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General Biology

by: Floy Quitzon III

General Biology BIOL 1110

Floy Quitzon III
GPA 3.63

John Dubois

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John Dubois
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Floy Quitzon III on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1110 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by John Dubois in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see /class/213222/biol-1110-middle-tennessee-state-university in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Plasma Membrane a layer of molecules that surrounds the cell separating it from the external environment and selectively regulating the passage of molecules and ions into or out ofthe cell Phospholipid Bilayer do not dissolve when they are placed in water Hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails They form spontaneously No Input energy Movement of water and solutes small nonpolar molecules move across bilayers quickly Large molecules and charged substances cross the membrane slowly if at all Diffusion movement of molecules and ions that results from their kinetic energy Because solutes change position randomly due to diffusion they tend to move from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration Concentration gradient a difference in solute concentrations Hypertonic The movement of water by osmosis from an area of low concentration inside the cell to high concentration outside the cell causing the vesicle to shrink sometimes causing crenation or plasmolysis in plant cells Hypotonic The movement of water by osmosis from an area of low concentration outside the cell to an area of high concentration inside the cell causing the cell to swell sometimes causing lysis Energy Processing Cellular respiration produces 26 to 30 ATP Glycolysis sugar beakdown the first step in glucose oxidation occurs in the cytosol of cells anaerobic Glucose 6C 2 ADP net 2 NAD 9 2 Pyruvates 30 2ATP 2NADH Basically glucose and some ATP give you 2 forms of energy 2 ATP and 2 NADH and some pyruvate to oxidate and form more energy Aerobic Pathway Ifoxygen is present then Pyruvate oxidation Pyruvate 3C NAD CoA 9 2 Acetyl CoA NADH CO2 TIMES 2 BECAUSE YOU HAVE 2 PYRUVATES FROM GLYCOLYSIS Krebs Cycle Acetyl CoA 3NAD FAD ADP 9 3NADH 2CO2 FADH2 ATP TIMES 2 BECAUSE YOU HAVE 2 ACETYL CoA FROM PYRUVATE Electron Transport Chain occurs in the mitochondrion cristae 12 02 2e 2H 9 H2O H moves from mitochondria matrix to intermembrane space through the cristae SO GLUCOSE 9 2NADH 9 2ATP 9 2PYRUVATES 9 2NADH 92C02 92ACETYL CoA WHICH GOES THROUGH THE KREBS CYCLE GIVING YOU 96NADH 94C02 you give this off when you breathe 92ATP Anaerobic Pathways Alcoholic Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation Laws of Thermodynamics First law energy is conserved it cannot be created or destroyed only transferred or transformed Second Law entropy always increases in an isolated system Enzymes Energy of Activation the amount of energy require to initiate a chemical reaction speci cally the energy required to reach the transition state Active Site the portion of an enzyme molecule where substrates reactant molecules bind and react Cofactors a metal ion or small organic compound that is required for an enzyme to function normally May be bound tightly to an enzyme or associate with it transiently during catalysis Coenzmes a small organic molecule that is a required cofactor for an enzyme catalyzed reaction Often donates or receives electrons or functional groups during the reaction Vitamins an organic micronutrient that usually functions as a coenzyme Pigment any molecule that absorbs certain wavelengths of visible light and re ects or transmits other wavelengths perceived as color Chloroplast Structure Thylakoid attened sacs containing chloroplast Granum stack of thylakoid Stroma liquid matrix in between granum Lumen the space inside the thylakoid LightDependent Reaction ZScheme in photosynthesis the set of reactions occurring in photosystem I and II that use the energy of sunlight to split water producing ATP NADPH and oxygen LightIndependent Reaction Calvin Cycle in photosynthesis the set of light independent reactions that use NADPH and ATP formed in the lightdependent reactions to drive the xation of atmospheric C02 and reduction of the fixed carbon ultimately producing sugars Photosynthesis


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