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Week 5: Chapter 20/21 and Lecture Notes

by: Hayley Lecker

Week 5: Chapter 20/21 and Lecture Notes BIOL 1306/1106

Marketplace > University of Texas at El Paso > Biology > BIOL 1306/1106 > Week 5 Chapter 20 21 and Lecture Notes
Hayley Lecker
GPA 3.42
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi

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In this week chapter 20,21 and fungi were covered, these notes cover major areas in detail for this week.
Organismal Biology
Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hayley Lecker on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 1306/1106 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Anthony Darrouzet-Nardi in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


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Date Created: 09/24/15
Biology Week 5 Important Information Professor s Email aidarrouzetnardiutepedu or anthonvdnutepedu Chapter 20 The Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes 201 Eukaryotes Acquired Featured from Both Archaea and Bacteria Eukaryotes that are not plants animals or fungi have traditionally been called protists The term does not describe a formal taxonomic group but is a convenience term Eukaryotes are monophyletic They are thought to be more closely related to Archaea than to Bacteria But mitochondria and chloroplasts are clearly derived from bacterial lineages Events in the origin of the eukaryotic cell Cell wall was lost Cytoskeleton formed Nuclear envelope developed Digestive vacuoles appeared Mitochondria formed by endosymbiosis quot 7 Cell wall Chloroplast Mitochondrion Nucleus PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 201 Part 2 PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 201 Pan 1 u mu SInamrAsmrlam mg 39 n Anuliales lm Loss of cell wall Flexible cell surface allowed infolding and increased surface area cell could be larger Endocytosis is possible pinching off bits of the environment and bringing them into the cell Development of cytoskeleton Simple cytoskeletons probably evolved in prokaryotes Greater development of microfilaments and microtubules gives support and allows changes in shape distribution of daughter chromosomes and movement of materials Microtubules may have led to eukaryotic flagella Nuclear envelope Developed early in eukaryote evolution May have arisen from DNA attached to the membrane of an infolded vesicle Prokaryote DNA is attached to the inner plasma membrane Phagocytosis and Digestive Vacuoles Gave the ability to engulf and digest other cells Endosymbiosis A proteobacterium was incorporated and evolved into mitochondrion The original function of mitochondria might have been to detoxify the 02 that was being produced by cyanobacteria reducing it to water Later this became coupled with formation of ATP Development of chloroplasts occurred in a series of endosymbiosis Primary endosymbiosis a cyanobacterium was engulfed Chloroplasts have two membranes Remnants of peptidoglycan cells wall can be found in glaucophytes Primary endosymbiosis also gave rise to chloroplast of red algae green algae and land plants Secondary endosymbiosis a eukaryote engulfed a green alga cell which because a chloroplast Tertiary endosymbiosis a dinoflagellate took up another protest that already had its chloroplast through secondary endosymbiosis Host cell nucleus Chloroplast A Primary endosymbiosis Eu karyote l Cyanobacterium Cyanobacterium outer membrane Peptidoglycan Chloroplast containing eukaryotic cell Cyanobacterium inner membrane B Secondary endosymbiosis Host cell nucleus 339 Chloroplast Host a eukaryotic Fm ce 0 PRINCIPLES OF UFE Figure 202 Part 1 PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 202 Part 2 1 sun Smauer Assocuates Inc AU 2 Smauer Assoclates Inc 202 Major Lineages of Eukaryotes Diversified in the Precambrian There are five major clades of protistan eukaryotes There is enormous diversity with these groups Most are unicellular and microscopic but some are multicellular and some are quite large eg gaint kelp Protists were traditionally classified on the basis of life histories and reproductive features Today electron microscopy and gene sequencing reveal more evolutionary patterns Lateral gene transfer may be a complicating factor 1 Alveolates a Sacs called alveoli lie just beneath plasma membrane All unicellular most are photosynthetic Dinoflagellates Apicomplexans Ciliates i Dinoflagellates mostly marine photosynthetic important primary producers in the oceans Some species cause red tides Some are endosymbionts with invertebrates eg corals ii Apicomplexans obligate parasites Apical complex organelles at the tip of the cell help it invade host tissue Elaborate life cycles featuring asexual and sexual reproduction and life stages in different hosts Plasmodium is the causative agent of malaria iii Ciliates numerous hairlike cilia identical to eukaryotic flagella Heterotrophic some have photosynthetic endosymbiosis Complex body form The ciliate Paramecium is covered by flexible pellicle with trichocytes defensive organelles that can explode as sharp darts Cilia provide precise locomotion Lives in fresh water contractile vacuoles excrete excess water taken in by osmosis Also has digestive vacuoles 2 Excavates Diplomonads Parabasalids Heteroloboseans Euglenids Kinetoplastids a Euglenids and kinetoplastids have flagella mitochondria with discshaped cristae Some euglenids are always heterotrophic some are photosynthetic but can lose their pigments and feed on organic matter i Kinetoplastids mitochondrion has a kinetoplast that contains multiple circular DNA molecules Trypanosomes are pathogens that can change cell surface recognition molecules frequently making them hard to control 3 Stramenopiles Rows of tubular hairs on the longer of their two flagella Some lack flagella but are descended from ancestors that possessed them Diatoms Brown algae Oomycetes i Diatoms unicellular but some species associate in filaments Lack flagella except in male gametes Deposit silicone dioxide in twopiece cell walls intricate patterns are unique to each species Reproduce both sexually and asexually Abundant in oceans and fresh waters and are major photosynthetic producers ii Brown algae brown color from the carotenoid fucoxanthin Multicellular marine Attached forms develop holdfasts with alginic acid to glue them to rocks Alginic acid is used by humans as an emulsifier in ice cream cosmetics and other products Giant kelp may be up to 60 meters long 4 Rhizaria Unicellular and mostly aquatic have long thin pseudopods Make up large component of ocean sediments Cercozoans Forminiferans Radiolarians i Forminiferans external shells of calcium carbonate Threadlike branched pseudopods exten through microscopic holds in the shell and form a sticky net used to catch smaller plankton Accumulations of shells have produced much of the world s limestone 5 Ameobozoans Amoeboid body form iobeshapred pseudopods Loboseans Plasmodial slime molds Cellular slime molds i Loboseans Feed by phagocytosis engulfing smaller organisms and particle with pseudopods Many are adapted to living on the bottoms of lakes and bonds Testate amoebas live in shells made from sand grains or secreted by the organism 203 Protists Reproduce Sexually and Asexually Asexual reproduction among the protists Binary fission equal splitting by mitosis followed by cytokinesis Multiple fission splitting of one cell into more than two cells Budding outgrowth of a new cell from the surface of an old one Sporulation formation of specialized cells that can develop into new individuals Offspring from asexual reproduction are genetically identical to their parents clonal lineages Reproduction in Paramecium Two types of nuclei one macronucleus and one to serveral micronuclei Asexual production all nuclei are copied before the cell divides Conjugation two individuals fuse and exchange genetic material a sexual process but not reproductive Macronucleus Micron ucleus PRINCIPLES OF LIFE Figure 2018 2012 Sinauer Associates Inc Some protists have alternation of generations A multicellular diploid sporeproducing organism gives rise to multicellular haploid gameteproducing organisms n Fenmzanon mmmnmummmmnmnmmmmnn hh oms mnmmmnn 1 Eggs EDEN 15 Adult Heteromorphic the two generations differ morphologically somorphic the two generations are similar 204 Protists Are Critical Components of Many Ecosystems Phytoplankton are important primary producers The diatoms perform about 15 of all carbon fixation on Earth about the same amount as the rainforests Some microbial eukaryotes are pathogens Plasmodium is a parasite in human red blood cells and causes malaria one of the world s most serious diseases Plasmodium has a complex life cycle that includes mosquitoes as an alternate host Plasmodium is an extracellular parasite in the mosquito and an intracellular parasite in the human host Many microbial eukaryotes live as endosymbionts Some photosynthetic dinoflagellates live as endosymbionts in corals If the dinoflagellates die or are expelled the coral is said to be bleached If the corals don t acquire new endosymbionts they usually die or are damaged due to reduced food supply Diatoms store energy as oil Over millions of years diatoms have died and sunk to the ocean floor They become petroleum and natural gas Sedimentary rock composed mostly of the silica cell walls of diatoms used for insulation filtration metal polishing and to kill insects Formaminiferan shells make up extensive limestone deposits and some sandy beaches The shells as fossils in marine sediments are used to estimate past sea temperature Chapter 21 Primary endosymbiosis is a shared derived trait or synapomorphy of the Plantae The first clades to branch off after primary endosymbiosis are all aquatic common name algae The ancestor of Plantae may have been similar to modern glaucophytes Glaucophyte clhoroplasts retain some peptidoglycan between the membranes as in cyanobacteria A key synapomorphy of the land plants is an embryo that is protected by tissues of the parent plant They are also called embryophytes There are ten major clades of land plants Nonvascular plants some have conduction cells but no tracheids Not a clade Vascular plants tracheophytes well developed vascular systems with tracheids Land plants first appeared 400 to 500 mya They had to adapt to dry conditions Develop transport systems and structural support New ways to disperse gametes and progeny Adaptions of land plants Cuticle a waxy coating that slows water loss Stomata closable openings that regulate gas exchange Gametangia organs that enclose gametes and prevent them from drying out Embryos young plants contained within a protective structure Pigments that project against UV radiation Spores with thick walls containing sporopollenin this prevents drying and resists decay A mutually beneficial association with fungi that promotes nutrient uptake from the soil Land plants have alternation of generations this includes a multicellular diploid stage and a multicellular haploid stage Gametes are produced by mitosis spores are produced by meiosis Spores develop into multicellular haploid organisms Sporophyte the multicellular diploid plant Cells in the sporangia produce haploid spores by meiosis Spores develop into the gametophyte the multicellular haploid plant Gametophyte produces haploid gametes by mitosis Fusion of gametes produces a diploid zygote which developed into the sporophyte Nonvascular plants liverworts mosses hornworts live in moist habitats and have thin cuticles Mostly small they have no vascular system to transport water so size is restricted Small enough that minerals can be distributed throughout their bodies by diffusion Liverworts green leaflike gametophytes Sporophyte remains attached to the larger gametophyte Most liverworts can reproduce asexually and sexually Mosses have stomata Have cells called hydroids which die and leave a channel through which water can move Hornworts have sporophytes that look like small horns Cells contain one chloroplast Sporophyte grows from basal region capable of indefinite cell division Have a symbiotic relationships with cyanobacteria that live in internal cavities and fix nitrogen n nonvascular plants the gametophyte is photosynthetic The sporophyte is nutritionally dependent on the gametophyte and remains attached to it Gametes are produced in the antheridium and archegonium The sperm must swim or be splashed by water to reach the egg Vascular plants A vascular system consists of tissues specialized for transport of water and material from one part of the plant to another Evolution of vascular tissue allowed land plants to spread to new environments and diversify rapidly Xylem conducts water and minerals from soil to aerial parts of the plant Phloem conducts products of photosynthesis from production sites to use or storage sites A cell type called tracheid evolved in sporophytes and was critical for invasion of land Tracheids allow transport of water and materials Lignin in the cell walls provides structural support allowing taller growth Get more sunlight and disperse spores more effectively Vascular plants also developed a branching independent sporophyte generation Branching allows more spore production and complex growth patterns Invasion of land by vascular plants made the terrestrial environment more hospitable to animals Arthropods vertebrates and other animals moved onto land only after vascular plants because established there Phyniophytes earliest vascular plants None exist today No roots were anchored in soil by rhizomes like ferns today Dichtomous branching pattern Lycophytes club mosses True branching roots have leaklike structures arranged spirally on the stem Dichtomous branching sporangia in clublike clusters called strobili Monilophytes horsetails and ferns Within this clade horsetails are monophyletic ferns are not A synpomorphy left gaps in stem where leaves emergy Also have differentiation between main stem and side branches Horsetails all in genus Equiseturm Reduced true leaves in whorls true roots independent sporophyte and gametophyte Silica deposits in cell walls made them useful as quotscouring rushes Gametophyte is small and shortlived sporophyte can be very large and can sometimes survive for hundreds of years Sporangia are borne on a stalk in clusters called sori on the undersurfaces of the leaves Overtopping growth one branch differentiates from and grows beyond the others an advantage in competition for light Megaphylls more complex leaf may have arisen from flattening of a branch tip Seed plants gymnosperns and angiosperms A secure and lasting dormant stage for the embryo Can be dormant for many years even centuries In the seed plants the gametophyte develops partly or entirely white attached to and nutritionally dependent on the sporophyte Seed plants evolved independence from water for getting the sperm to the egg allowing them to colonize drier habitats The male gametophyte is a pollen grain the walls contain sporopollenin which prevents drying and chemical damage Pollination arrival of pollen grain near a female gametophyte A pollen tube grows from the grain and digests its way toward the megagametophyte where fertilization occurs The diploid zygote divides to form an embryonic sporophyte then enter a dormant stage A seed contains tissues from three generations A seed coat develops from tissues of the diploid sporophyte parents Haploid tissue from the female gametophyte provides nutrients for the developing embryo The embryo is the new diploid sporophyte generation Many seed remain viable for long periods Seed coats protect from drying potential predators and other damage Many seeds have adaptations to aid in dispersal When the embryo begins to grow it draws on nutrients stores in the seed Seeds are one of the major reasons for the evolutionary success of seed plants Secondary growth increasing diameter from root and stems by growth of xylem forms wood Older wood becomes clogged with resins but provides support and allows plants to grow to great heights Many plant groups have lost the woody growth habit Gymnosperms seed plants that do not form flowers or fruits Ovules and seeds are not protected by ovary or fruit tissue Have only tracheids as the waterconducting and support cells within the xylem Four group Cycads tropical earliest diverging clade Gingkoscommon in Mesozoic today only one species Gingko biloba Gnetophytes some characteristics similar to angiosperms Conifers conebearing plants Conifers dominant forests at high latitudes and high altitudes Cones contain the reproductive structures Angiosperms reproductive organs in flowers seed enclosed in fruits Female gametophyte very reduced usually only seven cells Synpomorphies of the angiosperms Double fertilization Nutritive tissues called the endosperm Ovules and seeds enclosed in a carpel Germination of pollen on a stigma Flowers and Fruits Phloem with companion cells Reduced gametophytes Vessel elements specialized watertransporting cells in xylen Fibers cell type in xylem that provide structural support Double fertilization two sperm in one pollen grain One combines with egg to form the zygote The other combines with two other haploid nuclei of the female gametophyte to form a triploid cell Triploid cells give rise to the endosperm All flower parts are modified leaves Stamens bear the male microsporangia Ovules and seeds are enclosed in a modified leaf called a carpel The pistil is one or more fused carpels containing the ovaries Perfect flowers have both megasporangia and microsporangia Imperfect two flower types male and female Monecious male and female flowers occur on the same plant Dioecious male and female flowers are produced on different plants Evolution of flowers earliestdiverging clades have many tepals carpels and stamens Carpels may have evolved from leaves with sporangia on the margins Carpels fused and became more buried in receptacle tissue Floral organs changed positions from bottom to top of ovary Most angiosperms are pollinated by animals and they have coevolved Flower structure has diversified under the selective pressure of pollinators Fruits develop from the ovaries after fertilization fruits protect seeds and aid in dispersal Angiosperms zygote develops into an embryo with one or two cotyledonsSeed leaves Cotyledons can absorb and digest the endosperm or enlarge and become photosynthetic Lecture Notes Reference Table for Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes F ro karyotes Euka ryotes Membranebound NO YES organelles Cell size in general 15 pm 10100 pm Nucleus NO YES Cell wall YES peptideglycan Yes plants cellulose No animals Genetic material Single circular lVlultiple chromosomes ohrom oeome 11 000 as much DNA as eukaryotes Plasma membrane YES YES Riboeomes Vesicles Flagella OFTEN SOME Reference Table for Major Nutritional Modes Mode of Energy Carbon Nutrition Source Source Types of Organisms Antotroph Photo Light 02 Photosynthetic prokaryotes antotroph including cyanobactcria plants certain protists algae Chennai Inorganic 302 Certain prokaryotcs for antotroph chemicals example Sulfoiobus Heterotroph Photo Light Organic Certain prokaryotcs hatcrotroph com pounds Cherno Organic Organic Man prokaryotes and hctcrotroph com 7 com 39 protists fungi animals pounds pounds sonic parasitic plants copyrighi Pearson Education inc publishing as ijarnln Cummings Aerobes use 02 oxidative respiration Anaerobes do not use 02 fermentation Reference Table for Bacterial Pathogens Disease Pathogen Area affected Transmission Eotuiism Clostridium botulinum Nerves Improperly preserved foods Salmonella Salmonella intestine Contaminated food amp water Dental cavities Streptococcus so Teeth Bacteria enter mouth from env t Strep tihroat Streptococcus Upper respiratory Persontoperson Pycgcccs tract skin ioioocl contact or aerial Tuberculosis Myobacterlum Lung bones Persontoperson Wilctcwosum other organs by coughs Lyme s disease Borrella burgdorferl Skin joints heart Tick bite Tetanus Clostridium tetani Nerves at Contaminated synapses wounds Basal eukaryotes a number of eukaryote lineages that branched very early in eukaryote evolution still exist today These groups can help inform us about the early evolution of eukaryotes Metabolic Diversity of Protists Heterotrophs ingestive or parasitic Ciliophora ciliates Apicomplexa eg Plasmodium Trypanosomes Slime molds Rhizopoda amoebas Actinopoda Foraminifera Heteterotrophs by absorption Water molds Photoautotrophs some are also heterotrophs Chlorophytes Green Algae Rhodophytes Red Algae Phaeophytes Brown Algae Chrysophytes eg diatoms Dinoflagellates Euglenophytes Euglenoids can also be hetero Please look at powerpoint lecture 8 the teacher included everyone who made a powerpoint of the last class activity into it Reference Table for Fungal Phylogenetic lm Cl EEUED E mima ia CHquotICIEITICIEDEI Nucleariida anel ida M ll li39Cl SEED li39 d El Ehytridin mycnta ILJmiHm mta lh l i lla Fungil l HERE WE Menca imaatignmycnta Ella Stuc adinmyc Eliza Ennpagnmycntima Hickxel pmyc ntima Emtnmnphthnm mymtima Mucnmmymtima Gunme39rnmycnta SE El WEE pita Eaaidinmyc Eliza Mycelium The vegetative part of fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae Hyphae A long branching filamentous structure of a fungus with high surface area and absorptive capachy Chitin A longchain polymer that is a component of fungal cell walls as well as arthropod exoskeletons Fungal Spore Microscopic reproductive structures of fungi serving a plant similar purpose to that of plant seeds Saprobe An organism that absorbs nutrients from dead organic matter Lichens Composite organisms consisting of algae or cyanobacteria or both living among filaments of fungus in a symbiotic relationship Below is an example of lichens Upper layer of V if hyphae viewsmalt 2 Photosynthetic quot 34395l3301 H 53 v I cell layer J 4 1 1 1 v Q i Looselayerof i 59quot Q quot397 A 39 513939 quot1 t m39 39 I qi r quotv r quot3195tiwzehvew ut Lower level of 39 nth i i I g h gnaw5ynum k s t g3 4 1r 55 wcp V a T39l r U39M 1 quota a 39fo ak quot J u O a quot 39 5 39 7 5 hyphal l hlZOldS a m 396 fuf ov vino 7La 5 1f4g h n i ggg m algal car a 39 39 u 15 ny a quot 4 quotowc 939 9 99 4 v ampd0 or I 1 m 25 wg gl y gs f f i gfilth 513434 ff 3weexr ljh ff 91 a 3 sixo 0 v39 I V a 39g quot39v PRINCIPLES OF LIFE 22 Flgurn 229 39 20M Sz39veuv39 Anolelcx 5w Mycorrhizal fungus A fungus that colonizes the roots of a plant and lives a symbiotic relationship with the plant Fungus use digestive enzymes are secreted outside the body to break down large food molecules in the environment The small molecules are then absorbed into the cells Year are freeliving single cell fungi while most fungi are multicellular


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