Chemistry Lecture Notes
Chemistry Lecture Notes CHEM 1111 - 12
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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Adey Fentaw on Friday September 19, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to CHEM 1111 - 12 at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 128 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/14
Chapter 1 notes Chemical reactions9 The chemical identities of substances change Properties that are measured quantitative 9 Must always include a unit English system foot gallon pound Metric system Meter liter kilogram Base units can be modified using Greek Prefixes Mass amount of matter in an object Mass does not changeconserved weight varies depending on where it is measured S1 kilogramkg most common in chemistry gramg 1kg1000g110quot3g Atomic Mass Unit expresses the masses of atoms Temperature scales Celsius scale 9 freezing 0 9 Boiling point 100 Kelvin Scale Absolute scale Lowest temp 0 K K C 27315 Temp inF 9 F5 Ctemp inC32 F Derived Units Volume and Density SI unit for volume meter cubed 1dmquot31L 1cmquot31mL Density mv gcmquot3 solids Types of numbers used in chemistry 1 2 Exact numbers Have defined values Ex 1 kg 1000 g 1 dozen 12 objects 9 determined by counting Inexact numbers Measured by any method other than counting Ex cm Significant figures meaningful digits in a reported number The last digit in a measured number uncertain digit Finding significant figures 1 Any nonzero digit is significant 2 Zeros between nonzero digits are significant Avoid ambiguity Scientific Notation Exact numbers considered to have an infinite number of significant figures Do not need to round after each step in multi step problem Chemistry notes 9220 14 Smallest quantity that still retains its property atom Element substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances Concept Dalton all matter consist of atomstiny indivisible Dividing atom produces subatomic particles The nature and arrangement of subatomic particles determine the properties of the atom determine property of all materials Old theories Radiationthe emission and transmission of energy in the form of waves Cathode Ray Tube High voltage placed between two platesnegative and positive charge the current is accelerated from the cathode to the anode and separate the stuff going through the plasmamagnetic and electric field Like charges repel and opposite charges attract Thomson Rays were a stream of negatively charged particlescalled them electrons Charge to mass ratio of electrons C Coulomb derived SI unit of electric charge RA Millikandetermined the electron charge by examining motion of oil drops Used charge to mass ratio to determine the mass of electron Rontgendiscovered X Rays Not de ected by magnetic or electric fielddo not consist of charged particles Becquerelradioactivity9 the spontaneous emission of radiation Rutherfordused a particles to prove the structure of atoms Gold foil experiment the alpha particles went through The gold foil must be empty Majority of particles went through unde ected Nuclear Model Positive charge in nucleus Nucleus has most of the mass dense core within the atom Protons positively charged Neutrons no chargeslightly larger than protons Electrons negatively chargedsurrounding the nucleus Atomic NumberZ number of protons Atoms neutralnumber of electrons Protons determine the identity of the element Isotopes atoms of the same element have the same atomic number but different atomic mass 9 Same chemical properties Nuclear Stability Nucleus small portion of total volume Contains most of the atom s mass Stability 9 related to density Neutron to proton ratio Lighter elementsratio close to 1 pretty stable Heavier elementsfall outside of the belt and become more unstable Atomic mass mass of an atom amu 1 amu 112 the mass ofa carbon 12 atom average atomic mass average mass of naturally occurring mixture of isotopes Measuring Atomic Mass 9 Most direct and accurate method for determining atomic and molecular massesMass spectrometer Periodic Table collection of elements with similar chemical and physical properties Categorized Metalsgood conductors of heat and electricity NonmetalsPoor conductors of heat or electricity Metalloidshave intermediate properties Vertical column group Horizontal column family Mole Amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities as atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon 12 Avogadro s numberNA9 6022 10quot23 Molar mass mass in grams of one mole of the substance Interconversion Sept 4 2014 Energy capacity to do worktransfer heat Energy is either kinetic or potential Kinetic energy of motion Type of kinetic energy9 thermal energy energy associated with random motions of atoms and molecules Potential9 energy at rest Type of potential energy Chemical energy 9 stored within structural units of chemical substances Electrostatic energy9 potential energy that results from the interaction of charged particles Unlike charges 9 negative energy Like Charges9 Positive energy Kinetic and potential energy can be converted to the other Energy can neither be created nor destroyed Law of Conservation oule9 SI unit for Energy Energy associated with taking 2 kg mass moving 1 m s 1 kgmquot2squot2 1 oule9 Force applied over a distance 1 Newton is applied over a distance of 1 meter U1Nm Large amounts of energy 9 k 1 k 1000 I Electromagnetic spectrum 9 visible light is a small continuum of radiant energy Speed of life c constant c 300 10quot8 ms Speed of light c frequency and wavelength w Electromagnetic radiation travel as waves Wavelength distance between two identical points on the waves Frequency 9 Electromagnetic wave Electric field and a magnetic component When light passes through two closely closed spaced slits an interference pattern is produced Constructive interference Planck39s constant 663 1034 s Photoelectric effect Einstein said that the beam of light stream of particles Bohr s Theory Hydrogen atom Line spectra 9 emission of light at specific wavelengths Bohr s Model Electrons in an atom can only occupy certain orbits Louis de Broglie If light can behave like a stream of particles then electrons would exhibit wavelike properties Electrons behave like standing waves De Broglie Wave Hypothesis Diffraction Of Elements 9 Electrons do indeed posses wavelike properties Heisenberg uncertainty principle impossible to know simultaneously both the momentum p and the position x of a particle with certainty
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