Chapter 1 Outline
Chapter 1 Outline PKGSC 4010
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86563 - NUTR 2030 - 001
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by snwatts on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PKGSC 4010 at Clemson University taught by Anthony Pometto in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see packaging machinery in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Dr Pometto Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline Chapter 1 Introduction John R Henry Packaging Machinery Handbook wwwpackmachbookcom Professor Pometto PKSC 40106010 Package Machinery INTRODUCTION Three broad categories based on materials used 0 Flexible packaging I Films foils pouches and bags I Also includes secondary packaging operations using exible materials such as bundling and wrapping for the purpose of this book I Ex chip bags 0 Semirigid packaging I Corrugates and paperboard used in cases cartons and trays I Ex toothpaste paperboard package 0 Rigid packaging I Glass metal some plastic and composite bottles cans and tubes I Ex canned vegetables eye drops glass jar of sauce Flexible packaging 9 lms foils pouches bags g p 14 Pometto g picture INTRODUCTION Semirigid packaging 9 corrugated and paperboard used for cases cartons and trays g p 14 Whiteside g INTRODUCTION Rigid packaging 9 glass plastic metal and composite bottles can and tubes g p 15 Laminated toothpaste tube 9 could be considered exible semirigid or rigid 9 this book consider it rigid p 15 Individual packaging machines are seldom used alone so companies must usually link these islands of automation together to form a packaging line Islands of automations 9 Stations 9 linking them together to form a packaging line Fig 15 and Whiteside gure PACKAGING THE NOUN p 1517 Packaging noun 9 A system to contain and protect a product or quantity of products 0 Includes a range of materials and formats including bags pouches bottles cartons corrugates cases blisters tubes trays etc 1 Dr Pometto Roles of packaging 0 Product protection Identi cation Warning Branding Instruction Dispensing Storage and more OOOOOOOOO Marketing selling Communication Chapter 1 Introduction PACKAGING THE NOUN p 1517 Few plants have the luxury of dedicated lines 9 Changeover between products and formats is more common p 16 Power Point Outline 0 Dedicated lines packaging lines that produce only one product and in only one package or in limited package sizes Increasing variety of products and presentations means that plant personnel must do daily and sometimes more frequent changeover between product and format Changeover reduces the amount of time available for production line performance by 20 to 40 9 thus each unit in the packaging line must be versatile o SKU 9 Stockkeeping units 9 the individual product in unit of sale to the final customer identified by unique numeric or alphanumeric identification code p 16 I Ex A 12ounce can of cola would be one SKU a 12ounce can of diet cola would be a different SKU The combo of package design material machinery and operations can have a significant impact on exibility o Careful attention to and coordination btwn all 4 factors is required Inefficiencies 9 friction between factors 9 are multiplied across the packaging line 9 some industries run on extremely tight margins and even a 2 to 3 eff1ciency loss can represent a significant loss in profits p 17 0 An inefficiency that seems insignificant by itself can have tremendous cumulative effects PACKAGING THE NOUN p 1517 85 Efficiency 83 Ef ciency Normal operation Small inefficiency Shifts time 8 hr 8 hr 816 hr 10 loss minutes per shift Run time 408 productsmin 398 productsmin Time loss per year 40hr 10 minhr x 40 hr x 52 weeks 20800 min 347 hr loss per year 13880 Product loss per year 1 per product 408 398 per min x 60 minhr x 40 hrwk x 52 wk 1248000 products Dr Pometto Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline 1248000 Total loss per year 1261880 per yr PACKAGING THE NOUN p 1517 Packaging levels p 1718 0 Primary 0 Secondary and o Tertiary 1 Primary packaging 9 any packaging that is in direct contact with the product a Must be carefully selected for compatibility with the product b Machinery must also be carefully selected to assure that it can do nothing to contaminate or harm the product i Especially important for foods and pharmaceuticals 2 Secondary packaging 9 packaging that is in contact with the primary package but not directly with the product a Materials for secondary packaging often put more emphasis on good looks because it is often the package that the customer sees on the store shelf b Multiple levels of secondary packaging can exist i Cartons pouched may be packed in a shelf display tray before being placed in the shipping case display tray is also a secondary package 3 Tertiary packaging 9 generally not seen by the end user 9 shipping container plastic lm wraps a Can have multiple layers of tertiary packaging i Cartons shrink wrapped then placed on corrugated case b Purpose of tertiary packaging group the cartons for ease of handling and protection until they are ready to be placed on the shelf Fig 18 PACKAGING THE NOUN p 1517 Shelf stocking 9 Display ready products 9 secondary and some tertiary packaging p 19 placed on shelves to reduce shelving time o Expensive for the typical retail store so to reduce that cost they use display ready products 0 EX 8 pack of coke shrink wrapped with graphics Source reduction p 20 1 Volume reductions corrugated vs plastic 2 Weight reduction plastic vs glass 3 Use of recycled materials Fig 19 PACKAGING THE VERB p 2022 Packaging verb 9 The process of combining products components and materials to from a nished package p 20 Dr Pometto Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline Machinery components used to verbs 1 Fill Weigh Label Inspect Close SeaL Place into cases and Convey 999999 PACKAGING THE VERBp 2022 I Off the shelf 9 basic or standard packaging machines p 20 o Labeling equipment 0 Coder 0 Not likely for other types of machines most have to be customized Machine builder 9 Vendor 9 company that is responsible for design fabrication and assembly of packaging machine 0 in virtually all cases the machine builder will purchase certain standard machine components motors controls bearings etc from third parties called Original Equipment Manufacturers OEM Original Equipment Manufacturer OEM 9 suppliers of components and subassemblies to the machine builder p 21 PACKAGING THE VERB p 2022 Classification criteria of packaging machinery p 21 1 General machine type and purpose 9 o Maj or criteria type of machine 0 Machines are usually categorized by major function such as I Filler I Capper I Bundler I Case erector etc 0 Some machines combine multiple functions on a single frame Monobloc machines 2 Level of automation 9 0 Fully automatic I no operator I Automatic packaging machinery is machinery that requires little or no action on the part of an operator beyond keeping it supplied with bilk materials and product I Automatic machinery tends to run at higher speeds than comparable semi automatic machinery I Requires higher skill to operate and maintain than others I More expensive I Requires larger production volumes to justify o Semiautomatic and I Routine intervention by operator Dr Pometto Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline I Ex placing individual pkg into machine so it can be lled labeled or closed by machine loading product into pkg that the machine has formed 0 Manual I Label dispensers I More of packaging aids than machinery and are outside the scope of this book PACKAGING THE VERB p 2022 Classification criteria of packaging machinery p 21 3 Motion 9 0 Continuous motion CM or Machines move the package through the machine at a constant speed without stopping it Usually able to achieve higher throughput speeds by eliminating the deceleration and acceleration associated with stopping and starting the pkg Constant speed provides smoother movement resulting in gentler handling of the pkg with less spillage banging and noise Drawback they tend to be more complex both mechanically and electronically which adds to the initial cost and may also require a higher skill level for operators and the maintenance force 0 Intermittent motion IM Move or index the pkg to a position within the machine where it is stopped for lling capping labeling or some other action Once action is complete pkg indexes out of the station to the next process Indexing may be cyclic driven by a cam or a timer to occur at speci c time interval Index may also be on demand cycling on receipt of a manual signal from the operator or detection of the pkg by a sensor 4 Layout and product ow 9 o Inline or Inline ow carries the pkg through the machine in a straight or relatively straight path Often intermittent motion 0 Rotary Machine moves the pkg onto a rotating turret which carries it in a circular path As turret rotates pkg is lled capped or some other action is performed Often continuous motion Usually operate at higher speeds but are more complex and costly 5 Package orientation 9 0 Vertical or Drop product in from top Often preferred when hand loading is required 0 Horizontal 9 Insert the product horizontally Often makes it more suitable for automated loading 6 Speed 9 Machine throughput 0 Speed determines machine throughput and is one of the most critical parameters Dr Pometto Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline Speed generally refers to packages per minute or containers per minute ppm packages per minute cpm container per minute bpm bottles per minute pph products per hr fpm feet per minute linear speed 0 Usually for conveyors or inkj et coders Cycle speed must be de ned by user to be useful Speed is usually measured by counting the number of product produced over a few min and normalizing to ppm 0 This is called instantaneous speed and is usually greater than true speed 0 True line speed measured by multiplying instantaneous speed by efficiency over time 000000 00 PACKAGING THE VERB p 2022 Monobloc machines 9 Multifunction machines 9 e g filler and capper in one machine p 21 Automatic packaging machinery 9 requires little or no action by the operator 9 run at higher speeds p 21 Semiautomatic packaging machinery 9 required routine operator intervention p 22 Continuousmotion CM machines 9 move the package through the machine at a constant speed without stopping it p 22 Intermittentmotion IM machines 9 move or index the package to a position within the machine where it is stopped for filling capping labeling and more Indexing 9 cyclic or timed interval for the package p 23 How fast things are moving rate Know these terms A PACKAGING THE VERB p 2022 Inline ow 9 intermittent package motion fig 23 p 23 Whiteside fig PACKAGING THE VERB p 2022 Rotary flow 9 o Rotating turret allowing the package to be filled capped and labeled 9 o Operate at high speed and are costly 9 0 Continuous ow fig 24 p 23 Whiteside fig PACKAGING THE VERB p 2022 Horizontal cartoner 9 product inserted horizontally p 24 Vertical cartoner 9 drop the product from the top Fig 24 p 24 Dr Pometto Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline Note 9 avoids words like high speed and low speed since speed is really product dependent Products often inserted into carton before the carton end is sealed in order to release all air in the carton Whiteside gs PACKAGING THE VERB p 2022 Cycle speed 9 term must be de ned by the user 0 For example Thermoformer for cups will have a cycle speed of 50 cycles per minute producing 4 packages at a time 4 up with a speed of 200 packages per minute ppm 50 X 4 200 p 25 Instantaneous speed 9 measured by counting the number of products produced over a few minutes and normalizing to ppm p 26 True line speed 9 multiplying the instantaneous speed by efficiency over time p 26 o For example Designed for 1500 cpm Runs at a 85 efficiency 9 1500 X 085 1275 cpm Package design 9 driven by market and consumers not machinery p 26 PACKAGING THE VERB p 2022 Packaging machine issues fig 28 p 2728 0 Most packaging lines will have packages butted against each other on the conveyor at the machine infeeds or in accumulators o If pkg is straight sided or tapered this is not a problem bc in many cases butting them together helps increase their stability 0 Problem occurs when the package is irregularly shaped I EX bottles as they accumulate they fan out and push each other over Container shape free standing vs odd shape Carton shapes 4 vs 425 Height and cap sizes Whiteside figs PACKAGING THE VERB p 2022 Inverse taper package bottle 9 smaller at bottom than at top fig 27 Packaging machinery 9 not one size fits all food vs industrial chemicals vs medical products p 28 0 Needs to be carefully selected to match the operation and the package 0 World of packaging machinery is large and varied Fig 27 and Whiteside fig SUMMARY 0R KEY POINTS Packaging the Noun 1 Product protection Dr Pometto 0 2 Identi cation 3 Marketingselling 4 Warning 5 Branding 6 7 8 9 1 Communication Instruction Dispensing Storage and more Packaging the Verb l 9999 Fill Weigh Label Inspect Close SeaL Place into cases and Convey SIMPLE MACHINES Slide 23 Simple Machines Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline A 39 1 Wedge Wheel and Axel Lever SIMPLE MACHINE EXAMPLES QMPWF C Lever Incline Plane Wedge Pulley Wheel and axle Screw PACKAING LINE IS THE CLASS FLOW Packaging Machinery Handbook JR Henry 2012 Line loading Flexible packaging Filling Inclined Plane Screw Pulley Dr Pometto Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline Capping and closing Labeling Coding and inline printing Inspection Cartoning and case packing Conveying buffering amp accumulating Packaging machine components and controls MONOBLOC EXAMPLES Polyethylene terephthalate feeds into the drying hopper above blue object to start the injection stretch blow wwwrichardspackagingcom the technique for blowing bi aXially oriented bottles was commercially developed Bottles now represent the most signi cant use of PET moulding resins wwwpetcoreorg The Triton160 Bottle Washer Filler and Capper wwwtritonl60com WHITESIDE PACKAGE MACHINERY OVERVIEW PACKAGING MACHINERY INDUSTRY 55 billion packaging machinery shipments US packaging machinery segments 0 Food beverage pharmaceuticals Packaging machinery manufacturers 0 US 0 Germany 0 Italy 0 Japan US 2009 Packaging machinery shipments o 40 foods 0 21 beverages o 11 pharmaceuticals o 28 consumer durables o 6 personal care products toiletries cosmetics 0 etc PACKAGING MACHINE IMPORTANCE If you work for a packaging supplier 0 Develop packages that will work on customer s lines 0 Adjust packaging machined to make packages run on customers lines If you work for a packaging user 0 Develop packages that will work for your lines o Specify your own lines select and buy machines WHAT IS A PACKAGING LINE A group of machines that are connected that 0 Combine product and packaging inputs Dr Pometto Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline 0 Perform all the necessary functions to properly package a product 0 Prepare it for distribution WHY ATUOMATE PACKAGING Increase production lower cost 0 Buy new stateoftheart equipment 0 Optimize or alter existing equipment 0 Purchase refurbished equipment 0 Utilize a contract packager FACTORS INFLUENCING HOW A COMPANY INCREASES PACKAGING PRODUCTION Availability on inplant equipment Market demand for the product Production time frame Production volume Quality standards Equipment technology Space constraints Installation requirements PACKAGING LINE CONSIDERATIONS Product Containerspackaging material Machine capabilities Personnel Plant Machine maintenance THE PRODUCT Dry or wet value components accessories cables software etc 0 To decide on type of filler packer etc Constant density 0 To decide on weight or volumetric measurement Must it be protected 0 Foodmedicalpharmaceutical o Aseptic temp physical abuse etc CONTAINERSPACKAGING MATERIAL Container issues 0 Size variability o Smoothness of lips o Rigidness of folding cartons 0 Shape of containers 0 Positions of pouring spouts 10 Dr Pometto Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline 0 Handle position 0 Container weight Filmweb materials 0 COF o Tendency to pucker tear or stretch 0 Thickness o Coatings Machinability ease at which product and package move thru the line Improper storage All packaging materials must be accurately speci ed 0 Must run on our machine is not an accurate speci cation 0 Use measurable parameters to specify MACHINE CAPABILITIES Ability to handle the product containers and packaging material Speed versatility adaptability adjustability accuracy dependability and of machine to withstand abuse The more speci c a machine is the more ef cient it is WHO AFFECTS THE PACKAGING LINE PERSONNEL Production line operator Machine adjuster Machine operator InspectorQC Mechanic Salesman Scheduler Line foreman supervisor Packaging engineer Purchasing agent Materials handler Level of training Proper training is essential for smooth line operation and for troubleshooting Unskilled personnel Use simple machinery Hepwsewewwr HO THE PLANT Space requirements Sanitation Utilities 0 Electricity 0 Compressed air 0 Water 0 Steam Explosion hazards etc 11 Dr Pometto Chapter 1 Introduction Power Point Outline MACHINE MAINTENANCE More moving parts typically means higher maintenance costs Maintenance time impacts line output 0 Production and production capability should reach a balance 0 If you used the machines 100 of the time without proper maintenance they will break down 0 Scheduled maintenance is recommended by machine manufacturers Personnel must be trained 12
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