Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes FSCN 1112
U of M
Popular in Principles of Nutrition
Popular in Nutrition and Food Sciences
This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexandra Cummins on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FSCN 1112 at University of Minnesota taught by Mashek, Douglas in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Principles of Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Minnesota.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Week 3 Levels of organization molecules cells tissue organ organ system organism The digestive system GI tract gastrointestinal tract 0 0 Systems directly involved with food mouth esophagus stomach small intestine large intestine rectum anus Systems indirectly involved with nutrient absorption liver pancreas gallbladder Digestion the process of breaking down foods into a form the body can use Absorption uptake of nutrients from GI tract into the body GI tract composition 0 O O O O Mouth 0 O O Mucosa inner most layer lots of mucus for lubrication Sub mucosa contains blood vessels that take nutrients away to body Muscles moves food through system Serosa protective layer Sphincter prevents food from owing the wrong way 5 total I Esophageal sphincter keeps food in stomach keeps acid in failure to do so results in heartburn I Pyloric sphincter controls ow out of stomach I Sphincter of Oddi controls ow of bile from gallbladder Movement I Peristalsis contraction of muscles to move food along I Segmentation repeated contraction to break food up into smaller pieces I Mass movements peristalsis over a long distance Secretions I Saliva lubrication starch breakdown keep a cracker in your mouth and it will start to taste sweet as large carbs are broken down into sugars I Mucus lubrication I Enzymes break down the majority of the food we eat each has a specific job breaking down a macromolecule into something smaller that can be absorbed I Acid denatures proteins destroys microorganisms in stomach I Bile aids in fat digestionabsorption I Bicarbonate neutralizes pH once food is done in stomach I Hormones coordinate all processes Chewing enables us to swallow food increases surface are of food particles Saliva components I Lysozymes breaks down bacteria I Mucus holds bolus of food together I Amylase breaks down starch Tastes I Taste buds on tongue and soft palate I 5 different tastes salty sodium sour acid sweet sugar bitter phytochemicals from plants and umami earthy savory amino acids I Olfactory glands in nose are used to smell food and greatly impact taste Esophagus o Swallowing moves bolus from mouth to esophagus o Epiglottis pushes food down esophagus prevents food from going down the windpipe Stomach 0 Acid HCl Little is absorbed through stomach Starts protein digestion Pepsinogen is secreted but only digests as pepsin in low pH Lipase is released to start fat breakdown Gastrin hormone that releases HCl and pepsinogen Mucus protects lining cells of the stomach from harmful HCl acid contact makes ulcers ulcers common in long term aspirin users Small intestine 0 Most digestion and absorption happens here 0 3 parts I Duodenum I Iejunum I Ileum 0 Lots of surface make absorption possible I Villi finger like structures inside small intestine filled with blood vessels I Microvilli fingers on the villi to increase surface area OOOOOO Liver o Produces bile to help absorb fat helps make fat water soluble Gallbladder 0 Stores bile Pancreas o Produces hormones for the blood stream as well as for digestion 0 Makes bicarbonate to neutralize HCl in stomach o Produces lipases proteases and amylase o Hormones play a big role in digestion there is a lot of communication between the brain and gut Absorption o Occurs mostly in small intestine 0 Ways to absorb I Passive diffusion nutrients move from an area of high concentration food to an area of lower concentration cells water fats O I Facilitated diffusion proteins help nutrients move into cells fructose I Active absorption energy is required to get nutrients from food into cells glucose amino acids I Endocytosis substances are engulfed by membranes to be brought into cells antibody absorption in infants Stomach absorbs water and alcohol Small intestine absorbs carbs proteins and fat Large intestine absorbs minerals vitamin K biotin and fatty acids from bacteria Moving nutrients once absorbed I Blood vessels collect nutrients I Nutrient rich blood collects in the portal vein and then goes to the liver to be filtered I Fat soluble particles collect in lymph system Large intestine I Cecum colon rectum anus I BACTERIA Control pathogenic bacteria by forcing them to compete for survival Make essential vitamins vitamin K Produce short chain fatty acids from fiber side effect gas Over 5000 species of bacteria in gut 10x more bacteria in gut that there are cells in the body Good bacteria have been linked to lowering obesity cancer diabetes Probiotic live bacteria that provide health benefits Activia Prebiotic nondigestible carbohydrates that promote bacterial growth Cdiff can be cured by transplanting bacteria from a healthy person to infected patient fecal transplant Leaky gut front line of cells break apart and bacteria leak into blood stream which can then infect the entire body In uences on the micro biome Diet bacteria in gut grow and adjust based on what we eat Genetics cell communication plays an important role in working with the bacteria Immune system works in conjunction with bacteria making sure only the helpful ones get to stay Pathogens harmful bacteria compete with healthy bacteria to alter O 0 micro biome o Antibiotics strong antibiotics can wipe out helpful bacteria forcing most of the biome to rebuild this can be good an bad 0 First 3 years of life are crucial for developing which bacteria will be in the gut for your entire life I During this time the more antibiotics you take the harder it is to restore a normal ora I Bacteria growth is linked to immune system and correlates to preventing disease as you age 0 Mice study germ free mice were given bacteria from obese underweight mice and the germ free mice took on the traits of their bacterial donors GI tract diseases 0 Heartburn and GERD gastroesophogeal re ux I GERD is the chronic version of heartburn I Foods that increase risk fats spicy foods I Treatments include antacids and inhibitors that block HCl production in the stomach I Laying down after big meals makes an episode more likely o Ulcers I Caused by bacteria treated using antibiotics I Aspirin can thin mucus lining of stomach also causing ulcers I Smoking increases risk 0 Gallstones I Hard clumps of cholesterol build up I Main reason people have their gallbladder removed 0 Intestinal gas I Byproduct of the fermentation of carbohydrates by bacteria in the gut I Treat by limiting soluble fiber and ingesting enzymes that break down foods that only bacteria can digest Beano o Constipation I Caused when diet lacks fiber and water I Physical activity can help 0 Diarrhea I Classified as 3 or more loose stools per day I One of the leading causes of death especially in 3rd world countries I Causes major dehydration o Irritable bowel syndrome IBS I Affects 15 of US adult population I Irregular bloating pain 0 In ammatory bowel disease IBD I Includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn s disease I Affects 1 in 500 Americans 0 Hemorrhoids I Swollen veins o Celiac disease I Inherited autoimmune disorder I Immune system reacts to gluten a protein as harmful and attacks nearby cells in GI tract I Destroys villi making it difficult to absorb nutrients I Many people are not diagnosed I Treatment avoid gluten wheat rye barley corn rice and buckwheat are OK Carbohydrates Made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen Made through photosynthesis in plants Simple o Monosaccharides I Hexoses 6 carbons Glucose blood sugar very important in body Fructose part of sucrose Galactose part of lactose Sugar alcohols xylitol sorbitol found in chewing gum I Pentoses 5 carbons Ribose and deoxyribose o Disaccharides I Connected by bonds that are very specific and have very specific breaking mechanisms I Maltose 2 glucose molecule bound together with an alpha bond I Lactose galactose and glucose bound together with a beta bond I Sucrose glucose and fructose bound with an alpha bond Most common sugar in human diet table sugar Complex 0 Oligosaccharides 310 monosaccharides I Examples Raffinose stachynose I Can t be digested by humans the bacteria in the gut will digest these 0 Polysaccharides I Digestible Starch o Amylose long strait chain of glucose 0 Amylopectin branched chain of glucose Glycogen humans turn carbs into this to be stored in the liver to regulate blood sugar and in muscles to power movement I Indigestible glucose strung together with beta bonds Dietary fiber naturally found in foods Functional fiber added into food for health benefits Soluble fiber can dissolve in water examples include pectin and gums helps lower cholesterol by trapping it in fiber complex Insoluble fiber cellulose lignin responsible for plant support Bacteria feast on all of the indigestible fiber that we consume
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