American Media and Social Institutions
American Media and Social Institutions JOUR 1020
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Final Exam Study Guide AMERICAN MEDIA AND SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS Reading Chapters 1 9 and the power point on Free Speech Chapter 1 Mass Media in Everyday Life Quantitative Research empirically based research yielding date which can be examine statistically to determine relevancy qualitative research the how and why behind the numbers nonnumerical examinations of questions and occurrences knowledge gap hypothesis welleducated wealthy people tend to absorb information from media much faster than lesseducated poorer people agendasetting theory argues that media are not successful at controlling what you think but have in uence over what you think about cultivation theory exposure media creates an understanding of certain aspects of the world Structural functionalism media provides services critical to a smoothly functioning society provides information correlating activity inform consumers about available goods facilitates commerce promotes continuity perpetuates social norms entertainment aiding mobilization helping people to work collectively short head the portion of the distribution curve where a limited number of people are interested in buying a limited number of products long tail the portions of the distribution curve where a limited number of people are interested in buying a lot of different products vertical integration when a corporation controls all aspects of a media project including production delivery to consumers in multiple formats and the promotion of media through other media Synergy where the combined strength of two items is greater than the sum of their individual strength saturation effect media literacy to be more critical as consumers of mass media institutions and more engaged as citizens who accept some responsibility for the shape and direction of media culture Intellectual components 1critica1 approach not cynical pose paying close attention 2 analysis of facts not the mere counting of facts 3 interpretation and meaning 4 ethicalmoral evaluation of meaning 5 engagement a media world that best services democracy questioning our media institutions Hegemony A term that refers to a process in which a dominant class leads a society through the exertion of moral and intellectual leadership semiotics a method of cultural studies focusing on the relationship between reader and text Signs symbols and social codes It s the study of how meaning is created popular culture liked by many people everything left after high culture mass produced by passive easily controlled consumers culture that orginates from the people mass communication made up of senders messages mass media channels recievers gatekeepers feedback The design and delivery of cultural messages to large diverse audiences Culture The symbols of expression that individuals groups and societies use to make sense relevance and pleasure out of their everyday experiences The idea of culture 1 Sports fashion education religion science 2 cultural contests created by cultural institutions and industries 3 link individual with society 4 shared and contested values eras of mass media Oral and written tribal feudal and agricultural economies and earliest forms Print electronic and digital prominently in the development of Mass Communication printing press 1450 Johannes Gutenberg modern mass communication mass production book more literate population information age begins with telegraph 1840s messages now instantaneous military operations prototype for wireless 1920s culture affected by lm radio and the music industry digital and converged 1 digital converts information into binary codes 0s amp ls the language of computers how info can be shared amoung many media easily 2 convergence refers to the digital marriage of different media via computers Also refers to newspaper broadcast and intemet outlets under one corporate roof media convergence Old technology meets new technology The appearance of older media forms on the newest media channels linear model of mass communication see mass communication made up of senders messages mass media channels receivers gatekeepers feedback The design and delivery of cultural messages to large diverse audiences the hierarchy of culture high culture to low culture the shifting values of the modern and postmodern age Modern individuality confidence reason and science working efficiently and rejecting tradition Post Modern opposing hierarchy diversifying and recycling culture doubts about scienti c reasoning embracing paradox bothand and embracing technology the ve revolutions in mass communication Familiarize yourself with who owns what News Corp owns 203911 Century Fox Film and Fox Broadcasting Time Warner owns Warner Brothers HBO TNT TBS SI Com Sports Illustrated Turner Broadcasting Cartoon Network and CNN Disney owns ABC ViacomCBS owns MTV and BET Bertlesmann wanted to buy Napster 85 Million General Electric owns NBC Universal which owns Universal what is the CNN Effect The CNN Effect is saturation coverage of media stories Chapter 3 Newspapers Ben Franklin The Pennsylvania Gazette Was successful because of the advertising 1729 John Peter Zenger Charged with libel and seditious language against New York s royal governor Truth defense The New York Weekly Journal Wife Anna ran paper while he was in jail making her the rst woman publisher Partisan Press Low circulation developed editorials that were against the British importance of the Penny Press information distribution increase literacy and empowers public wire services how did they change reporting information can be sent more quickly Associated Press started in 1848 commercial organizations that relayed news stories and information around the country using telegraphy lines Allowed reporters to dispatch directly to Washington yellow journalism origin of term importance of publishers Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst Started in the late 1939h century The term came from RF Outcault and his Yellow Kid cartoons Sensationalists Tabloid Joumalisms birth guersome headlines sensational stories exaggerated reporting crime sex and violence Pulitzer Hungarian immigrant ghts in Civil War Owns the St Louis Post Dispatch In 1863 he bought New York World Campaigned for better urban housing and equitable labor laws 200K for statue of liberty base School of Journalism at Columbia University and establishes the Pulitzer Prize Hearst Expelled from Harvard Ran the San Francisco Examiner and buys the New York Journal in 1895 He raids Puliters papers for writers and editors and also copies his style pictures most of them fake He hired gangsters to distribute his papers 40 papers and 13 magazines by 1930s importance of Nellie Bly her real name is Elizabeth Cochrane She was the first investigative reporter Fakes insanity to get into hospital Develops detective or stunt journalism and makes Pulitzer world a trendsetter Adolph Ochs and the New York T imes Bought the Times for 75000 He wanted decent serious journalism Protected distinction between print and advertising objective joumalism Inverted pyramid style Brief accurate writing style Who what when where why and how interpretive journalism alternative journalism Dorothy Day IF Stone 7 Dorothy Day was a communist and a paci st Women s suffrage catholic worker 19 h amendment IF Izzy Stone Political reporter National Magazine IF Stone s Weekly 1952 Investigated African Americans Supreme Court and political campaign gonzo journalism Hunter S Thompson Founder of onzo which is antiobj ectivity often his writing combined 39j quot 39L and 39j quot quot Was a cur l 39 for Rolling Stone and had and interesting lifestyle USA T oday 1982 was in color like television Owned by Gamett Since 2003 is the largest circulated newspaper Chapter 4 Magazines Origin of word magazine French means store Daniel Defoe s Review Gentleman 3 Magazine Saturday Evening Post and arrival of the national magazine 7 in 1704 was for elites journal of opinion looks like a newspaper Colonial magazine Was the first national medium Ben Franklin monopolized because he was postmaster and would not charge himself postage 100 magazines in 1776 Muckraking journalism coined by Teddy Roosevelt Opposed relationship between big business and government general interest magazines TV Guide and Reader s Digest decline of general interest publications and rise of specialty magazines Catered to speci c issues importance of TV Guide 1953 was the rst magazine to address the nations fascination wi television Rolling Stone Started by Jann Wenner 21 in San Fransisco Music focus and left wing politics celebrity news Playboy 1953 challenged strict traditions Peaked in 60s at 6 million CosmoHelen Gurley Brown Sex and the Single Girl magazines and the web Chapter 5 Recordings Napster who invented it what did it do What s life like in the postNapster world Inventing outrage the popular music timeline When did digital recording occur Changes in technology from Edison cylinders to MP3s know what happened in the appropriate decade The rise of MTV 7 how did it change popular music The PMRC 7 what was it and what were they so concerned about The Big Three conglomerates than control the music industry who are they What s a global oligopoly Chapter 6 Radio 7 become familiar with people places and things Guiliglmo Marconi 20year old used the discoveries by Morse Bell and Hertz to expand his idea that messages should be able to travel across space without a wire Established British Marconi 1897 and American Marconi 1899 companies Experimental BroadcastReginald Aubrey Fessenden 1906 Canadian Scientist 1st person to transmit voice over the air December 1906 Lee de Forest Lee De Forest Wrote the rst doctoral dissertation on wireless technology 1899 competed with the Marconi Corporation in the eld of wireless communication interested in wireless voice and music transmission known as wireless radio telephony later called 7 radio Developed the Audion vacuum tube 1907 that detected and ampli ed radio signals As he got older De Forest became dissatis ed with radio content A fan of high culture especially opera he was concerned that when it came to transmitting cultural events radio had not lived up to its promise Crystal sets DIY radios Wireless Ship Act 1910 required all US seagoing ships carrying more than 50 passengers and traveling more than 200 miles off the cost be equipped with wireless equipment Radio Act of 1912 Congress passed this to license people who wanted to broadcast or receive messages because there were only a certain number of frequencies available to ca1ry broadcast signals During World War 1 The federal government ordered all amateurs off the air and took control of all privately owned stations and the military took over radio broadcasting After the war the federal government Radio Corporation of America A private sector monopoly that dominated the wireless industry and expanded American communication technology globally David Samof or patent holders in the early days of commercial radio What is the significance of radio station KDKA7 WEAF Radio s popularity in the 1920s How many radio stations were operating By the end of the 1920s how many radios were in the marketplace NBC Red amp Blue Red from WEAF in New York and Blue from WJZ in Newark The drawings for the planned hookups were done in red and blue colored pencil NBC Blue was eventually bought by ABC What s an affiliate station William S Paley heir to a tobacco fortune Bought nancially struggling Columbia Phono graph Company in 1929 25 statins from WABC in New York CBS Columbia Broadcasting System Radio Act of 1927Stations could operate only with the govemment s approval and the stations needed commission approval to be sold or transferred The foundation for all broadcast regulation in the US and included the establishment of the Federal Communications Commission Federal Communication Act 1934 Federal Communications Commission The Golden Age of Radio Orson Welles and War of the Worlds Wells with Mercury Theater on the Air broadcast on Halloween 1938 Widespread panic from audience thought the world was being abducted by aliens PBS and NPR Public Broadcasting Station and National Public Radio Publicly funded an alternative to commercial radio Clear Channel Communications Internet Radio clear radio that audience can listen to via Internet Satellite radio began in 2001 Offers more than 100 stations and companies charge a fee for usage Sirius Satellite and XM now Sirius XM Chapter 7 Movies Celluloid used in kinetoscope by Edison and Dickson Thin sheets invented by Carbutt were used in experiments for cylinder drum Kinetoscope Kinetoscope Marey met up with Thomas Edison and showed the pictures to his assistant William Dickenson Projection edges of lm would move and would shake Dickson perfected wit perforated edges The kinetoscope is a box that sits on the oor with a peering hole at the top Movie box Nickelodeon nickel theatre Cinematograph serves as a projector and a developer Is a lm camera Vitascope Edison organized large viewing in 1heatres with the independent inventor Thomas Armat Edwin S Porter s The Great Train Robbery Hired by Edison as an electrician and projectionist Produced Robbery Action and changing locations introduced dissolves between shots George Melies s A Trip to the Moon French lmmaker a magician and characterist Beginning of special effect First outer space movie adventure The Trust Zukor and Fox Adoph Zukor leader in practicing block booking block booking the practice of requiring theaters to take a package of movies instead of shoing the movies individually Importance of the Birth Ufa Nation DW Grif th 1915 cost 110000 the Jazz SingerFirst rst talking picture Warner Bros releases in 1927 A1 Jolson becomes the 203911 century s first mass media superstar stage radio lm record United Artists Studio 1919 was an independent studio Pickford Chaplin Grif th Fairbanks and Hart who later bowed out Think Mask of Zoro and Three Musketeers Alice Guy Blache rst female director in motion pictutres and believed to be the rs director of ction lms Oscar MicheauX African American lmmaker Lincoln Motion Picture Company Father Daniel Lord 1930 believed that movies were corrupting America s moral values He wrote a movie code that prohibited lms from glorifying criminals gangstersetc Legion of Decency 193 4 Catholic Church launches and millions of Americans boycott lms deemed immoral by church The church pressured Hays to create Production Code Administration PCA and it has total control over all lm content Joseph Breen was named director Will Hays and the Hays Of ce President of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributers of America MPPDA He agreed with Father Lord and worked to have the code adopted by the lm industry The 1930 Production Code included May not lower moral standards of viewers proper standards of life respect for law murder should not inspire imitation no excessive kissingembracing no shade of obscenity modest dancing costumes lm displays seal of approval Was NOT enforced the rise of young star directors in the 60s amp 70s Arthur Penn Bonnie and Cliyde 1967 realistic depiction of violence Sam Peckinpah The Wild Bunch 1969 Dennis Hopper Easy Rider 1969 George Lucas American Graffiti 1973 Francis Ford Coppola The Godfather 1972 Brian De Palma Carrie 1976 Martin Scorsese Taxi Driver 1976 Steven Spielberg Jaws 1975 Hal Ashby Terence Malik HUAC House UnAmerican Activities Committee 1947 America was entering the cold war communism Hollywood 10 Joseph McCarthy J Parnell Thomas the impact of television on Hollywood movies lose audience to television More convenient impact of VCRs Rental industry and mass production PORNOS Hollywood after Star Wars the Blockbuster mentality 1975 Jaws becomes highest grossing film until Star Wars in 1977 Studios need one major hit each year to offset costs of other lms 80 of movies fail at boxoffice Ancillary rights Marketing opportunities related to a movie in addition to direct income from the movie itself Videos and DVDs Network and Pay TV airline base campus rights soundtrack albums Books Chapters 8 Television and Cable Paul Nipkow Scanning Disk 1884 Broke pictures into light units that could be sent and decoded by a receiver Victor Zworykin Iconoscope 1919 a TV camera tube that converts light rays into visual electrical signals John Logie Baird 1926 The rst to demonstrate a television system before a gathering of 50 scientist in his attic workshop Philo T Farnsworth Famsworth Cathode ray tube Patents the first electronic television 1930 1st public demonstration of TV in Philadelphia 1935 Newton Minnow RCA introduces television at New York World s Fair in 193 9 Cost of a TV in the late 1930s 660 which is more than half of what it cost to buy a car By 1962 what percentage of American homes had a television 90 The Golden Age of Television was in the 1950s single sponsor programs the quiz show controversy 7 a television spectaculars Big 3 4 Networks National Broadcasting Company Columbia Broadcasting System and American Broadcasting Company They dominate until about the 1980s FOX began broadcasting in 1986 anthology vs episodic television 1 anthology is a series that runs from episode to episode in order like a story 2 episodic runs new normally with the same characters and set every week with a new storyline decline of the network era The network era was from the 50s to 70s It was changed by new technology Communication satellites for cable TV and the home video market emergence of HBO and WTBS impact of VCRspeople could record shows and watch them at a later time timeshifting fast forwarding through commercials In 1997 VCRs were in what percentage of American homes AC Neilsen company Share rating what s the difference What is sweeps Who are cable s major players CATV who did it serve When did it first appear What were the reasons the National Association of resisted cable TV market penetration Must carry rules access channels HBO Narrowcasting CNN revolution CNN formula MTV s business model Direct Broadcast Satellite Hulu Demographics issues with rating accuracy cell phones as TV portal WiMaX technology Chapter 9 Internet Internet its history the three key technological developments that made the Intemet a reality for many people What s the difference between the Internet and the World Wide Web What s HTML Who is Tim BemersLee What is digital communication YouTube it s popularity and use The digital divide who has access to the Internet See page 196 Who Uses the Internet wiki sites National Information Infrastructure Paul Saffo and the 3 0yearcycle The four companies that dominate the Web 20 What are darknets The Digital Millermium Copyright Act Know the main provisionI mentioned in the lecture Communications Decency Act What are the four challenges facing the Internet Net neutrality and threats to net neutrality
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