Immunology FRSC 4300
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brady Daugherty on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FRSC 4300 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Anthony Farone in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see /class/213235/frsc-4300-middle-tennessee-state-university in Forensic Science at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Chapter 1 Innate Immunity The host defense mechanisms that act from the start of an infection and do not adapt to a particular pathogen Specific Adaptive Immune Response Immunity The response of antigenspecific B and T lymphocytes to antigen including the development of immunological memory Primary Immune Response The adaptive immune response that follows a person s first exposure to an antigen Secondary Adaptive Immune Response The adaptive immune response provoked by a second exposure to an antigen It differs from the primary response by starting sooner and building more quickly and is due to the presence of longlived memory B cells and T cells Primary Lymphoid OrgansTissues quot 39 39 site of 39 r39 r in bone marrow whereas T lymphocytes develop in the thymus from precursor cells that have migrated there from the bone marrow Secondary Lymphoid OrgansTissues The lymph nodes spleen and mucosaassociated lymphoid tissues MALT These are the tissues in which immune responses are initiated The more highly organized tissues such as lymph nodes and spleen are also often known as secondary lymphoid organs WBC Development from Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Their Function In ammatory Response General term for the local accumulation of fluid plasma proteins and white blood cells that is initiated by physical injury infection or a local immune response The cells that invade tissues undergoing inflammatory responses are often called inflammatory cells or an inflammatory infiltrate Those cytokines that promote inflammation are known as inflammatory cytokines Importance ofVaccines Vaccination provides the opportunity for the immune system to gain the experience needed to make a protective response with little risk to health or life Major Historical Development in Immunology 1750 Ancen Chma gt inching 05 infected scabs for Small Dex Prever izmr39 In humans B lymphocytes develop 1796 Edwin EI H WEI gtSmal PEX vaczme 1862 LOUIS Pazteur P 3 1885 Low 6330 Emu Rabies VHCCHZE hrma KSl uba FT K 3b 50839 matchmkoff quotrjhEI rnze for Study of matrophages 195039s SJ Mariarlg E Burma Clonal SEIEFIIDH THEGW n35 Sglk J L39olICv il i licensed than abm Oral polio varrmE mu TUIIE EBwa Gen naturaiiyhtc r evacuation a Small pox ir Ab yanable re 0 E Drawlabel insideoutside regions of a lymph node r Mm gg yw N 156 l39 1quot I 1 r l i 7 What are the 2 branches for the development of immune cells Myeloid and lymphoid What are the quotBig 3quot Antigen Presenting Cells Dendritic Cells viruses bacteria macrophages bacteria and B cells soluble antigens toxins What are the 2 specific immune responses Antibody Mediated Immunity AMI also called Humoral Immunity and Cell Mediated Immunity CMI What are the 2 arms of the immune response Innate and Adaptive Responses Why do we have 2 arms Adaptive immunity is long lasting and is a highly specialized defense that is of little use against different pathogens innate immunity is nonspecific and is the initial response to invasion by a pathogen What are the 4 cardinal signs of inflammation Swelling Heat Redness and Pain What are the 3 steps of complement Recruitment of inflammatory cells increased phagocytosis opsonins and Lysis What are some things that happen during the inflammatory process Surface wound introduces bacteria which activate resident effector cells to secrete cytokines Vasodilation and increased vascular permeability allow fluid protein and inflammatory cells to leave blood and enter tissue The infected tissue becomes inflamed causing redness heat swelling and pain Why have we evolved 2 antigen uptake systems So that if our body does not have receptors for the antigen specific IR it can still be phagocytized nonspecific IR Draw and Label the parts of an antibody if gy i Q43 gt 9 1AMquot P a em 579 What happens to a lymphocyte when it quotseesquot its specific antigen Lymphocytes activated by antigen clones of antigen specific cells that mediate adaptive immunity quotClonal Selection Theory How does a B cell interact with its specific antigen The major B cell receptor is an antibody molecule called Membrane Immunoglobulin mlg What 2 very basic responses are critical for all T and B cells Proliferation and Differentiation Draw a graph illustratiig theiamount of antibody activity for the primary and seconda responses to a vaCCine I We give rise to 52 i malaise mug 1 l eem e k quotA l e 5m39w39 Jr in M l What are the two different classes of MHC that bind peptides recognized by the two major types of T cells Class I molecules collect peptides from the cytoplasm and are presented to CTL Class II molecules collect peptides from vesicles and are presented to Th cells How do T cells interact with their targets MHC Major Histocompatibility Complex which is a large cluster of mainly immune system genes on the short arm of human chromosome 6 that encodes among other proteins a set of polymorphic membrane glycoproteins called the MHC molecules which are involved in presenting peptide antigens to T cells How to antibodies help in defense against infectious disease Neutralize opsonize activate complement What is the most effective way to control infectious diseases Vaccinate Know the Lineage of a cell l Chapter 2 What are defensins Cationic antibacterialantiviral peptides How are your quotsmellquot and your MHC related The body produces fatty acids related to MHC that are broken down by bacteria on the skin resulting in a person s unique smell What are the steps in the recruitment of a white blood cell Rolling Activation Adhesion no more rolling and Transendothelial Migration What are the steps ofa generic infection Entry Attachment Colonization of Local Tissues and InvasionSpread What is the bodys rst line of defense against infection The epithelial surfaces of the body What is the rst amino acid incorporated into prokaryotic proteins Methionine What are the steps necessary for a pathogen to establish an infection Entry Attachment Colonization of Local Tissues and InvasionSpread What makes one organism a pathogen and another innoccous The organism s ability to overcome innate immune defenses Facultative intracellular parasites and the ability to form a capsule are both helpful in overcoming the innate immune defenses What are the steps involved in phagocytosis Following attachment 1 phagosome formation 2 acidification of phagosome and 3 phagolysosome fusion What are the main objectives of inflammation 1 Delivers additional effector molecules to the site of infection 2 Provides a physical barrier to prevent spread of the infection 3 Promotes the repair of injured tissue What is the order of the complements in the Classical pathway C1 C4 C2 C3 then C5 What is a zymogen and why are they beneficial for an activation cascade A zymogen is the functionally inactive form of a proteolytic enzyme These are beneficial because they are inactive until triggered Zymogens also function in an amplifying manner Why have 3 different mechanisms of C activation Because two of the mechanisms can be used without antibodies How does C9 bring about cell lysis By poking thousands of tiny holes in the cell membrane of a foreign cell What is a chemokine Large group of small proteins involved in guiding white blood cells to sites where their functions are needed They have a central role in inflammatory responses How are they similar to cytokines Chemokines are a specific type of cytokines small cellsignaling proteins What is an opsonin Antibody and complement components that bind to pathogens and facilitate their phagocytosis by neutrophils or macrophages How do leukocytes interact with the endothelium WBCs have integrins which are cellsurface glycoproteins that mediate adhesive interactions between cells and the extracellular matrix Integrins are bound by ICAMs on the endothelial cells What structural attribute allows PMNs to be the first cells to migrate through the endothelium LFA1 Mac1 and PECAMCD31 What is interferon Cytokines that help cells to resist viral infection Interferon01IFNot and interferonB lFNB are called type interferons and are produced by leukocytes and fibroblasts respectively as well as by other cells They act specifically to induce cells to resist viral infection The structurally and functionally unrelated interferony lFNy is a product of CD4 THl cells CD8 T cells and NK cells and has more general functions in immune responses acting principally to activate macrophages Name a virus with a dsRNA genome Rotavirus Infection has no in uence on the rate of hematopoiesis TF False It is more serious to be without an innate IR than to be without an adaptive IR TF True The innate response signals for the adaptive response The adaptive response alone would take too long to control an infection
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