Memory EDU 2100
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verified elite notetaker
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Thomas Nelson 92215 0 Processing of incoming info to brain is not a singlestep process 0 Info has to get into brain then stored in brain memory 0 Semantic Encoding Storing info in a retrievable form I 3 stages of info processing 0 Entry through sensory memoryperception I Info storage that holds stimuli from environment for 23 seconds until it can be processed I Perception and pattern recognition 0 Storage in workingshortterm memory I Info is processed for meaning if a person chooses to focus and retain it I Has limited capacity I Rehearsal Encoding strategy of repetition I Chunking Encoding strategy of combining entire list into a meaningful chunk so it can be remembered with 6 or 7 other chunks connecting smaller pieces together to make larger pieces 0 Storage in longterm memory I Stores accumulated knowledge and skills after storing positive encoding I 2 types gt Semantic Memory of facts concepts and principles such as meanings of words locations and formulas gt Episodic Memory of life experiences gt Both are explicit memory forms gt Implicit memories We are not consciously aware of but can in uence our actions tying shoes without thinking about it 0 Semantic Networks Transforming info into meaningfully and purposefully connected verbal chunks I 3 types of ideas formed into semantic networks 0 Propositions Units of declarative knowledge I Knowing that the words was and were are verbs 0 Productions Units of procedural knowledge I Knowing which form of the verb to use with singular pronoun I O Conditional Knowledge Knowing when and why to use declarative and procedural knowledge I Knowing why to use that particular form of the verb 0 Schema Mental image or code that can be used to organize or structure info and control its encoding storage and retrieval 0 DualCoding Theory Theory that info is stored in longterm memory as both a semantic network and a schema 0 Factors Affecting Memorizing 0 Meaningfulness I The more meaningful info is the easier it is to memorize and retain 0 Serial Position I Effects result from location of an item in a list whether at beginning middle or end Sequence effects I Primacy Effect Items that come first tend to be remembered best I Recency Effect Items that come last tend to be remembered best 0 Practice I Massed Practice Cramming I Distributed Practice Practice spread over time 0 Organization I Semantic Organization Items are related by virtue of their common meaning same topic I Structural Organization Each word can be directly connected to words immediately before and after it can be a sentence 0 Transfer and Interference I Transfer Applying knowledge to real world experiences gt Positive Transfer New info is easier to learn when other info has already been learned that is similar to new info gt Negative Transfer New info is harder to learn when other info has already been learned that con icts with new info Changing from driving automatic to manual I Interference Forgetting something as a result of receiving new info gt Retroactive Interference New info interferes with old info causing old info to remembered incorrectly gt Proactive Interference Old info interferes with new info causing new info to be remembered incorrectly I Minimizing negative transfer and interference gt Distribute practice gt Focus on meaningful learning rather than memorizing gt Use mnemonic devices 0 Mnemonic Devices I Techniques or tricks for helping memory by associating less meaningful material with more meaningfulmemorable images words or sayings I FirstLetter Method Using first letter of words to create phrase that helps you remember something Every Good Boy Does Fine gt EGBDF music notes I Peg Method Remembering numbered items in a list I Keyword Method Remembering vocab or words in a foreign language 0 Abstracting Summarizing a passage of section of text 0 Purpose is to reduce written material to an amount that can be understood and retained Elaborating The learner produces additional original info about a topic to help understand what he she learned 0 Can be an example illustration drawing analogy metaphor or rewriting of idea in own words 0 Elaborative Encoding Elaborating on each new point and relating new info to what is already in memory Schematizing O Schemata helps learners I Understand what they read I Focus on most important parts I Figure of what is implied I Search through memory for what other info they must know in order to understand what is being read I Pick out main points for longterm storage I Fill in gaps of memory when the main points are recalled later 0 Structures Schemata that help reader to interpret what has been read 0 Levels of Processing Schemata that help the reader go beneath the surface of the text to extract its true meaning 0 5 structures that can be used for processing text in order to extract main point I AntecedentsConsequent Cause and effect I Comparison I Collection Lists the components of a topic I Description I Response Organizing 0 Outline 0 Hierarchal Relationship Smaller parts make up larger parts Questioning O A student can play an active role in extracting meaning from what is heard or read by questioning O Selfexplanations Notetaking 0 Technique for outlining main ideas presented in a lecture or in written text 0 6 rules of notetaking from written text I Delete trivial material Delete redundant Substitute a bigger term for a simpler term when possible Substitute a superordinate event for subordinate actions when possible I Select a topic sentence if the author has provided one I Write your own topic sentence if necessary 0 4 rules for notetaking on lectures I Distinguish between superordinate and subordinate info I Abbreviate words I Paraphrase Use an outline format