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by: Floy Quitzon III

Microbiology BIOL 2230

Floy Quitzon III
GPA 3.63

Stephen Wright

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Stephen Wright
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Floy Quitzon III on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 2230 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Stephen Wright in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see /class/213225/biol-2230-middle-tennessee-state-university in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 09/23/15
Microbiology 9111 Microscopy o 3 Key Features for Success 1 magnify 2 contrast staining 3 resolution bring able to distinguish two points as two separate points about V2 wavelength of light better resolution with a shorter wavelength High energy short wavelength low energy long wavelength With 400 nm of light objects as small as 200 nm can be resolved The visible spectrum of radiation is ROYGBIV This is why there is an indigo filter that the light goes through on a microscrope that creates the most visibility violet would start to put some details past visibility Types of Microscopes Brightfield normal microscope the field of vision if bright so a stain must be used dead organism Dark Field specimen receives all of the light no light needed so living specimens can be viewed Phasecontrast Light in its different phases goes through a series of metal rings and is forced into one quotphasequot that provides contrast can use live specimens Fluorescence specimen is coated with fluorescent dye which turns into UV light which is too short a wavelength to see but it excites the electrons on the cell to emit visible light that s emitted in the visible range so you can see what s going on in the cell down side is that this method is harmful to your eyes Electron Microscopes electrons are the light source can see best with electron microscopes 0 Transmission electrons go through an ultrathin section in the specimen and the image is collected beneath 0 Scanning used for thicken specimens like hair electrons bounce off the specimen and that is the image that is collected Eukaryotic vs Prokaryotic Cell Biology Classification 0 3 Domains bacteria archaea onecelled can survive acid eukarya o 5 Kingdoms monera only prokaryotic kingdom simpler than eukaryotic kingdoms because they don t have organelles protista fungi plantae animalia o Eukaryotic Organelles Membranebound entities that carry out some specific function 0 Nucleus houses DNA no nucleus in bacteria 0 Mitochondria Energy factory the folded membranes cristae carry out ATP formation I Endosymbiant Theory mitochondria were originally bacteria that somehow got into a eukaryotic cell 0 Endoplasmic Reticulum I Rough has ribosomes that help with protein synthesis 0 Ribosomes 8 80 Svedberg Units Svedberg centrifuged ribosomes to find that one of them two parts was 80 su He then separated the two and found that the bottom one is 60 su and the top one is 40 su this is important because antibiotics can target bacteria using these numbers because prokaryotic cells have ribosomes with different Svedberg Units I Smooth lipid synthesis 0 Golgi Apparatus protein processing 0 Lysosome Contains the digestive enzymes so that the cell doesn t autodigest o Cytoskeleton System of proteins that provide scaffolding for the cell I Microfilaments intermediate filaments microtubules o CiliaFlagella structurallycomplex beat in waves I Crosssection 9 outsides paired 2 inside unpaired arrangement of microtubules 0 Cell Wall not in animal cells but fungi and most bacteria have cell walls penicillin inhibits cell walls Prokaryotic Shapes o Coccus s Cocci pl shereshaped only group that can have possible arrangement I Chains esp characteristic of genus streptococcus typically in mouth I Clusters esp characteristic of genus staphylococcus typically in skin I Diplococcus esp characteristic of neisseria gonnherea or meningitis I Tetrads esp characteristic of genus micrococcus o Bacillus rodshaped o Spirochetesspiralshaped Prokaryotic Organelles none Microbiology 83011 Histog The main problems with microbiology are that bacteria are too tiny to see with the naked eye and that spontaneous generation was the only reason for bacterial growth Much of this changed when 0 Mid1600s Leeuwenhoek built the 1st quotmicroscopequot o 1864 the wine industry in France found the end of spontaneous generation which signaled the beginning of microbiology o The wine industry in France found that their wine was spoiling before it got to market Reason Alcohol is a waste product after fermentation However when the wine aged it would replace the old bacteria with a new bacteria called acetobacter that when mixed with air produced vinegar Louis Pasteur found this by investigating the wine bacteria under a microscope When a bottle of wine had a straight spout the wine would sour and smell like vinegar When the spout turned like a teapot there would be no smelly wine because air did not get to it as easily Semmelweis This physician worked at a hospital with an epidemic of fever Mothers would be infected with the fever give it to their babies and they would both die However the hospital across town did not have a problem with this and Semmelweis predicted this was because they had midwives He suggested that everyone wash their hands before going to deliver babies and he put a sink between the autopsy room and the delivery room People disbelieved his theory Lister He came up with the same theory as Semmelweis although his theory was better accepted In addition to frequent handwashing he implemented disinfectant as well 1884 Koch worked with bacillous anthracis anthrax and mycobacterium tuberculosis o Koch s Postulates I 1 Confirm that the causative agent is present in diseased individual but not present in healthy individuals 2 Isolate the causative agent in pure culture I 3 If you inoculate the healthy with the causative agent the result is disease I 4 Reisolate the causative agent and confirm that it s the same as the original I This always works and is still used today 0 Important advancements in microbiology filters improved microscopes specialists immunology virology genetics food 0 1798 Jenner saw that milk maids didn t get small pox and used cow pox as a vaccine for small pox major immunology advancement 1980 World Health Organization declared small pox gone


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