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Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates

by: Floy Quitzon III

Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates BIOL 3020

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Biology > BIOL 3020 > Comparative Anatomy of the Vertebrates
Floy Quitzon III
GPA 3.63

Brian Miller

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Brian Miller
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Floy Quitzon III on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 3020 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Brian Miller in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see /class/213220/biol-3020-middle-tennessee-state-university in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
1 Terminology oPhylogeny course of evolution tree branches oMorphology study of form amp function relating structure to fu nction how structure amp function become part of an interconnected design organism not just anatom ollomology 2 features share ancestry oAnalogy 2 features share function birds wings and mammal limbs are example ollomoplasy 2 features look alike oSymmetry radial out from center vs bilateral left and right oSegmentation septa oBody terminology anteriorfront vs posterio rback cranialtowards headvs caudletowards tail in animals dorsalsu rface towards back vs ventralsurface towards belly or ground medialtoward midline ofbody vs lateralaway from midline distal vs proximal oflimbs pectoral vs pelvic oBody planes frontalco ronal sagittal transverse sagittal body cut cuts into 2 portions mid sagittal cut cuts body into even left and right portions mid frontal cut 2 even portions front and back transverse cross section DEUTEHOSTGMES p R o Amnuvacrana T 7 I 7 l D Eclurmdsrmaia Hemichordam chumm 7 5 77 7 I 7 T o Pmmchomaies M 7 4 E FlambranohiaEnmmpueusla Cephalochnrdnta Umammma Vadahmm 1 7 IIII 7 Phechurdme FIGURE 11 pr L u more distantly m pmmswmes Protostomes mouth develops from blastopore precursor of gut Deuterostomes anus develops from blastopore Echinoderms sea stars 2 Protochordates does not include vertebrates Informal grouping Marine animals most larvae reside in open water while adults live on or within bottom by burrowing feed via cilia amp mucus Chordates Urochordata Cephalochordata Nonchordates Hemichordata 3 Chordates all but the ceolom are characteristics specific to Chordates vertebrates are not a major division but subdivision of Chordata Coelom uid filled internal body cavity Notochord develops from mesoderm dorsal to ceolomventral and parallel to CNS spinal cord when replaced by bone makes vertebrates Flexible slender rod runs down back Core of cells amp uid Encased in fibrous tissue Notochord develops from mesoderm dorsal to coelom ventral amp parallel to CNS noncompressible prevents telescoping ofbody muscle contractions result in side to side mov ts ofbody muscles relax body straightens out bc ofnotochord early locomotion effective in small animals not in larger replaced by vertebrae some vertebrates have transition stage all have embryological notochord What would happen if wmuscle contraction if telescoping was allowed Pharyngeal pouchesslitsnot gills Always present in early development sometimes later Pharynx directly posterior to mouth oral cavity Pharyngeal pouch early development anterior outpocketing of gut When open permits one way ow ofwater aids respiration and feeding through suspended materials simultaneously Earliest chordates used in feeding can be used to extract 02 from H20 slits never open in land vertebrates Dorsal hollow nerve cord spinal cord in humans many animals have a nerve cord but not dorsal hollow ones dorsal to notochorddig tract Only chordates form by invagination and adv of hollow cord unkown Other animals ventral and solid Fluid filled neurocoel Postanal tail Posterior elongation of body beyond anus Gut tube amp coelom stop well short ofbody s muscle extension oflocomotion apparatus EndostyleThyroid Endostyle glandular groove in pharynx oor used for filter feeding phylogenetic predecessor of thyroid some animals develop thyroid from endostyle Thyroid develops from pharynx oor embryologically and gives off hormones deals with metabolism Both involved wiodine metabolism homology 4 Chordata Groups Cephalochordata ie Amphioxus in lab Notochord in head where cephalo comes from Shallow coastal waters Fishlike appearance bilateral symmetry dorsal and caudal fins Burrowers especially as adults Filter feeders small particles from water drawn into mouth amp pharynx by cilia 9 requires large SA so pharynx is gt 12 body length Ciliated food corridors dorsal epibranchial groove ventral endostyle secretes mucus oral hood buccal cirri wheel organ Hatschek s pitgroove secretes mucus to collect food roof ofbuccal cavity similar to vertebrate pituitary endocrine Few anterior sensory structures none paired little anterior enlargement of CNS into brain and no ear or nostrils Have eyes but function poorly Blood cells absent though there is blood circulatory system wo heart Urochordata Tunicates called tunicates because of the cellulose like tunic that covers them Tunicates have 2 main regions of body head and tail the tail is used for locomotion but mostly absorbed as adult and are hermaphrodites they can reproduce asexually by budding but typically not selffertilization Coastal waters 3 groups 2000 species but all but 100 are sea squirts Ascidiacea sea squirts when threatened squirt water out of siphons reducing body size Chordate characteristics of ascidiacea body of two regions quotheadquot corresponds to adult body amp tail organ oflocomotion contains notochord amp hollow nerve cord tail resorbed during metamorphosis therefore loses chordate characteristics ex pharynx Inactive adults No external resemblance to vertebrates cephalochordates Larval form has all five chordate characteristics Thaliacia don t have larvae stage Larvacea Appendicularia Adults retain larval characteristics appearance Feeding apparatus outside ofbody quothousequot of gelatinous matrix with screens and filters Vertebrata Most diverse chordate group Marine freshwater terrestrial lligh cephalization a lot going on in head like brain 5 Hemichordates meaning 12 chordate are not true chordates but have characteristics like pharyngeal slits Enteropneusta acorn worms similar lifestyle coastal burrowers filter feeders Similar lifestyle to cephalochordates 3 body regions proboscis extension from head like elephant trunk used for locomotion and feeding collar trunk Pterobranchia quotwinged gills due to tentacles on arms used for food gathering Evolved from enteropneusta Same 3 body regions but modified Larval forms nearly indistinguishable from each other amp from echinoderm larva Each body has own coelom H glands Boundary layer main functionforms interface between internal amp external environment Integumentary System skin accessory structures like sweat and sebaceous o Other boundary layers include GI trace sebaceoussweat glands resp repro lining 0 Most exposed boundary layer therefore complex wmany tissues epith CT smooth muscle amp glands sensory structures blood vessels nerves Functions 0 Protection microbes abrasionmechanical injury or predator attack tough hides reinforced wdermal scales or bones pathogens Coloring concealmentcamou age warning ofpoison in some frogs Active Defense horns claws Barrier protects against excess exchange ofwater amp salt protects O O 0 from UV radiation Temperature Regulation some Chemical Absorption andor Elimination some allow respiration 02 intake C02 release some animals have glands to help liverkidneys to eliminate waste 0 General Structure highly variable among species even among regions of body in one individual like thicker skin on hands but basic structure amp development close in all vertebrates o Epidermis outer Typically stratified squamous epithelial resting on basement membrane Cellular region derived from embryonic ectoderm Terrestrial org almost always have keratinizedcornified layer stratum corneum keratin is dead for protection of top layer birds reptiles 2 types of keratin alpha soft beta hard 0 beta hard scales claws beak feathers 0 alpha found in exible layers only in mammals Produces hair feathers baleen claws nails horns beaks some scales Produces basal lamina of basement membrane Avascular no blood vessels though not true in all organisms occurs in some fish and salamanders to aid in respiration O Dermis usually main thickest part of skin 0 Produces reticular lamina of basement membrane 0 Primarily proteinaceous fibers of collagen and elastin embedded in ground substance of proteoglycans Collagen arranged into layers called plies like logs stacked on top of each other aquatic animals arranged on the bias to allow lateral bending during swimming use cloth as eg not so arranged in terrestrial vertebrates Originates from mesenchyme derived from mesoderm everything else or neural crest facescalp skin Produces dermal bonesie reptilian osteoderms Proteoglycans often bind to H20 to give dermis gellike consistency Fibers produced by fibroblasts build up Macrophages wander Mesoderm fibroblasts dermatomes Attaches skin to underlying muscle 0 Adheres tightly in some catfish salamander shark loosely in others bullfrog o Collective Epidermis amp Dermis O 0 Because one part ofbasement membrane comes from each epidermis amp dermis it is incapable of producing collective structures functioning if one is absent Teeth denticles fish scales 0 Hypodermis O O O Panniculus adipose Adipose for fat storageinsulation adipose is connective tissue Panniculus carnosus striated muscle present allows for quottwitchquot of skin in one area nearly missing in humans Not in all vertebrates prevalent in mammals amp birds variety of names subcutaneous adipose superficial facia Can be several inches thick whale blubber As we age dermis tends to loose elastic fibers and hypodermis loses subcutaneous fat which leads to wrinkles 2 Coloration comes from cells called chromatophores o Chromatophores collective grouping of cells containing various pigment types found in skin of all vertebrates except albinos 0 Upper dermis in fish amphibians turtles 0 Into epidermis in birds mammals o Melanophores dark pigment brown dark red dark yellow star shaped pigments synthesized within birds and mammals but transferred to feathers hair other epidermal structures 0 Melanosomes organelles that synthesize and store pigment move throughout cell in some vertebrates to concentrate andor disperse color 0 Iridophores vertebrates other than mammals re ective platelets of purines usually guanine that give silvery or iridescent appearance rainbow fish and peacocks o Xanthophores GreekXanthos yellow pteridines o Erythrophores Greek Erythros red carotenoids orange yellow 0 Dermal Chromatophore Unit can change color 0 Iridiphores surrounded by processes of deeper melanophores overlying xanthophores or erythrophores o Subconscioust done 0 Animals change color depending on courting season 0 Coloration of animal depends on dispersal ofpigment in melanophore processes 0 Can lighten or brighten if pigment pulled back into cell body of melanophore Iflight strikes iridiphore light is dispersed Blue wavelengths are re ected throughout the skin and larger wavelengths are absorbed by melanophores 0 If blue light comes back through xanthophores filter ofyellow cells green like many frogs only true green animal known is the African bird 3 U1 Fish Integument 0 Adult epidermis stratified all living cells not typical for epithelial cells usually nonkeratinized because in water amp covered with mucus o Epidermis collagen organized into plies that spiral around body allowing the skin to bend without wrinkling 0 Many mucusproducing unicellular glands 0 Club cells elongated cells excite alarm or fear secrete pheromone which alerts animals nearby to possibility of danger Granular cells diverse produces mucus Goblet cells primarily mucus producing Sacciform cell toxic secretion that wards off predators o Dermis Dermal bone 9 Dermal scales protrusion ofbone from dermis into epidermis Primitive lawless Fish lamprey and hagfish are examples many bottomfilter feeders because they are jawless Glands 0 Thread cells hagfish thick mucus coat 0 Slime glands hagfish A LOT of mucus slime Dermis o Pigment cellslots of collagen but no elastin 0 Extensive capillary bed Chondrichthyes cartilaginous fish like sharks Many unicellular secretory cellsglands in stratified epidermis Dermis highly organized lots of elastin prevents wrinkling no dermal bone and allows for lateral swimming movement Placoid scalesdevelopment in dermis comes up through the epidermis not bone like others made of cartilage o Helps with laminar ow the way the water ows over the body reduces drag and friction o Gives roughness to skin Some have glands that act as photophore phosphorescent organ symbiotic relationship with bioluminescent bacteria deep dwellers nocturnal o Naturally occurring 6 Osteichthyes o Stratified epidermis with club cells granular cells 0 Has very little keratinization 0 When present localized in quotteethquot hardened jaws etc o Mucous cuticle aka surface quotslimequot Resists bacterial penetration 0 Smooth skin laminar ow 0 Slippery to predators 0 Contains molecules that repel predators 0 Some have multicellular glands containing venom spines offin eg catfish 0 Some have photophores Dermis tendency to form bone 9 scales 0 Dermal scales don t pierce epidermis just stick into it and push it out gt1 Bony Fish Scales Ganoid scales 0 Thick enamel layer same as our teeth shiny appearance 0 Lamellar compact amp vascular spongy holes for blood vessels bone Teleost scales 0 Branch of osteichthyes Lamellar bone only Cycloid looks like a fingerprint Ctenoid looks like the ghost from Pacmanjagged teeth Scale rings used to determine age of fish like trees 000 8 Amphibian Integument 0 Most species require moist skin 9 glands Larvae unicellular mucous glands larvae form very bitter good for predators antimicrobial property as well 0 Multicellular after metamorphosis Originate in epidermis reside in dermis unusual Mucous glands little white in appearance 0 Poisongranular glands filled with pink balls 0 Modifications present like sticky frog feet 0 Cutaneous respiration 02 and C02 exchange much more blood vessels in skin than other animals because of this


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