Week 4 notes
Week 4 notes BIOB 260 - 00
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Alexander on Wednesday September 23, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOB 260 - 00 at University of Montana taught by Scott Samuels (P), Mark Lindsay Grimes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/23/15
Cell Molec 921 y phosphate from ATP can be transferred to other molecules Activated Carrier Molecules ATP NADH NADPH FADH2 0 AD stands for adenine diphosphate Acetyl CoA 0 all of the above are nucleotides they do contain a sugar group 0 Electrons and H are the Groups Carried in high linkage phosphate Metabolic pathways Catabolic pathways 0 Break down molecules amp release energy Anabolic pathways 0 Buildup of molecules requires energy input Redox Oxidation 0 Loss of electron increase in charge Reduction 0 Gain of electron decrease in charge 0 Lipids more energy than carbohydrates because they are more reduced Protein Structure Function is derived from structure 0 Blueprints for structure are encoded in the sequence of amino acids 0 Hierarchical organization of protein structure 0 There are evolutionary consequences that result in the way proteins work and are assembled Proteins Tremendous variety A Plethora of functions Function is derived from structure Structures 0 Primary amino acid sequence 0 Secondary local spatial arrangement of peptide backbone o Tertiary Complete three dimensional structure 0 Quaternary arrangement of subunits in a multisubunit protein There are 20 standard proteogenic Amino Acids 0 There are nonstandard Amino Acids that are genetically encoded but generally not used in protein structure 0 Side chains of amino acids R groups determine chemical properties Primary Structure The amino acid sequence Which determines function Amino Acids are linked together by peptide bonds 0 Peptide backbone is the pattern CCNCCNCCN o Stabilized by hydrogen bonding between atoms in peptide backbone Secondary Structure 2 Maj or structures 0 0t helix 0 3 sheet DO NOT CONFUSE A HELIX WITH THE DNA DOUBLE HELIX SHAPE DNA double helix is like this kind of pasta Alpha helix is like a curled present ribbon E ltquot lt s Then there s the 3 sheet I think of it like a tin roof sheet metal and with alternating directions but this is the overall structure ii v a X39 ll g it Each chain would go perpendicular to the ruts a if lt 0 All structures are stabilized by internal 5 hydrogen bonds Cell Molec 92315 Tertiary Structure Complete the three dimensional structure stabilized by multiple weak interactions amp in some proteins covalent disulfide bonds Types or avors of hydrogen bonds 0 Backbone backbone bond 0 Backbone sidechain o Sidechain sidechain Disulfide Bonds like spot mold o Covalent bond between adjacent cysteines I Adjacent refers to special nearness not consecutive adjacency in the sequence 0 Formed by oxidizing sulfhydryl groups 0 Found mostly in extracellular proteins Each protein has a distinct shape Composed of o Motifs specific combinations of secondary structural elements 0 Domains Structurally independent units distinct globular clusters Tertiary Can be made of multiple Linked domains Quaternary Structure Quaternary separate proteins come together Arrangements of subunits o In multisubunit proteins Prosthetic groups 0 Small molecule or metal that binds tightly to protein 0 Required for protein function 0 Examples 39 Coenzymes vitamins 39 Retinal I Heme Protein folding utterly complicated o The Amino Acid sequence contains all info for folding 0 Folding minimizes free energy 0 Shape of the functional molecule is called its native structure Denaturation 0 Loss of structure amp function Disruption of multiple weak interactions I Caused by 0 Heat 0 Extreme pH 0 Detergents 0 Urea o Denaturation is reversible I This process is called renaturation I Regaining structure I Not always reversible example cooking egg Whites Molecular chaperones o Catalyze or facilitate protein folding in cells Protein structure homology Function is derived from structure Structure is derived from sequence 0 Similar sequences have similar function 0 Similar function implies evolutionary relatedness Homologous proteins 0 Similar sequence 0 Similar structure 0 Similar function I Thus evidence for having evolved from a common ancestor I Groups of organisms can be traced back to relatedness through protein homology Evolutionary Tree Sequence comparisons yield evolutionary lineage This is used to map out evolutionary trees Cellular functions of proteins 0 Goal for Exam on Friday Appreciate diversity of protein functions in the cell Functions 1 Enzymes a Catalyze reactions b Examples i Protein kinase ii Rubisco most common protein on planet 2 Structural Proteins a Support or strengthen bio structures b Examples i Collagen ii Keratin iii Fibroin iV Tubulin V Lamin Agt lt If Rubisco were a cartoon This would be him 1 Nuclear lamin in nuclear membrane 2 It is a mutation in this protein that causes Pro geria 3 Motor Proteins a Allow chromosomes organelles cells and organisms to move 4 Storage proteins a Egg whites 5 Signal proteins a Hormones 6 Receptor proteins a Retina 7 Gene regulatory proteins a Turn genes on and off 8 Defense Proteins a Antibodies b Antibiotics c Snake Venom 9 Specialized proteins a Antifreeze b GFP c Glue
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