NHM201chpts6&7.pdf NHM 201
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Regan Dougherty on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NHM 201 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Denise DeSalvo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Nutrition Through the Lifecycle in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Thursday September 24 2015 NHM 201 Chapters 6 amp 7 Lactation Benefits of Breastfeeding Infants optimal nutrition strong bonding safe fresh milk enhanced immune system immunoglobulins transferred from mother to child protection against allergies and intolerances promotion of correct jaw and teeth development latching on process reduced risk fro obesity reduced risk of gastroenteritis lower respiratory tract infections and future chronic diseases Mother bonding increased energy expenditure leading to faster weight loss faster shrinking of uterus improved bone density reduced risk of postpartum depression time saving from prep and mixing of formula money savings don t have to buy formula reduced time away from work with sick child because child has good immune system Economic save money on formula fewer health insurance claims if breastfed less employee time off with sick children Thursday September 24 2015 reduce prevalence of illnesses and thus healthcare costs Environmental no packaging involved transport of formula What a mother consumes flavors of fooddrink may be evident in breast milk Breastfeeding is not genetic just because your mother couldn39t breastfeed doesn39t mean that you can t breastfeed Barriers to Breastfeeding lack of knowledge lactation problems embarrassment time and social constraints lack of support from family and friends concerns about diet and health practices healthcare provider misinformation media portrayal of bottle feeding as the norm Big is Healthy Breastfed infants are typically leaner difference is not evident by 24 months Suggested Hierarchy of Infant Feeding Choices baby at mother s breast mother s own expressed milk milk from milk bank ex HMBANA Thursday September 24 2015 Donor milk is not the same as informal sharing wet nurses milk buying milk sharing not condoned in the US Donor milk is screenedtested from infectious diseases cow milkformula soy milkformula Animal milks alone are not appropriate for human babies causes problems with iron deficiency NO COW MILK UNTILAT LEAST ONE YEAR OF AGE Human milk is a raw food and food safety measures need to be taken with pumping and storing Physiology of Lactation mammary gland breast alveoli functional unit of mammary gland secretory cells duct in center myoepithelial ces surround secretory cells contract oxytocin and cause milk to be injected Lactogenesis the process of milk production Stage 1 last trimester through first few days of postpartum milk begins to form Stage 2 2 5 days postpartum and goes to 10 days changes in milk quantity and composition Stage 3 10 days postpartum milk is stabilized fat CHO protein content is where it should be Hormonal Control of Lactation Production PROLACTIN stimulates milk production Thursday September 24 2015 infant sucking stimulus major stimulator of prolactin secretion secreted by anterior pituitary gland promotes continued milk production and release Release OXYTOCIN triggers ejection of milk from breast stimulated by suckling the letdown reflex milk flows Qualities of Human Milk Colostrum first milk produced in stage 2 of lactogenesis 2 10 mL per feeding 580 700 caloriesliter higher in protein electrolytes immune factors lower in carbsfat Mature Milk 065 calmL 20 caloz Lipids fatty acid profile but not fat content varies with mother s diet DHA developmental advantages retinal development make sure mother gets DHA cholesterol higher in breast milk Foremilk watery milk coming from a full brest vs hindmilk creamy milk coming from a nearly empty breast foremilk 4O 45 calories from fat hindmilk 60 80 calories from fat Thursday September 24 2015 Protein relatively low content compared to cow milk casein and whey both easily digestible Carbohydrate lactose Fat Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A is highest in colostrum Vitamin D varies depending on diet rickets deficiency Vitamin E is sufficient for term Vitamin K injectionoral dose at birth clotting Water Soluble Vitamins based on mother s diet BB deficiency is most likely Minerals lower in content than cow s milk easier for kidneys to handle Water is a major component in human milk BREASTFED BABIES DO NOT NEED ADDITIONAL WATER Supply and Demand 1st month 20 ozday 4 5th month 24 28 ozday The size of the breast does not limit a women s ability to nurse The mother will produce milk as long as the baby is suckling Optimal duration for breastfeeding is 1 year past introduction of solid foods Healthy term babies know how to breastfeed Mom must be able to identify when baby is hungry Thursday September 24 2015 Babies feed 10 12 time per day their stomachs are very small Issues It is normal for newborns to lose about 7 of weight during first week gt 10 is an issue Malnourished babies become sleepy non responsive no dirty diapers normal 3 4 dirty diapers per day Maternal Diet follow dietary guidelines additional 400500 calories per day while breastfeeding you must have calories to make milk mothers are thirsty drink lots of water vegetarians my need Bf 2 Most women don t have problems breastfeeding Common Problems sore nipples baby is not attaching correctly letdown failure due to stress overactive letdown engorgement breasts overfilled plugged duct milk is in the duct because they are not nursing frequently enough mastitis bacterial infection in the duct alcohol level in breastmilk matches maternal blood levels nicotine marijuana affects RNA and DNA caffeine moderate intake is usually not a problem can causeissues hyperbilirubinemia bilirubin is a cell toxin level of red blood cells rises in body can result in jaundice Thursday September 24 2015 treatment passing of meconium