutrients I Asexual reproduction to make glomerospores o Zygomycetes bread molds I Example Rhizopus 5p non septate hyphae I nonseptate I Reproduce from asexual spores ltmost common 0 Sporangiospores o Sporangium holds spores and then pops open I Reproduce from sexual spores o Zygospores 0 Yeast I Unicellular fungi o Saccharomyces cerevisiae o Candida albicuns Looklike cocci septate Asexual reproduction budding of yeast Blastospore Ascomycetes sac fungi septate o Mold and yeast 0 Examples Neurospora crassa Marchella esculen ta makes morels septate hyphae asexual reproduction common 0 conidiospores in conidiophore 0 sexual reproduction with spores o ascospores in asci in ascogonia I Basidiomycetes Wood Rotters club fungi o septate o Mold and yeast 0 Examples Agarl39cus campestrl39s Amanitasp poisonous o septate hyphae o asexual reproduction rare 0 conidiospores 0 sexual reproduction common 14 o basidiospores O I Deuteromycetes fungi imperfecti o No known sexual cycle 0 Mold and yeast 0 Examples Histoplasma capsulatum Septate hyphae Most Human pathogens Biphasic or dimorphic o Fungal phase and yeast phase Protozoans Classification was based on motility o Diplomonads and Parabasalids agellates o Euglenozoans agellates Alveolates ciliates agellates apicomplexans Stramenopiles water molds diatoms and golden algae Cercozoans and Radiolarians threadlike pseudopodia Amoebozoa Amoeboid movement Some protozoa produce cysts 0 Protect against the environment 0 Reproductive function 0 Means of transfer from one host to another Parabasalids o Trichomonas vaginalis D 0000 0 Contain a garabasal bad 0 Lack mitochondria but have I m M lack cristae and citric acid cycle enzymes for anaerobic metabolism 0 Genomes lack introns Diplomonads o Giardl39a intestinall39s Giardl39a Iamblia I Cause of Giardl39asis a common waterborne disease 0 Have two nuclei of equal size 0 Have mitosomes Euglenozoans Unicellular agellated eukaryotes Have a crystalline rod in their agella Kinetoglastids o Trypanosama brucel39 gum biense I Causes African sleeping sickness o Named for the presence of the kinetoglast a mass of DNA present in their single large mitochondrion 0 Live primarily in aquatic habitats feeding on bacteria 15 Euglenids o Euglena 5p 0 Nonpathogenic and phototrophic 0 Contain chloroplasts can exist as heterotrophs 0 Can feed on bacteria by yhagocytosmconsumes things Alveolates characterized by presence of alveoll39 which are sacs underneath the cytoplasmic membrane Members are ciliates dino agellates and apicomplexans o Cilliates organisms with cilia I Paramecium 5p Balantl39dl39um coli 0 Dino agellates llave two agella with different insertion points on the cell I P esterl39a piscicidalt red tide o Agicom glexans Obligate parasites of animals Apicomplexans Sporozoan Non motile parasitic o Plasmodium 5p Malaria o TOX0plasma gondii Toxoplasmosis 12 population has it o Eimerl39a 5p Coccidiosis o Cryptosporidium 5p I Disease 0 Cryptosporidiosisasis 0 Mostly asymptomatic mild diarrhea stomach ache abdominal tenderness I Etiology o Oocysts of Cryptosporidium I Epidemiology o Transmitted by oocysts to food and water 0 Found in intestinal tract of man and other mammals I Control 0 Proper hygiene 0 Municipal sanitation Strameopiles Oomycetes diatoms golden algae and brown algae Oomycetes 0 water molds based on their filamentous growth and the presence of coenocytic hyphae Diatoms 0 Over 100000 species of diatoms o Freshwater and marine habitats 0 Cell walls are made of silica and are called rustules Golden algae o Chrysophyta Ch SOQhZfeSl 16 Microbiology Exam 2 Protozoan Some protozoa produce cysts 0 Protect against the environment 0 Reproductive function 0 Means of transfer from one host to another Cercozoans Threadlike pseudopodia Include the chlorarachniophytes and foraminifera o Chlorarachniophytes Phototrophic amoebalike organism that ahs a agellum for dispersal I o Foraminifera I Exclusively marine organisms I Form shelllike structures called tests Tests are made from organic materials reinforced with calcium O carbonate 0 White Cliffs od Dover are formed from fossilized foraminifera tests Radiolarians Mostly marine heterotrophic organisms Tests made of silica Named after the radial symmetry of tests Amoebozoa Use pseudopodia for movement and feeding Gymnamoebas entamoebas and slime molds o Gymnamoebas free living inhabit soil and aquatic environments 0 Entamoabas parasites of vertebrates and invertebrates I En tamoeba hystolytl39ca o Amoebic d sentery 0 Form Transmitted by animal waste irrigation O o Smile Molds I Plasmodial 0 Several sha es and forms Cellul Myxamoe Ps Sara mama quot3 n carp When food is eudoplasm eventu Dictyasteliu m discaideu m Phy km39mn Life Cycle mm lasrm mm mm in fun Vanna muma news mmm r mm mm 3 Spurs n baramueboid plentiful slugrlike mass 0 any produces spur dium Key mold my 39 mm 2 fceHs with slime trail 0 Cells lnspova Nucleus can lorm sporesi 39 A M a o39 q o Spavels o mom 0 Amcaha released germinate veprnduces 110m spore Q Stall 9 J 1 mm Myroduo nn kckMPV MRMF Vb Ms m a Amunbaa L move Inward i l l uAMP signal cAMP elven 0 by 0 Flulllngbudywllh aneamoaha 9pm cap terms o Slug slaps mlgvallng and beylna inform mlk lndlilerenllauan stage 0 0 o Sheath mm In cranla 06 0 migrullon sings slug you 05mm 0 Aseptic Technique procedures that avoid contact with contaminating microbes Media and Laboratory Culture Culture media nutrient solutions used to grow microbes in the laboratory 0 39 dia precise chemical composition is known M composed of digests of chemically undefined substances ex Yeast and meat extracts Media 0 Liquid or semisolid or solid I Semisolid or solid media contain agar or gelatin 0 Enriched Media contains complex media and additional nutrients 0 Differential Media separates bacteria into groups Ex irit Blue Agar Starch Agar Skim Milk Agar inhibits the growth of bacteria I Ex Asparagine Agar Phenyl Ethyl Alcohol Agar PEA and Asparagine o Selective and Differential Agar Ex Salmonella Shigella Agar MacConkey Agar Mannitol Salts Agar l Total Energy remains constant in a closed system Energy cannot be created or destroyed Second law of thermodynamics In an isolated system any change causes the quantity ofuseful energy to decrease Organization of matter and energy 0 Useful energy is more orderedcomplex chemically o Entropy increase in randomness and disorder 0 The more complex big the chemical the more energy that is stored in it removal of water to combine two molecules ater to break apart molecules reactants have lots of stored energy and then release energy leaving products with little amount of stored energy Provides the energy to drive endergonic reactions Endergonic reaction energy is added to low energy reactants to create products with more energy than the original reactants ATP and e carrier molecules are used to transfer the released energy from an exergonic reaction to drive the endergonic reaction Activation energy energy needed to bring all molecules in a chemical reaction into the reactive state Catalysts reduce activation energy requirements Enzymes catalyze reactions in living organisms 0 Bring reactant molecules close together 0 Make bonds easier to break and make 0 Enzymes are very specific I Specificity based on shape of enzyme and substrate 0 Shape allows them to bind with chemicals Most function as part of complex regulated biochemical pathways Most are proteins 0 Mutation and loss of enzyme function Enzymes have non protein component 0 Prosthetic groups nonamino acid chemical attached to protein 0 Bind tightly to enzymes 0 Coenzymesvitamins involved in the transfer of small groups of electrons Oxidation Reduction reactions 39 loss of electrons gain of electrons Occur in pairs Reductantreducing agent electron donor Oxidantoxidizing agent electron acceptor Catabolic Reactions energy yielding reactions Sequence of cellular respiration Germs Kill Everyone 1 Glycolysis 2 Krebs Cycle 3 Electron Transport Chain 38 ATP per glucose Bacteria are capable ofproducing 36 ATP Mitochondria in eukarya capable ofproducing 34 ATP Glycolysis EmbdenMeyerhof Pathway o Occurs in the c to lasm l addin ofw i T 1 2 ATP used up 4 ATP formed 2 NAD used 2 NADH formed Makes fermentation u roducts in final step ifno oxygen 1 quot u U Gill fr quot I Krebs Cycle and Ele sport occur in some prokaryotes o Krebs C cle occurs in mitochondrial atrix Cl 1 o Produces electron carriers 0 Does not occur if fermentation occurs 0 Starts with pyruvic acid and yields C02 0 must have oxygen Electron Trans ort 0xidative Phoshor lation O quot V 7 7 r r y Movement ofH ions down concentration gradient provides ener to make ATP from ADP and P 7 Nicotinaide Adenine Dinucleotide NAD I Flavoprotein FAD I Cytochromes have heme group Fermentation uses glycolysis to make ATP o Produces 2 total ATP er lucose o Ethanol fermentation Pyruvate 9 acetaldehyde C02 9 ethanol C02 I NADH9 NAD o Produced so glycolysis can continue Used by yeast without oxygen and some bacteria 0 Lactic Acid Fermentation I Pyruvate 9 lactate o NADH9 NAD o Allows glycolysis to continue 0 Certain bacteria utilized in food production 0 ExLact0baciIIus sp Streptococcus 5p probiotics o Sour cream yogurt sauerkraut pickles kimchee o Mammals or bacteria 0 Mixed Acid Ex Escherichia Cali 0 Butanediol Ex Enterobacter aerogenes o Phoshoroclastic Reaction H2 and C02 produced makes more ATP iron containing protein responsible for H2 production I Ex Clostridium 5p 0 Not I I all chemicals can be fermented Chemicals that are not too oxidized Chemicals that are not too reduced ex Fats Chemicals that can undergo substrate level phosphorylation ex amino acids Aerobic respiration 0 Preparation for the Krebs Cycle 0 Occurs in mitochondria in eukaryotes and in cytoplasm ofbacteria o Pyruvic acid 3 carbons 9 acetyl CoA 2 carbons C02 0 1 NADH formed per pyruvate conversion 0 Occurs in presence of oxygen 0 Additional 3436 ATPproduced Anaerobic respiration o Occurs in the absence of oxygen 0 Produces additional ATP per glucose 0 Less energy released compared to aerobic respiration o Dependent on electron transport generation ofa proton motive force and ATPase activity 0 Examples Nitrate to nitrogen Gas 0 Facultative anaerobes 0 Use oxygen when available 0 Ex Pseudom onus sp Bacillus sp Moraxella sp Sulfate to Hydrogen Sulfare o Strict anaerobe o Desulfovibrio sp Fumarate to succinate 0 Ex Escherichia coli Proteus sp En teracoccus sp Carbon Dioxide to Methane o Methanogenic bacteria 0 Found in intestinal tracts sewage plants and ruminants 0 Ex Methanobacter sp Methanococcus sp Fe3 to Fe2 0 Some bacteria are capable ofbringing metals from one oxidation state to another Acidophilic 0 Ex Thiobacillusferoxidans am yaes Products CATABOLISM Energy generatlon ATP Proton motiveforce A OLISM Catabolism I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I Energy consumption V I m M39acrumoleculesandother one er BIOSynXl IeSiS cellular constituen s Carbohydrate Catabolism o Cellulose to glucose I Enzyme cellulase I EX Clostridium sp Actinomyces sp 0 Starch to glucose I nzyme amylase I EX Bacillus subtillis o Lactose to glucose and galactose I Enzyme 3 galactosidase I EX Escherichia coli Lipid catabolism Triglycerides to glycerol and fatty acids I E zyme ipase I EX Bacillus subtilis Staphylococcus aureus I Media Spirit Blue A ar 0 Phospholipids to phosphorylcholine and fatty acids I Enzyme phospholipase I EX Clostridium perfringens I llemolytic breaks down RBCs gas gangrene I Media Eggyolk agar 0 Fatty acids to Acetyl groups and beta oxidation I oA FAD NAD converted to Acetyl CoA FADH and NADll Protein catabolism 0 Protein to amino acids I Enzyme protease I EX Serratia marcescens I Media Skim MilkAgar 0 Amino acid metabolism I ways of addingremoving ammonia and make amino acids Dehydrogenase removes or adds ammonia o Synthetase Adds ammonia o Transaminase transfers ammonia o Synthase transfers ammonia Anabolic reactions Glyoxalate cycle 0 Acetic acid 2 carbons to oxaloacetic acid Gluconeogenesis 0 Synthesis of glucose from phosphoenolpyruvate has lots of energy I Phosphoenolpyruvate can be synthesized from oxalacetate Pentose phosphate pathway 0 Pentoses for nuclei acids formed by decarboxlating glucose Biosynthesis of sugars o Adenosine Diphosphoglucose ADPG I Precursor for glycogen biosynthesis o Uridine diphosphoglucose UDPG I Precursor of some glucose derivatives needed for biosynthesis of important polysaccharides Biosynthesis of amino acids 0 Carbon skeleton comes from Krebs cycle or glycolysis o Ammonia comes from I Dehydrogenase adds removes ammonia I Synthetase adds ammonia I Transaminase transfers ammonia I Synthetase transfers ammonia Biosynthesis offatty acids 0 Fatty acids make 2 carbon arromas t a time o Requires Acyl carrier protein ACP o Requires NADPH Nucleotide anabolism 0 synthesis ofpentose sugar pyrimidine biosynthesis purine biosynthesis inhibitors of nucleotide synthesis OOO Evernote Export Algae Unicellular to Colonial Can be motile Simplest unicellular quotChlamydomonasquot Colonial quotVolvoxquot Can form in Aggregate Coenobium TetrasporalIembedded in mucilage E El quotChlamydomonasquot quotVolvoxquot E quotChlorellaquot Green Algae ChlorophytaChlorophytes EX Chlamydomonas Volvox Chlorella U nicellularI Mult icellular Sexual and Asexual reproduction gt Endolithic Algae grow inside porous rocks Red Algae RhodophytaRhodophytes EX Cyanidioschyzon Polysiphonia Galdieria gt Red color is from PHYCOERYTHRIN an accessory pigment El El quotCyanidioschyzonquot quotPolysiphoniaquot Fungi Mold SQ Yeast YeastI unicellular fungi quotSaccharomyces cereVisiaequot quotCandida Albicansquot Asexual buddingBlastospore HyphaeI mass of blanching filaments MyceliumI Whole mass of hyphae Septate HyphaeI have Visible crosswalls I NonIseptate hyphaeI no crosswalls gtChytridiomycetes I quotChrytidsquot oldest most primitive fungi quotBatrachichytriumquot Coenocytic Hyphae E quotBatrachichytriumquot I Kills frogs gtGlomeromycetes I small group quotGeosiphon pyriformisquot Coenocytic Hyphae Dependant on fileCConverterInputhiai2yi63gtlthtm2282012 60937 PM Evernote Export symbiosis with Land Plants Lil quotGeosiphon pyriformisquot Isymbiosis with land plants gtZygomycetes I Bread Molds quotRhizopusquot N onIseptate Hyphae Reproduce both sexually sexual sporesZygospores and Assexually asexual sporesSporangiospores E quotRhizopusquot IBread Mold gtAscomycetes I Sac Fungi mold and yeast quotNeurospora Crassaquot IIMorchella esculentaquot Septate Hyphae Reproduce asexual spores ConidiosporesIrare and sexual spores AscosporesIcommon El El quot N eurospora crassaquot quotMorchella esculentaquot gt Basidiomycetes I club fungiwood rotters mold and yeast quotAgaricus cempestrisquot quotAmanitaquot Septate Hyphae Reproduce asexual spores ConidiosporesIrare and sexual spores BasidiosporesIcommon El quotAgaricus cempestrisquot gt Deuteromycetes I fungi imperfecti mold and yeast quotHistoplasma capsulatumquot Septate Hyphae N 0 sexual stage Mostly human pathogens Biphasic or Dimorphic fungal phase and yeast phase E quotHistoplasma capsulatumquot Protists Diplomonads I agellates quotGiardia intestinalisGiardia Lambliaquot Two Nuclei of equal size Have mitosomesI like mitochondria that don39t work anymore Create cysts El quotGiardia Lambliaquot Parabasalids I flagellates quotTrichomonas vaginalisstdquot lack mitochondria have hydrogenosomes for anaerobic metabolism Genomes lacks introns Lil quotTrichomonas vaginalisstdquot Euglenozoan I agellates unicellular Crystaline rod in agella KIN ETOPLASTIDS I quotTrypanosoma brucei gambiensequot African sleeping sickness KinetoplastIlarge mass of DNA in their single mitochondrion Aquatic habitats EUGLEN IDS I NonpathogenicPhototrohpic Contain chloroplasts and can exist as heterotrophs phagocytosis fileCConverterInputhiai2yi63gtlthtm2282012 60937 PM Evernote Export Alveolates I cilliates agellates apicomplexansnot motile Alveoli I sacs underneath the cytoplasmic membrane Ciliated I quotParameciumquot quotBalantidiumquot Dino agellates I have agella with two different insertion points on the cell quotPfiesteria piscicidaquot Red tides Create cysts Apicoplexans I Parasites of animals quotPlasmodiumquotmalaria quotToxoplasma gondiquottoxoplasma quotEimeriaquotcoccidiosis quotCryptosporidiumquotCryptosporidiosisasisIHave oocysts present in mammalian intestinal tracts E El El quotEimeriaquot Coccidiosis quotCryptosporidiumquotCryptosporidiosisasis quotPfiesteria piscicidaquot Red tides Stramenophjles I water molds diatoms golden algae brown algae OomycetesI watermoldsIcoenocytic hyphae DiatomsIcell walls of cilica called frustules Golden AlgaeI chrysophyta Cercozoans I threadljllte pseudopodia Chlorarachinophytes Foraminiferawhite cliffssilica tests Radiolarians I threadlike pseudopodia silica tests of radial symmetry Amoebozoa I amoeboid movement pseudopodia GymnaoemebasIfree living soil and aquatic environments EntamoebastarasitesAmebic Dysenterygt creates cysts Slime MoldsI Plasmodialmass Whose nuclei are not separated by a cell membrane and Cellular slug like mass of cells With slime trail Culture of Microorganisms Differential mediaI separates bacteria into groups Selective mediaI inhibits growth of bacteria Selective and Differential media The Nature of Energy ThermodynamicsIthe study of energy change Potential EnergyI stored energy Kinetic EnergyI energy of movement 1Eirst law of thermodynamicsItotal energy remains in a closedconstant system gt Energy cannot be created or destroyed 2Second Law of ThermodynamicsI In an isolated system any change causes the useful quantity of energy to decrease gt Useful energy is more ordered complex gt EntropyI increase in randomness and disorder Energy in living things Dehydration Synthesis reactionsI energy is stored in chemical bonds of biological molecules Hydrolysis reactionsI stored energy is released ExergonicI energy releasing reactions energy reactantsIII gt low energy products fileCConverterInputhiai2yi63gtlthtm2282012 60937 PM Evernote Export Endergonic require energy input low energy reactants energy gthjgh energy products Energy from exergonic reactions provides energy to drive endergonic reactions Via energy carrier molecules energy taxis ATP and electron carrier molecules gt Electron Carriers NAD N icotene Adenine Dinucleotide FADH2 Flavoprotein Cytochromes heme group Cataboh c Reactions Glycolysis Fermentation GlycolysisEmbden Meyerhoff Pathwayoccurs 39m the cytoplasm Glucosez gt2 pyruvic acid 3 carbonsgt2 ATP used 4 ATP formed 2 NADH formed Pyruvic Acid and NADH enter mitochondria Where the Krebs Cycle and electron transport take place Fermentation process by Which glycolysis is used to produce ATP Ethanol Fermentation I Pyruvatez gtAcetaldehydeco2z gt Ethanolco2 used by yeast in the absence of O2 beer 6 Wine production Lactate Fermentation I lactic acid Pyruvate HI lactate NADH gt NAD Bacteria used in food production Lactobacillis Streptococcus YogurtSauerkraut Mixed Acid Fermentation pyruvategtformategth2co2 ecoli Butanediol pyruvate gt acetoingt 23 butanediol quotenterobacter aerogenesquot mewqr I 39 39 2mm hfmll 77R7m7 60937 pM Evernote Export fileCConverterInputhiai2yi63gtlthtml2282012 60937 PM Micro Exam 3 Chapter 3 Anabolic Reactions Nucleotide Anabolism Synthesis ofpentose sugar 0 Phosphogluconate Pathway Entner Douderoffpathway o Pentose Phosphate Pathway hexose monophosphate shunt Bases can be purines or pyrimidines o Pyrimidine Biosynthesis I Orotic Acid precursor I Activated ribose is added I There is a UMP intermediate I Products are CTP and TMP o Purine Biosynthesis I Starrts from amino acids C02 and formyl groups I Folic acid forms the formyl groups I Inosinic Acid IMP intermediate 0 Not found in DNARNA but is in some ofthe DNARNA precursors I AMP and GMP are formed from IMP o Adenosine MonoPhosphate and Guanosine MonoPhosphate o nucleobase pentose sugar phosphate group Inhibitors ofNucleotide Synthesis Stops cell from dividing or from doing something 0 Methotrexateaminopterin I Inhibits tetrahydropholate from making TMP o 6mercaptopurine I Inhibits conversion of IMP to AMP o 5 Fluoropyrimidine I Blocks conversion ofUMP to TMP o Sulfonamides block folic acid synthesis Chapter 5 Peptidoglycan Synthesis 0 precursor subunit ofpeptidoglycan is Uridine diphosphate UDP which is made in the cytoplasm o UDP transfers pentapeptide sugars NAN and NAG to bactoprenol phosphate at the membrane surface 0 sugars are transported across the membrane I where the disaccharidepentapeptide is then transferred to the growing end of the peptidoglycan chain to lengthen it by one repeat unit 0 Peptide side chains are linked together by transpeptidation reactions forming peptide bonds Link for animation and explanation httphiohprprl J 39 rnm in nu 39 A 39 0 tirlnol ycan synthesishtml o Penicillin targets tra nspeptidation o Gramnegative cross linking ofDiaminopimelic acid to Dala o GramPositive crosslinking ofglycine interbridge Measurement ofCell Number D bling time amount oftime required forpopulationto double Generation Time amount oftime required for a complete division cycle Direct Count 0 Microscopic examination I Petroff llauser cell I Hemocyto meter rid Problems tedious living cells cannot be distinguished from dead cells 0 Particle Count I Coulter Counter 0 Uses electricity to count cells 0 Problem cannot distinguish live from dead cells Flow Cytometer Uses fluorescent dyes and lasers to count cells I CAN distinguish live from dead cells and gram and gram J On agar plate 0 Spread Plate 0 Pour Plate 0 Problem Heat sensitive organisms die 0 Limitations not all bacteria can grow on agar ii of colonies must be 30300 Most Probable Number Method 0 Statistical method for measuring bacteria in liquid 0 Used when bacteria can NOT grow on agar Dilute sample until culture becomes sterile Bacterial Growth Curvein a closed system like a test tube where there is not infinite space to grow Lag phase bacteria getting used to environment Exponential log phase constant division Stationary phase number of growing number of d in Death phase all cells dying E a u u m c o 5 u E quot6 an e u Environmental Factors Affecting Growth Temperature 0 Freezing may not kil a cell 0 Dry cells are more heat resistant than moist cells 0 Every organism has an optimumtemperature based on bacteria 0 Optimumtemperature where enzymes work 0 Maximum Temperature everything shuts down because it cannot maintain temperature g Optimum 5 3 Q 0 Maximum 0 Membrane fatty acid composition and protein composition differ with temperature requirements Examp Hypn harmnphlle Bacillus slearothermopmLs Exam la amp IE Magi 7 Thermacaccus carer Fymlobus fume Example 2 Eschen39 his can w 10539 E 7 g 3939 5 Examp a Polarfzmcnas Vacuoata r 4 0 1O 20 30 4O 50 60 7D 80 90 100 110 1 Temperature 1 C 0 Stenothermal grows in narrow temperature range 0 E herma grows in wide temperature range Water concentration o Organisms have to extract water from the environment to stay alive I Ex salting of foods to keep from spoiling o Osmotolerant live in environments high in salt or sugar includes halophiles I Ex Xeromyces sp 0 Osmophilic live in environments with high sugar concentrations 0 Halotolerant Can grow in presence of salt but grow best without it I Ex Staphylococcus aureus 0 Halophillic require salt I Ex Vihrio sp 0 Nonhalophile hates salt I Ex Escherichia coli 0 Extreme halophile grows best at very high concentrations of salt I Ex Halohacterium salinarum pH 0 pH logH 0 each organism has an optimum pH 0 Acidophiles like low pH I Ex Thiohacillus sp fungi yeast 0 Alkaliphiles like high pH Oxygen o Thioglycholate broth I Aerobic require oxygen 0 Ex Bacillus subtilis I Obligate Anaerobic oxygen is toxic 0 Ex Clostridium sporogenes Methanococcus sp Bacteriodes sp Ruminococcus sp I Facultative anaerobe uses oxygen anaerobic respiration or ferments 0 Ex Escherichia coli Staphylococcus aureus I Microaerophile aerobes that can use oxygen only whenit is present at levels reduced from that in air 0 Ex Streptococcus sp Cam pylohacter sp I Aerotolerant anaerobe do not use oxygen 0 Ex Lactohacillusacidophilus o Triplet Oxygennormal o Toxic forms of oxygen I Singlet Oxygen 102 I Peroxide H202 I Superoxide 0239 I Hydroxyl Radical OH I Enzymes that destroy toxic oxygen 0 Catalase o Peroxidase o Superoxide dismutase o Superoxide reductase Physical and Chemical Control Physical Control Heat sterilization o Incineration direct ame 0 Dry heat oven 0 Boiling water I Fungal spores bacterial spores Protozoan cysts and Hepatitis Aare not killed Autoclave uses steam in a sterilizing chamber I Kills spores in 1530minutes I Downside metals dull plastics melt and chemicals decompose Tyndalization Fractional Sterilization intermittent sterilization I Kills vegetative cells I Can NOT guarantee sterility Pasteurization o Kills pathogenic bacteriamesophiles don t like heat Filtration 0 Cold filtering of draft beer 0 Inorganic filter Seitz filter I Made ofporcelain Organic filter Berkefield filter I Made of diatomaceous earth 0 Membrane filter Millipore or Nalgene filter I Using cellulose acetate or polycarbonate Radiation 0 UV light I Damages DNA which causes thymine dimers to form 0 Thymine dimer A pair of abnormally chemically bonded adjacent thymine bases in DNA resulting from damage by ultraviolet irradiation The cellular processes that repair this lesion often make errors that create mutations o Visible Light I Can produce singlet oxygen 0 Microwaves I Produce heat 0 Ionizing Radiation I Gamma rays X rays Cosmic Rays create hydroxyl radical hydride radicals electrons Ultrasonic Vibration 0 Used to open cells and for cleaning instruments Chemical Control Usually does NOT sterilize Kills pathogens Antiseptics chemicals used on living organism or tissue Disinfectant chemicals used on lifeless object O O O Sanitized reduces the microbial population Degerm removes the microbes from the surface Drying o No waterno life I Freeze dried foods will NOT spoil o Osmosis ow ofwater across a membrane 0 Salting and sugar curing I water leaves the cell to dilute the salts and sugars in the environment Examples ofAntiseptics and Disinfectants o Phenol I Discovered by Lister I Phenol coefficient a number indicating a chemical s ability to disinfect compared to Phenol I Killed even the good bacteria when used too often 0 Halogens Fluorine Chlorine Bromine Iodine I Chlorine gas in water I Hypochlorite chlorine bleach o Releases chlorine slowly I Chloramines organic chlorine containing compounds I Iodine larger than chlorine and more reactive I Iodophors Iodine containing detergents o Betadyne 0 Heavy Metals I Mercury mercurochrome merthiolate I Copper algaecide I Silver bactericidal 0 Silver nitrate used on newborns eyes to treat for gonorrhea o Alcohols effective against vegetative cells I Denature protein I Dissolves lipids I Strong dehydrating agent I Ethanol o Isopropyl Alcohol works as substitute I Methyl alcohol too toxic to use on tissue Formaldehyde solid that when heated makes gas I Cross links proteins 0 Ethylene Oxide gas sterilization I Used for plastics paper metal rubber 0 Hydrogen Peroxide inhibits anaerobes I Catalase in tissue breaks it down 0 Dyes I Triphenyl methane dyes 0 Crystal violet malachite green 0 Ex Staphylococcus sp Bacillus sp Candida albicans I Acridine dyes O o Acridine orange pro avine acri avine 0 Ex Staphylococcus 5p 0 DNA intercalators bind DNA induce mutation prevents RNA synthesis 0 Show up only with UV light Chapter 27 Antimicrobial Agents Chemicals that inhibit or kill microorganisms 0 Synthetic chemical antimetabolites 0 Natural product ex antibiotic All antimicrobials must have 0 A spectrum of activity I Susceptiblility of microbes to different antibiotics varies I Gram and Gram bacteria vary in their sensitivity to antibiotics o Broad spectrum effective against large range ofinfectious bacteria 0 Narrow spectrum effective against small group of bacteria 0 Kill bad bacteria not good bacteria 0 A mode ofaction I STATIC stops the growth 0 EX bacteriostatic fungistatic I CIDAL kills 0 Bactericidal fungicidal I LYTIC kills by dissolving o Bacteriolyticproteolytic Selective toxicity I Cell wall synthesis I DNA and RNA synthesis I Protein synthesis I Cytoplasmic membrane structure I Folic acid metabolism Minimal side effects Minimal resistance from microbes Measurement of antimicrobial activity I Agar diffusion assay 0 Antibiotic disks onto agar plate containing bacteria I MIC Minimum Inhibitory Concentration 0 Uses test tubes containing different concentrations of antibiotic and the same concentration ofbacteria 0 OOO Antibacterial Typical Antibiotic Producers o Bacteria I Norcurdl39u sp Streptomyces sp Actinomyces sp BuciIIIus sp Microm on osporu 5p 0 Fungi I Penicillium sp Caphalosporium sp Aspergl39llus 5p Sulfa o Sulfanilamide blocks synthesis offolic acid thereby inhibiting nucleic acid synthesis Penicillins 0 Blocks crosslinking of peptidoglycan of cell wall 0 Active against Gram and some Gram bacteria 0 Can cause anaphylaXis 0 Can be inactivated by penicillinase 0 Thousands of derivatives I Ampim amoxicillin Cephalosporins Similar to penicillins in structure Blocks cross linking ofpeptidoglycan of cell wall Active against Gram AND Gram bacteria Does NOT cause allergic reaction in people that are allergic to penicillin Resistant to penicillinase Derivatives I ex in Aminoglycerides 0 Amino group bonded to carbohydrates 0 Affects protein synthesis 0 Binds to bacterial ribosome Active against mainly Gram bacteria and Mycobacterium 0 Ex Streptomycin Neomycin Tobramycin Kanamycin Gentamycin Chloramphenicol o Affects protein synthesis 0 Binds to bacterial ribosomes 50S subunit 0 Active against Gram Gram rickettsia fungi and people 0 Toxic if taken for too long Tetracyclines 4 rings 0 Affects protein synthesis 0 Binds to bacterial ribosome 0 Active against Gram Gram rickettsia and chlamydia 0 Ex Aureomycin Achromycin Qinolones o Affects DNA gyrase o Prevents supercoiling of DNA I In order for bacteria to divide the DNA has to uncoil 0 Active against Gram and Gram 0 Ex Cipro aXin O O O O O O O Cell wall syninessz Pniyoxms Membrane Ergosieroi synihess Armfungai AgentsDrugs mmms z 7 Work differently on fungi than on Wye other cells ex Human cells 7 Polyenes es s Aliviamines Bind to ergosterolmakeup of membrane 7 Azoles and allyamines o inhibit ergosterol synthesis Mmmbuie e Polyoxins lmmaiion39 inhibit cell wall synthesis enseoiuivm r Griseofulvin o isrupts microtubule fonnation 7 Nucleic Acid analog o inhibits nucleic acid Synthesis Nudelc acid synmessz 5Fluolocyl05ine Antiviral AgentsDrugs r Nucl Acid analo o inhibit nucleic acid synthesis 7 Synthetic amines amantadine o Blocks virus uncoating e Pyrophosphate analog phosphonofonnic acid o Polymerase inhibitor Rifamycin o Polymerase inhibitor 7 Protease inhibit o inhibits processing of viral proteins lnterferons o Alte el o Small proteins that prevent viral multiplication by stimulating the production of antiviral proteins in uninfected cells Formed in response to live and inactivatedviruses as well as viral nucleic a ds plication Transcription information from DNAis transferred to RNA o mRNA messenger RNA encodes polypeptides o tRNA transfer RNA plays role in protein synthesis o rRNA ribosomal RNA plays role in protein synthesis Translation info in RNA is used to build polypeptides or proteins 3 stages of genetic information flow 7 Re 39 INA FUNCTION RNA acts as a middleman molecule It takes instructions for production ofa protein from DNA I moves them to another part of the cell and directs the building ofa protein 5 GA HOSPHATE BACKBONE J1 Su ar molecule joi 7 e r RIBONUCLEIC ACID RNA H Protein DNA structure A nuzlao ide contains a phosphate 4 nucleotide subunits Sugarphosphate backbone Chargaff s rule ofA of T of C of G Helical structure 0 group a su armolecule and a nitrogen contalning base i 9 Double helix oftwo nucleotide strands Hydrogen bonds form between complementary base pairs to hold the 2 DNA strands together Nucleotides have 0 Phosphate group 0 Sugar molecule 0 Nitrogencontaining base Adenine and Guanine are 2 ring purines Prokaryotes have a single circular chromosome attached to the cell membrane Eukaryotes contain free oating linear chromosomes within a nucleus have more DNA more chromosomes and DNA is wrapped around the proteins histones OO 00 0 DNA Replication DNA has to copy before it divides Requires energy and several enxymes 0 DNA helicase unwinds DNA 0 DNA Polymerase copies DNA 0 DNA ligase connects 2 strands of DNA together 0 DNA primase makes short strands of RNA 0 DNA gyrase w139nds DNA back up Semiconservative o 1 of strands comes from original strand and the other is from the newly made DNA Bidirectional replicates going in opposite directions ALWAYS proceeds from 539 end to the 339 end 10 DNA polymerases catalyze the addition odeTPs deoxynucleotides o 3 prokaryotic DNA polymerases o E coli eukaryotic has 5 polymerases 0 DNA Polymerase III editscorrects the copy where mistakes are made in DNA DNA synthesis begins at the replication origin in prokaryotes Replication fork the point where double stranded DNA becomes single stranded Extension ofDNA 0 DNA replicates continuously on the leading strand 0 Only small pieces ofDNA are replicated on the lagging strand I Okazaki fragments are on lagging strand Single stranded binding protein keeps DNA apart when splitting strands Repair enzymes use complementary DNA strand to repair damage Transcription DNA making RNA 9 carried out by RNA polymerase 0 RNA polymerase uses DNA as template 0 RNA precursors are ATP GTP CTP and UTP 0 Chain growth is 5 to 3 as in DNA replication Relies on complementary base pairing rules 1 Nucleotide message sent from nucleus to cytoplasm a DNA nucleotide sequence quotcopiedquot as a quotmessengerquot nucleotide sequence of RNA mRNA b RNA polymerase catalyzes synthesis omeNA similar to DNA replication and DNA polymerase i Promoter sequenceregion binds RNA polymerase ii Termination signal is a sequence of nucleotides at end of genes that tell RNA polymerase to stop transcription c Only a specific gene or family of genes is transcribed from DNA not the entire DNA molecule in a chromosome Unit of transcription unit of chromosome bounded by sites where transcription of DNA to RNA is initiated and terminated 0 Sometimes has only part ofa gene a whole gene or several genes Most genes encode proteins but some RNAs are not translated ex rRNA tRNA 0 3 types oerNA165 23S and SS 0 rRNA and tRNA are very stable 0 tRNA cotranscribed with rRNA or other tRNA mRNA have short halflives Prokaryotes often have genes clustered together 0 These genes are transcribed all at once as a single mRNA An mRNA encoding a group of cotranscribed genes is called a polycistronic mRNA Operon a group of related genes cotranscribed on a polycistronic mRNA 0 Allows for expression of multiple genes to be coordinated I All parts would work for that time period of transcription 11 initiate Terminate Promoter region 3 RNA polymerase 339 l 1 Gene i 539 core enzyme Sigma factor l 5 3 Sigma aids in V recognition of 3 5 promoter a d initiation site Sigma 5 i 3 Transcription begins sigma released a 5 5 RNA chain growm Tevmlnaiiun site reached chain growth stops 539 3 Release of polymerase E and RNA 3 Translation Nucleotide sequence of mRNAusedto synthesize a sequence ofamino acids polypeptide or protein 0 Occurs on the endoplasmic reticulum using ribosomes rough ER 0 mRNA codons are usedto specify amino aci s o Ribosomes quotreadquot mRNA codons to synthesize a specific amino acid sequence 0 Each ofthe 20 amino acids has a specific carrier transfer RNA tRNA that brings the amino acid to the ribosome o Complementarybase pairingbetweenthe mRna andtRNAs determines the amino aid sequence 0 Ribosomes need to recognize the beginning and end ofthe mRNA message 1 Initiation start codon is methionine AU G 2 Stop codons UAA UAG UGA 12 VSquot 617 wa


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