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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Rosen on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 205 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Professor Bizimis in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Earth Resources in Geology at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Geologv weellt of 9g3 class notes Where do some metals come from Aluminum Bauxite Al hydroxide deposits Crushed stone road building cement agricultural etc calcium carbonate Chromium harder steel prevents corrosion Chromite spinel Cement for concrete Limestone shells sand iron gypsum Iron Iron Ore magnetite hematite Nickel for steel alloys laterite deposits About Earth Materials All Earth materials are composed of atoms bound together Minerals are composed of atoms bonded together and are the buidling blocks of rocks Rocks are composed of minerals and they record various geologic processes The atom is the smallest unit of an element that retains the physical and chemical properties of that element Atoms participate in chemical reactions Isotopes atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons EX the carbon atom typically has 6 newutrons and 6 protons called CA12 but there are also small amounts of CA13 and CA14 CA13 has 6 protons and 7 neutrons CA12 have 6 protons and 8 neutrons ION an atom that is positively charged or negatively charged anion has gained electrons has more electrons relative to the number of protons cation has lost electrons has fewer electrons relative to the number of protons the electrical attraction of ions will cause an ionic bond to form between oppositely charged ions EX Naquot Clquot NaCl halite SALT What are minerals Geologists define a mineral as a naturally occurring solid crystalline substance generally inorganic with a specific chemical composition found in nature atoms arranged in orderly patterns not a product of living tissue unique chemical composition When do minerals form during cooling of molten rock during evaporation of water upon changes in temperature and pressure on existing minerals mineral composition silicate group silicate group variety of compound based on silicon and oxygen quarts glass manufaturing feldspar ceramic manufacturing mica muscovite biotite clays used as drilling mud in building materials and as a soil modifier Ferr0magnesian silicates Olivine Gamet Amphibole Physical properties of minerals color hardness cleavage luster density crystalline form Minerals composition nonsilicates carbonates sulfates sulfides oxides native elemnts examples of native elements copper gold silver or platinum Rocks are formed from minerals a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineral materials consists of many mineral grains or crystals forming a solid mass each rock contains a record of its own history 3 categories igneous sedimentary metamorphic Igneous Rocks formed from hot molten rock material usually composed of silicate minerals and some dissolved gases and water molten materials are extremely hot plutonic rocks form if magma cools inside Earth s crust does not ow onto surface coarse crystals will grow volcanic rocks form if magmas ows onto surfaces as lava glass often forms Weathering of Rocks 1 Chemical 2 Physical 3 Sediments 4 Ions for cements