General Biology BIOL 1110
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Floy Quitzon III on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Ryan Otter in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see /class/213209/biol-1110-middle-tennessee-state-university in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Twins amp Cloning Clone genetically identical being 2 main types of clones Identical Twins True Clones Begins with an adult animal somatic cell gt transfer DNA to an unfertilized egg cell of the same species Identical Twins httn39llhnalth quot quotquotquot416htm Identical Twins NonIdentical Twins 1 egg 2 eggs 1 sperm 2 sperm Fe ilized egg Each egg develops splits separately from one another Result 2 babies With identical Result 2 babies with DNA different DNA True Clones First thought to be impossible Thought that once somatic cells had differentiated they turned offthe DNA that was not speci c for that type of cell e 9 5mm cells have only skln DNAturrled on art cells have only heart DNA turned on Scientists gured out how to turn on DNA Transfer DNA from adult somatic cells to an unfertilized egg cell of the same species True Clone First True Animal Clone Dolly the lamb I When was Dolly born July 5 1996 1 Where was Dolly born Great Britain Benefits of Cloning Infertility ability ofthose unable to have children sexually Recover of lost loved ones Eugenics making a superhuman race 7 Pick and choose the genes to use and not use Eliminate diseasercausing genes Extreme intelligence supermodels may Creation of spare parts 7 lebsi organs etc metrics of Cloning Ethics Stem Cells information Source Nil l National institute of Health Stem Cell Basics all stem cells Unspecialized cells Renew themselves for long periods through cell division Under conditions they can be induced to become cells with specialized functions Two types of stem cells Embryonic stem cells Adult stem cells Embryonic Stem Cells Derived from embryos IN VITRO In the lab NOT from within a woman39s body Mth informed consent of the donor Typically 4 or 5 day old embryos Grown using tissue culture If grown under certain conditions Stay undifferentiated If allowed to clump together Embryoid body Differentiate fl Urldlffererltlated embryorlll Stern BE 5 x lrlrler cell ass at blastocyst Adult Stem Cells Undifferentiated cell found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ Can renew itself Can differentiate to yield the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ ROLE maintain amp repairtissue AKA somatic stem cel Adult Adult Stem Cells Stem Cell Very smallnumber of stem cellslrl each tlssue Tlssue known to contaln lnclude bralrl bone rnanuw PIaSthlty blood vessels skeletal muse e Sklfl and llver Selentlne potentlal 7 R eplaclng deparnlnepmduelng cells n blalns ufPalklnsun s pallenls Ablllty to 7 Develuplng lnsullnpmdueng eellslmlypel dlabetes dlfferentlate 7 R epalllng damaged lean muscle fulluwlng nean attacks mm multiple wltn caldlac muscle cells BE types Parkinson s Disease Affects over 2 ofthe populatlon 65 years uld cause degeneratlon and loss of dopamlne produclng neurons Result Tremors rlgldlty decreased mublllty Stem cells lab studles uslrlg rats 7 Transplant dopamlne neumns lnle bvalrl el vathth PD 7 Released mule dopamlne and lmpluved mutulfunctlun Potential Uses Drug Screening Cancer drugs Cell based therapies Alternative to organ and tissue donors Parkinson s Alzheimel s spinal cord injuries stroke burn heart disease diabetes arthritis
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