Week 3 and 4 of notes
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Chapter 12 Review Neurons 0 Motor Efferent Input Feeling the hot stove PNS o Sensory Afferent allow to sense the environment Ex Processing that the stove is hotdangerous PNS o Interneurons CNSbrain and spinal cord Take in sensory information analyze amp process it and generate the motor response moving hand from stove Synapses 0 Where axons and dendrites meet 0 Can be 34 feet long ex dendrites from ngertipsljspineljbrain o 2 types Chemical 0 Uses neurotransmitters through the synaptic cleft Electrical 0 Use gap junctions Can quottalkquot directly to the next cell very close together no synaptic cleft Chapter 13 Central Nervous System 0 Brain amp Spinal cord 0 General functions 0 Receives information from your sensory neurons 0 Interneurons process sort amp analyze sensory information 0 Develop motor commands and send out via motor neurons to effectors muscle glands Parts of the Brain Composed of 4 parts 0 Cerebrum Biggest part of the brain 0 Diencephalon Composed of Thalamus Hypothalamus Pineal gland endocrine gland not nervous tissue Structurally connects the cerebrum to the brain stem Literally means quotthrough the brainquot 0 Brain Stem Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata Brain stem attaches below medulla oblongata o Cerebellum CNS protected by bones and meninges o Cranial bones amp vertebral bones Wall 0 Cranial amp Spinal meninges are deep to bones Mattress 0 3 layers of meninges from super cial to deep 1 Dura mater 2 Arachnoid mater 3 Pia mater o Dura Mater quotTough motherquot Attached to cranial bones outersuper cial meninges Made of thick dense irregular connective tissue CT 0 Arachnoid Mater Weblike Middle meninges Many collagen bers arranged like a spider web Subarachnoid space falls below arachnoid meninges Between arachnoid mater and pia mater Contains CSF Cerebrospinal uid 0 Surrounds brain and spinal cord to provide buoyancy and shock absorption 0 Pia Mater quotLittledelicate Surrounds and covers all folds like saran wrap Many blood vessels Blood in CNS Provides oxygen and glucose Brain is 2 body weight but consumes 20 of oxygen and glucose that is in our body Brain does not store glucose 0 Constant supply is necessary Neurons synthesize ATP exclusively from glucose 0 Glycolysis Krebs ETC Lack of oxygen for gt4 mins permanent damage stroke Bloodbrain barrier BBB Protects CNS from damaging materials in blood Continuous capillaries with tight junctions Prevents materials from passing aroundbetween cells Materials must move through Arteries capillaries in the brain Astrocytes Neuroglia Wrap around capillary walls further ltering substances BBB lters material from blood to interstitial uid of CNS o Interstitial uid uid outside of cells Cerebrospinal Fluid Fuid that surrounds the outside of the brain and spinal cord Foundstored in the subarachnoid space after it is made Functions 0 Protection from physical forces shock absorption 0 Chemical protection o Circulation oMade in ventricles of the brain o In ventricles are choroid plexuses quot Are capillaries surrounded by ependymal cells neuroglia Ependymal cells have 0 Tight junctions like cells IN capillaries Microvilli Fingerlike projections of plasma membrane 0 Add surface area Cilia hairs o Movement of particles BloodCSF Barrier o In choroid plexus lters material from blood into cerebrospinal uid o Around every neuron in the CNS Parts of the Brain Cerebrum 0 quotSeat of intelligencequot 0 Cerebral cortex Outer layer of gray matter Gray matter Dendrites cell bodies of neurons unmyelinated axons neuroglia o Develops more quickly than white matter creates folds and ssures during development 0 Longitudinal ssure Divides the cerebrum into left and right hemispheres 0 Connected by corpus callosum White matter of cerebrum is deep to cerebral cortex 0 Myelinated axons o Specialized astrocytes that allow BBB o Myelinated axons form tracts like nerves that send info to different parts of the CNS thalamus cerebellum other parts of cortex etc Lobes of cerebrum o Named for surrounding bones Different functions 0 Functional divisions of cerebral cortex Sensory areas 0 Allow us to perceive the world around us Motor areas Responsible for voluntary movements Association areas 0 Deal with complex integrative functions 0 Memory emotions reasoning Cerebrum Sensory areas receive sensory input 0 Primary somatosensory area ln each parietal lobe Touch pressure vibration tickle temperature pain Proprioception awareness of your body and space joint and muscle position 0 Primary visual area in each occipital lobe Vision 0 Primary olfactory area in each temporal lobe Smell 0 Primary gustatory area in each parietal lobe Taste 0 Primary auditory area in each temporal lobe Hearing Motor areas provide motor output 0 Primary motor area in frontal lobes Sends effectors to skeletal muscles 0 Broca s area Speech formation Association areas integrate sensory experiences 0 Generate meaningful patterns of recognition and awareness Determine an object by texture Recognize sound as music speech etc Body language tone of voice etc Hemispheric lateralization 0 Right and left hemispheres have anatomical amp physiological differences Left hemisphere controls right side of body and vice versa Left hemisphere reasoning numbers logic language Right hemisphere creativity musical ability facial recognition understanding emotions Diencephalon o Thalamus Sensory reception and regulating motor output 0 Hypothalamus Regulates homeostasis hormones involved in reproduction hunger amp thirst circadian rhythms o Pineal Gland Endocrine gland secretes melatonin Brain Stem o Responsible for involuntary processesmovement o Midbrain Contains masses of gray matter called basal nuclei Regulate movements Neurons release dopamine neurotransmitter 0 Die in people with Parkinson s o Pons Bridge between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain o Medulla Oblongata Continuation of the spinal cord Autonomic processes sneezing coughing diameter of blood vessels 0 Reticular Formation Composed of both gray and white matter netlike Filters out unnecessary input Reticular Activating System RAS Allows us to stay consciousawake during the day Inactivation causes sleep Relies on auditory amp somatosensory input not olfactory 0 Ex Smoke Detectors Cerebellum o Regulating your posture and balance 0 Comparing intended movements with actual movements 0 Makes tiny corrections as needed Limbic System Emotions behaviors memories Spinal Cord out of the brain 0 White matter made up of myelinated axons o lmpulse propagation Nervous impulses 0 Gray matter made up of neuroglia dendrites cell bodies unmyelinated axons etc 0 Information integration Deciding what to do with signals Chapter 15 Sensory Motor and Integrative Systems Sensations Conscious or subconscious awareness of change in internal or external environment Perceptions Are conscious awareness and interpretations of sensations Rely on association areas Senses General and Special 0 General Senses o Somatic Touch pain proprioception o Visceral Internal organs 0 Special Senses 0 Taste smell hearing vision and equilibrium Sensation requires 4 steps 1 Stimulus of appropriate sensory receptor within its receptive eld 2 Transduction of stimulus conversion of stimulus into graded potential 3 Assuming action potential is reached generation of impulse to CNS via rst order neurons a First order neurons send signals from PNSDCNS 4 Integration of sensory information in cerebral cortex a Takes place in the primary sensory areas Receptors can be classi ed based on structure location or type of stimulus detected o Based on structure Naked receptorsdCre Have freenaked dendritic ends Encapsulated receptors Dendrites covered by connective tissue on capsule Complex receptors 0 Modi ed sensory receptor that synapses with another receptor sensory neuron Receptors can produce 2 types of graded potentials Generator potentials o Occur in naked amp encapsulated receptors 0 Dendrites of these receptors can generate their own graded potential which can generate an action potential 0 Receptor potentials o Occur in complex receptors 0 If complex receptor has an action potential neurotransmitters will be released into synapse with sensory neuron 0 Based on Location Exteroceptor interoceptors proprioceptors Exteroceptor Found near the external surface of our bodies Respond to external stimuli 0 Hearing touch sight taste smell etc lnteroceptors Found in blood vessels organs nervous system Responds to internal stimuli Usually not perceived Proprioceptors Found in muscles joints inner ear tendons ligaments etc 0 Provide information about location and position of body in space 0 Based on stimulus detected Mechanoreceptor Responds to mechanical and physical stimuli Thermoreceptors Respond to temperature Photoreceptors Respond to light Nociceptors Respond to pain Chemoreceptors Respond to different chemical stimuli Osmoreceptors Respond to osmotic pressure of different cells Somatic SensationsCutaneous Sensations o Sensations from skin Tactile thermal pain tickle etc o Somatic sensory pathway Relays information from somatic sensory receptors to primary somatosensory area of cerebral cortex 1 Firstorder neurons conduct impulses from somatic receptors to the brain stemspinal cord not all the way to the brain 2 Secondorder neurons conduct impulses from brain stemspinal cord and send them to the thalamus a Signals crossover to other side hemispheric lateralization 3 Thirdorder neurons conduct impulses from thalamus into appropriate primary somatosensory area of cerebral cortex Motor Pathways o Somatic motor pathways 0 Relay ian ormation from primary motor area of cerebral cortex to skeletal muscle 1 Upper motor neurons conduct impulses from primary motor areas of cerebral cortex to brain stemspinal cord 2 Lower motor neurons conduct impulses from brain stemspinal cord into skeletal muscles 0 Basal Nuclei 0 Found in midbrain 0 Receive input from sensory association and motor areas 0 Send feedback to thalamus to initiate or terminate movements Parkinson s Disease ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 0CD Tourette s Huntington s Disease Cerebellum o Posture balance rapidcoordinatedhighly skilled movements 0 Modulates movements and makes small corrections 0 Sleep amp Circadian Rhythms o Sleepinducing chemicals in brain produced by breakdown of ATP Bind to and inhibit RAS arousal causing sleep 0 Caffeine binds to receptors preventing sleepinducing chemicals from binding to RAS 0 Memory 0 To create a new memory an experience must cause a structural andfunctional change in the brain Changes are in individual neurons 0 Shortterm memory Functional changes in the brain new neurotransmitter 0 Longterm memory Typically the structural changes in the brain new dendritessynapses o Stored in basal nuclei cerebellum and cerebral cortex Chapter 16 The Special Senses Vision Eyeball 0 Has three tunics 1 Fibrous Tunic super cial Composed of the sclera amp cornea o Sclera tough brous tissue Maintains shape of eyeball Muscle attachment 0 Cornea anterior portion Light refraction 2 Vascular Tunic Composed of choroid ciliary body iris o Choroid contains many blood vessels amp capillaries Delivers oxygen glucose etc o Ciliary Body produces aqueous humor Ciliary muscle changes the shape of our lens 0 Attached to suspensory ligaments which attach to lens 0 lris the colored part of the eye Regulates light entering eyeball through pupil Circular and radial muscles 0 Circular muscle contracts in bright light narrowing pupil Radial muscle contracts in dim light making pupil larger 3 Retina deep Neural layer amp pigmented layer 0 Beginning of visual pathway 0 Pigmented layer attached to choroid Absorbs stray light waves 0 Neural layer is deepest 3 retinal neurons Photoreceptors Bipolar cells Ganglion cells Lens 0 Contains proteins called crystalins o Properly refract light 0 Interior of eyeball o Anterior cavity Aqueous humor Contains lens ciliary body iris o Posterior cavity Vitreous humor Contains pigmented layer neural layer Functions of the Eye Image Formation Goal is to focus image on retina Three steps 1 Refraction bending of light by lens and cornea Light bends as it passes through different densities air vs water 75 of light waves are refracted at cornea 25 of light wave are refracted at the lens Light is refracted into focus on retina 2 Accommodation of lens Increased curvature of lens Focusing on close objects requires more refraction o Ciliary muscle contracts Lens gets fatterwider more convex 0 When ciliary muscle relaxes it pulls on suspensory ligaments and pulls on lens Lens gets thinner 3 Constriction of pupil Contraction of circular muscles constricts the pupil o Regulates light entering eyeball Occurs simultaneously with accommodation of lens 0 Convergence medial movement of eyeballs to see objects o Refraction abnormalities 0 Myopia nearsightedness EyebaHistoolong o Hyperopia farsightedness Eyeball is too short 0 Astigmatism cornea is misshapen Pathway of vision Photoreceptor Bipolar cell Ganglion cell lnterneuron O O Photoreceptors modi ed sensory neuron neural layer of retina Complex receptor Rods amp Cones Rods 120 millionretina Respond to light Colorless vision respond in bw light 0 Shades of Gray 0 Fuzzy vision many rods synapse with one bipolar cell 0 Brain cannot interpret which speci c rod was stimulated o Photopigment Rhodopsin Cones 6 millionretina Respond to bright light 0 Sharp vision one cone synapses with one bipolar cell 0 Brain CAN interpret which cone was stimulated o Photopigments only one type in each cone Blue opsin Green opsin Red opsin Composed of opsin and retinal Opsin is glycoprotein o 4 different versions red green blue rhod o Retinal o Derived from vitamin A o Lightabsorbing portion Method of operation photopigments 1 ln darkness retinal is bent as cisretinal a Retinal ts into opsin 2 When light hits cisretinal absorbs photon of light a Straightens out becoming transretinal b Process called isomerization 3 Transretinal separates from opsin no longer ts a Process called bleaching 4 Enzyme retinal isomerase converts transretinal to cisretinal 5 Cisretinal returns to opsin a Regeneration Visual Pathways o Photoreceptor stops inhibiting bipolar cell 0 Bipolar cell release excitatory neurotransmitters to stimulate ganglion cells 0 Axons of ganglion cells form optic nerve Optic nerves cross over at optic chiasm to opposite sides 0 To thalamus To primary visual area of cerebral cortex Hearing and Equilibrium Hearing ability to perceive sound waves 0 External ear 0 Auriclepinna Collect sound waves and direct into external auditory acoustic canal 0 External acoustic canal Directs sound waves to tympanic membrane 0 Tympanic Membrane Converts sound energy into mechanical energy Separates external ear from middle ear 0 Middle Ear o Auditory ossicles ear bones smallest in body Malleus Attaches to tympanic membrane Articulates with incus Incus Articulates with malleus on one side and stapes on the other Stapes Articulates with incus 0 Flat end of stapes ts into the oval window 0 Round window 0 Auditory Eustachian tube connects middle ear to nasopharynx Releases pressure when yawnswallow If pressures in middle ear do not equal pressure outside tympanic membrane cannot move Innerear o Semicircular canals Equilibrium o Vestibule Equilibrium Saccule and utrice o Cochlea Hearing Cochlear duct lled with endolymph Scala Vestibul Fil d with prilvmnh L Cochlear Duct Endolymph Scala Tympani Filled with Spiral Organ organ of perilymph corti Scala Vestibuli amp Scala tympani lled with perilymph Vestibular membrane amp basiar membrane line cochlear duct 0 Spiral organ organ of corti on basiar membrane Tectorial membrane above of spiral organ 0 Spiral organ 0 Contains hair cells Complex receptor with microvili at top
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