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General Biology

by: Floy Quitzon III

General Biology BIOL 1120

Floy Quitzon III
GPA 3.63

Dennis Mullen

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Dennis Mullen
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Floy Quitzon III on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1120 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Dennis Mullen in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/213221/biol-1120-middle-tennessee-state-university in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Taxonomy Meant to reflect the evolutionary relationships of organisms 4 ma39or Eukaryotes l 3 Protista a eukaryotic organism that is not a plant animal or fungus Fungus Plant Primitive very close to its original form Aquatic Heterotroph Multicellular except yeast Chitinous cell wall Energy storage glycogen Zygotic meiosis Heterotrophs Multicellular No cell wall Energy storage glycogen Gametic meiosis Multicellular Autotroph Cell wall of cellulose Energy storage starch Sporic meiosis Sporopollerin organic molecule that coats the outside of spores and pollen the major defining characteristic of plants from algae is that the embryo is nutritionally dependent of the gametophyte Multicellular aguatic autotroph ancestor of land plants no roots lack support tissue in shallow water all essential nutrients derived from rock except for nitrogen holdfasts Plusses of Occupying the shore ineterrestria habitat less competition more space more sun light more nutrients more carbon dioxide Barriers to occupying the shore quot 39 39 39 habitat support mechanism or tissue desiccation transport absorbing nutrients from surroundings reproduction dispersal of sperm Solutions to barriers desiccation Formation of a waxy cuticle with pores stomata transport and support Vascular tissue 9 Xylem thick walled hollow cells allows them to grow up and down roots reproduction reduced portable male gametophyte that is encased in Sporopollerin pollen Gametophyte the multicellular haploid generation of Sporic meiosis PLANT TISSUES 4 major types of plant tissues 1 Meristematic tissue undifferentiated 0 quotmother tissue 0 Undifferentiated cells clustered in masses called meristems 5 E H 2 Dermal Tissue o 3 types of cells I Epidermal cells living transparent cells cover most of the body 7 Secretes the cuticle 7 Root epidermis cells Guard cells 7 Occurs on the lower surface of the leaf 7 Photosynthetic Trichome cell of cells that grow on the surface of the leafyoung stem 7 Provides protection holding onto surfaces blocking wind and taking up water 3 Ground Tissues o 3 cell types Parenchyma 7 Loosely packed large cells with a thin primary cell wall living 7 Photosynthetic 7 Storage 7 In cortex of stem and roots 7 Can dedifferentiate and become meristematic Collenchyma 7 Plant equivalent of cartilage 7 Occurs as bundles of long skinny cells O Livingphotosynthetic O Under epidermis 7 Differentially think primary cell wall 7 Can dedifferentiate Sclerenchyma 7 Like quotbonequot 7 Dead cells with highly lignified secondary cell wall 7 2 types O Fibers i Lignin O Sclerid short highly branched cells i llstone cells ii Found in pear tissue 4 Vascular Tissue 0 2 types Xylem 7 Transports water and nutrients up Phloem 7 Transports sugars and hormones down Xylem 1 Trachieds o In all vascular plants 0 Lignified secondary cell wall 0 Long thin tapered cells 0 Dead at maturity 2 Vessels elements 0 Only in angiosperms Wood thick mass of xylem plus fibers plus parenchymal rays Phloem 0 Sugars and hormone transport 0 2 types of cells 0 Sieve tube members 0 Companion cells Growth 0 Occurs at the meristems o 2 types of growth 0 Primary growth I Growth in length 0 Secondary growth I Growth in girth Primary Growth 0 Occurs at apical meristems o Mitosis produces partially differentiated tissues called Primary Meristems 3 Protoderm epidermis Ground Meristem ground tissue Procambium vascular tissue Primary growth at shoot tip Root Root cap cells 0 Secrete mucus serves as a lubricant o Stimulates rhizobium growth Collumella cells 0 Gravity detection cells 0 Secretes hormones to bend the roots downwards Zone of Elongation 0 Cells are differentiated but have no function 0 Cells grow to 10 times the length Secondary growth 0 Not all plants exhibit this growth MOST PLANTS WITH BARK DO 0 Result of 2 lateral meristems 1 Cork cambium just underneath the epidermis I From cortex cells I Produce cork cells to the outside 0 Vascular Cambium


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