Week 6 ANT 102
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
I Diabetes A Type II 1 Adult onset that mostly occurs in adults and is frequently related to obes y B Historically 1 We ate when we found our food and burned lots of calories 2 Now we eat more re ned carbohydrates and don39t burn as many calories C Thrifty genotype model 1 Explanation of why diabetes occurs at such high frequencies in some populations 2 Suggests that diabetesgenetic predisposition ef cient utilization of dietary energy from carbohydrates 3 Slow metabolism of sugar and faster storage of sugar as body fat 4 The longer sugar is in your bloodstream the longer you can use it as energy 5 During huntergatherer lifestyle in times of food shortage a diabetic person has more fuel available between meals ll Heat Stress A Mechanisms of cooling 1 Four thermodynamic principles that cool you off i Radiation heat ows from one source to another ii Convection heat moves from warm to cool ex swish factor in clothing iii Conduction heat transferred by direct physical contact touching of a coolwarm object iv Evaporation cooling process 580 kilocalories of heat lost for every liter of evaporated water B How the human body cools itself 1 Sweating i Primary cooling mechanism ii Shortcomings excessive sweating is an inef cient cooling mechanism it causes dehydration loss of salt and electrolytes ineffective in high humidity environments ties humans to water sources 2 Body sizeshape i Bergman39s rule the smaller the surface area that39s exposed to the external environment the greater the amount of conserved heat ii Allen39s rule application of principle to appendages more surface area for sweat iii Long lean torso with long arms and legsquottropicalquot iv Short and stout with shorter arms and legsquotarcticquot 3 Countercurrent i Blood vessels below skin surface are paired off for every outgoing artery there is one incoming vein ii Blood cooling before it gets to skin surface and warming before it returns to the core iii Thermodynamics involved convection and conduction 4 Blood ow i Blood circulates throughout the body from core to appendages and back again Blood is warmest at the surface Vasodilation and vasoconstriction blood vessels expand and contract to control blood flow iv Vasodilation expansion of the blood vessels to allow blood to rush out to extremities Face gets ushed blood at skin surface and sweating makes for ef cient heat loss with the use of convection and evaporation v Vasoconstriction Blood vessels constrict and prevent blood from rushing out to extremities Blood stays nearer to the core of the body to keep you warm C How we all acclimate 1 If you are a couch potato and then start exercising your body won39t know how to regulate temperature and you won t be able to go very far D How native people adapt to heat stress 1 2 3 4 III Cold39s Dry heat stress i Genetic adaptations ii Certain ethnic groups Bergman and Allen imb proportions ong armslegs elongated torso Reduce sweat less to avoid dehydration See examples of aborigines in the photo essay on reggienet tress A Two kinds of cold stress 1 2 Moderate above freezing consequence is hypothermia Severe below freezing consequences are hypothermia and frostbite B Essentials in cold stress 1 2 3 Clothing Shelter External sources of heat C Physiological responses humans have when dealing with cold stress 1 2 P1P Vasoconstriction keeps core warm to prevent hypothermia Vasodilation keeps nose ears cheeks a extremities warm so they don39t get frostbite Eskimos have more blood cells plasma etc and are very vascularized Countercurrent the warm outgoing blood is warming the incoming chied blood so that by the time it gets back to the heart it is warm again Shivering keeping movement going increasing metabolic rate Nonshivering thermogenesis up to a point adrenaline rush adrenaline noradrenaline poar T3 i Polar T 3 syndrome a hormone called thyroxine that is produced by the thyroid and it stimulates the production of brown fat 7 ii Polar T 3 is suppressed by high protein diet and a high metabolic rate however this is Inuit dietphysiology and is not suppressed in them It s a genetic thing Fat deposition up to a point Europeans uniquely have a thin layer of body fat under their skin a natural quotthinsulatequot for cold adaptation Metabolic rate of Eskimos is 1345 higher than Europeans and they have a high protein diet D Examples 1 2 Lapps and Eskimos short limbs and round deep chests retain heat better Eskimos i Winter dwelling igloos internal temperature above freezing and entrance is below ground ii Clothing parka made of caribou iii Winter temperatures high of 46 low of 50 iv Can39t burn brown fat the fat surrounding the heart lungs etc IV High altitude stress A High altitude PWF 25 million people live above 10000 feet Tibet Nepal Himalayan mountains Peru Chile Andes mountains Hypoxia lack of oxygen i No cultural buffers for hypoxia ii Must have oxygen mask at extreme high altitude iii Symptoms of hypoxia sleepiness impaired judgment tremors increased heart rate blood pressure decreases Non aboriginal living at high altitude short term acute mountain sicknesssoroche nausea fatigue dizziness chest pains heart palpitations Non aboriginal living at high altitude long term chronic mountain sicknessMonge39s disease lose ability to handle hypoxia black lips purple earlobes hemorrhaging beneath ngernails death likely unless given oxygen B Acclamation to hypoxia 1 Pulmonary ventilation i Hyperventilateget more oxygen into lungs ii Consequence respiratory alkalosis blood pH increases and never returns to 74 Hemoglobinoxygen af nity i Hemoglobin loses oxygen af nity at high altitudes but increased alkalinity of blood xes that Oxygen transport in blood I Increase in RBC production to capture oxygen molecules at 5000m increases 57 million RBC39scu mm increase of circa 28 ii But plasma levels stay the same iii Consequence blood gets more viscous and heart must work harder iv Result increased oxygen carrying capacity but not as good as at sea level C Lifelong residents of high altitude F 1 Acclimatization to hypoxia 2 Larger lung volume more surface area developed during childhood can t be developed in adulthood 3 Increased pulmonary diffusion clearly more oxygen bioavailability that is partly a result of more volume 4 More vascular more veins and arteries 5 Kids are more plastic and can change their physiology 6 Nonnatives but residents of high altitude since childhood i Can still get Monge39s disease Natives to high altitude Andes 1 Short stature deep wide chested lung capacity 2 Infants have a small birth weight i But with relatively more body fat 3 Fetuses nourished by more blood rich placenta i Oxygen levels same as sealevel fetuses Natives to high altitude Himalayas Small body size No deep chest lnfants birth weight no different than normal Oxygen metabolism i Major gene affecting oxygen saturation in the blood ii Genetic 5 Observation i Tibetans demonstrate better work capacity in stress tests ii Tibetans are better adapted to high altitude stress probably because they ve lived at high altitude for longer than those peoples of the Andes Vocabulary Hypoxia the condition of a lack of oxygen Saroche short term high altitude stress Monge39s disease long term high altitude stress Acclimate what adults do in physiological limits because development has stopped Acclimatize what kids to they can change body Larger lung volumes more red blood cellsveins 6 High altitude natives Himalayas and Andes mountain dwellers each have different genetic physiological changes barrel chested in Andes gene for better oxygen transport in Himalayas PWF PWF Uquot
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