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by: Floy Quitzon III

Genetics BIOL 3250

Floy Quitzon III
GPA 3.63

Aubrey Cahoon

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Aubrey Cahoon
Class Notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Floy Quitzon III on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3250 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Aubrey Cahoon in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/213219/biol-3250-middle-tennessee-state-university in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Genetres BIOL 3250 Cahoon eLeeture Topre o NonMendelian Inheritance Maternal Effect The genotype of the rnother deterrnrnes the phenotype of the offspnng The genotype of the father and the offspnng do notrnatter Developlng embryos reeerye gene produets from maternal trssue mRNA orprotern Example 1 Snail shell tailing ecesslve rnant Srnrstral shap A entral rnother wlll always produee dextxal ehrldren regardless ofthe father39 s genotype xample z Drnsnphilz Bndy Plan breord gene produet deterrnrnes where the head wlll be Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic 6 Example 3 Mammal embryo development mater gene product is necessary for embryonic development past the 2 cell stage Epigenetics A reversible modi cation to a gene or whole chromosome which changes its expression A gene may be deactivated for a single generation Example 1 X inactivation If multiple Xchromosomes are present one is temporarily deactivated Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic 6 Example 2 Gene Imprinting A reversible deactivation of an allele 0 This mark can silence one of the two alleles in a diploid individual The result is monoallelic expression The imprint can be maintained across multiple generations 0 O Mammalian example Igf insulinlike growth factor is deactivated during oogenesis but not spermatogenesis The paternal allele is always expressed Mother Father Parent Genotype IGF IGF x igf igf Parent Phenotype Normal l Dwarf Progeny Genotype IGFi igf IGFi imprinted deactivated Progeny Phenotype Dwarf 0 Three stages of imprinting l Allele is marked silenced during gametogenesis Q IGFIGF 9oogenesis9egg with IGFl inactive allele C Ifgigf9spermatogenesis sperm with ifg active allele 2 Allele remains silenced during embryogenesis and into adulthood An IGFigf individual will appear recessive if the dominant was maternally inherited 3 Allele may be unmasked or maintained during gametogenesis Imprinted IGF alleles will be unmasked in sperm IFG alleles will be imprinted or maintained as imprinted in eggs Discussion of imprinting and parental control of embryo development in placental animals Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic 6 Cytoplasmic Inheritance aka extranuclear inheritance Not all genes are in the nucleus 1litochondria and Chloroplasts have their own genomes eg Human Mitochondrial Genome 37 genes 16579 bp eg Maize Chloroplast Genome 104 genes 140384 bp Organelles are uniparentally inherited almost always maternally via the egg cytoplasm ooplasm Typ 1c a Cytoplasm ic Inheritanc e Pattern llaternal Organelle heredity is complicated by the following factors 1 the function of the organelles is determined by both organellar and nuclear genes Chloroplasts encode 100 proteins but 73000 are needed for chloroplasts to function the other 2900 are encoded in the nucleus and the proteins imported from the cytoplasm 2 the organelles are inherited as a population therefore a mutation in one does not always result in an immediate pheno ype Heteroplasmy 7 cells contain a mixture of mutant and normal organelles Mitochondrial mutations Neurospora 7 poky a slow growing strain of neurospora cytoplasmic inheritance Yeast 7 petite 7 slow growing strain of yeast cytoplasmic inheritance Both lack mitochondrial electron transport components making the cells facultative anaerobes and dependent upon fermentation of glucose through glycolysis Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic 6 Human 7 mitochondrial genome 16569 bp 37 genes A human disorder can be attributed to a mitochondrial gene mutation if three criteria are met 1 7 inheritance must exhibit a maternal rather than a Mendelian pattern 2 7 the disorder must re ect a de ciency in the bioenergetic function of the organelle 3 7 there must be a specific genetic mutation in one or more of the mitochondrial genes MERFF 7 myoclonic epilepsy and Ragged Red Fiber Disease 7 lack muscular coordination deafness dementia and epileptic seizures manifest in two organs with high energy demand muscles brain A single base change in a mitochondrial amino acid gene tRNALyS Individuals are heteroplasmic LHON 7 Leber s hereditary optic neuropathy mtDNA lesions in a subunit of NADH dehydrogenase maternally inherited but there are many cases of spontaneous mutation blindness occurs suddenly at an average age of 27 KSS 7 KeamsSayre syndrome vision loss hearing loss heart failure children are unaffected but symptoms appear progressively with age mtDNA displays severe deletions that increase with age Leigh syndrome early onset neuromuscular degenerative disorder most cases due to mutations in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase complex IV These disorders and their progressive degenerative nature have suggested that as we age we accumulate mutations in our mitochondria and mitochondrial function is affected Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic ZA Genomes Chromosomes and Ploidy A What is the relationship of genome to chromosome Genome Chromosome A genome may be housed on a single chromosome or split onto multiple chromosomes Example Arabidopsis thaliana has 5 linear chromosomes in its nucleus which is collectively 125 mb long and carries 25298 genes Its mitochondria have a circular chromosome which is 366924 bases long and carries 57 genes Its chloroplasts have a circular chromosome which is 154475 bases long and carries 132 genes Example Homo sapien has 23 linear nuclear chromosomes which collectively are 32 billion nucleotides long and carries 35000 genes Human mitochondria have a circular chromosome that is 16571 nucleotides long and carries 37 genes There is no correlation between the size of a genome or number of genes and the hierarchical placement ofan organism Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic 2A B Ploidy Chromosome complement genome complement 1 full set of chromosomes Haploid Diploid Polyploidy The expression of ploidy and chromosome number haploid Human n 23 Dog n 39 Onion n 7 Corn n 10 Yeast n 17 Tobacco n 24 Wheat n 7 diploid polyploid 2n 46 2n 78 2n 14 2n 20 2n 34 4n 96 6n42 Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic 2A Mitosis Cell Cycle Our Diagramma c Cells W quot 39 on quot C iiibefictionai A facilitate concepts Chromosome complement 2n 4 as w e 161nm Mi 1 P7 owme Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic 2A G1 Phase The primary growth phase Go Cell division is dormant Cell performs its intended function especially if in a multicellular organism y F5 59 s t f i L m 39 5 i L J SPhase DNA and centrosome synthesis DNA synthesis occurs before the chromosomes condense If We imagine the chromosomes in their condensed state DNA replication might proceed in the manner diagrammed below Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic 2A cells Made of Microtubules are essential for chromosome separation Plant cells do not have centrosomes N losis quot 9 r39 L 39 39 39 L nm lpm membrane begins to break down spindles appear 5 i r 7 r W a 1 r b 3 i U r J 3977 A 0 r L by r VHW xw Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic 2A Chromosome Made of Condensed chromatin n o 1 proteins that recognize and bind to the DNA dle animal opposite poles ofthe cell three types of mi crotnbnles 1 a al7raoliate in all directions 2 spindle 7 attach to chromosomes 3 polar 7 overlap at the midline Gmetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon mLecmre Topic 2A two drugs that affect microtubules during mitosis 1 colchicines e destabilizes spindle microtubules 2 taxol e stabilizes microtubules glue anticancaquot plant cells 7 no cmtrosome broad poles organized on opposing poles othe cell Spindles are made of protein microtubules attached to the cell poles at the othaquot one microtubule for each pair of chromatids Kinetochores are protein complexes which form on the cmtromaes Memphase nuclear 39 39 39 39 chromatid and chromosomes line up at the callaquot othe cell along the e metaphase plate Cell cycle pauses until all chromosomes are presmt and propaly aligned 1 Anaphase Sism chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles AnaphaseA e sistaquot chromatids separate and move towards opposite poles by disassa39nbling the microtubules Genetics BIOL 3250 Cahoon 7 Lecture Topic 2A 12 a migration I mic m rubw Telophase I Lu I be called chromosomes Chromosomes begin to uncoil nuclear envelope reforms cell begins to divide cylokinesis was i Cymkinesis cytoplasm cleavage occurs by aprocess known as cleavage laagmb mas ail 739 quot 39 39 plate ofactin 39 39 39 39 39 against one anotherto pinch ombe membrane phragmoplast 39 L cellplate A Pinching from the inside


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