Week 4 Lecture - Introduction to International Politics
Week 4 Lecture - Introduction to International Politics PSC 1003
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Jok on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSC 1003 at George Washington University taught by Olson, L in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to International Politics in Political Science at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
22 September 2015 Intro to International Affairs This week s topic Institutional Understanding of World Politics Continuation of realism from 17092015 Waltzian Realism Starts from Waltz What we have been discussing Sees fundamental problem as distrust Impossible to be sure about other states true intentions Says that states will care about relative gains not absolute gains But some stability to the system through balancing No state will arise that can hurt or topple you Interested in security not conquering Wary view of the world Offensive Realism Says that worries about other states will translate into need for power and control distrust turns into power seeking behavior much less likelihood of stability much harder for states to achieve true security states will tend to buck pass and not balance State s goal is to become the Hegemon Depressing view of the world Motivational Realism Believes that it is possible to gure out other states intentions much of the time Distinguishes between greedy states and security seeking states Argues that under some circumstances security seeking states can nd each other much greater chance of stability Possibly create zones of stability Waltzian realism and China s rise Brezinski former secretary of state Perceives the likelihood of increased disputes but believes that these can probably be resolved China is vulnerable to US blockade causing economic and social issues for China Doesn t have a comparable army Confrontation less likely because of nuclear weapons Cautious rebalancing not direct con ict As China becomes more powerful other states in the area may embrace the US more in order to balance out power Offensive realism and China s rise Mearsheimer sees huge risk for con ict Other states allying with the US vs China But they may not want to pay the costs Want the US to shoulder the burden China driven by desire to become a hegemon Will push the US out of Asia and take Taiwan May also stir up trouble for the US in Western Hemisphere Or with other countries Realism Emphasizes anarchy power and role of state But depending on assumptions about motivations analysis could go in very different directions important and in uential approach Liberalism and Institutions an alternative to realism agrees in modern version that the international system is anarchic but argues that even so it is possible for states to cooperate to solve common problems International institutions play a key role in underpinning cooperation is NATO an institution or an alliance Liberalism and Anarchy Different understandings of what anarchy does Realists argue that anarchy leads to security fears and self help Existential Liberals anarchy makes it tougher to solve problems Government within state provides collective goodsroads etc No real equivalent in international politics Hence question who solves problems Not Just Hegemonic state Old answer quasi realist was that hegemonic state in the system would provide public goods Old institutions up to 1980s US dominated But even US appeared to partly withdraw states kept cooperating Why a puzzle for standard accounts of IR Keohane Liberals like Keohane began to argue that states could cooperate after hegemony International institutions played a key role Institutions could not control states but they could provide valuable tools for states to work together collectively Panoply of institutions UN IMF WTO NATO OSCE How do institutions help states to cooperate Institutions provide information Very often Problems are complex and hard to gure out Institutions can provide information that allows states to understand problems adn perhaps resolve them Role of IMF OECD WORLD BANK 24 September 2015 Introduction to International Affairs This week s Topic International Institutions Institutions make rules Even in anarchy institutions can set or embody rules Even without a world policemanrules allow different states to agree on how best to work together to solve a problem Provide clarity and coordinate efforts May have specialized officials to interpret rules in ambiguous situations WTO OSCE Institutions monitor compliance Help states to identify rule breakers by checking to see who is complying w rules adn who is not reporting requirements inspections IAEA gt International Atomic Energy Agency especially for Arms agreementscompliance States can then individually or collectively criticize ostracize or punish the rule breakers World Trade Organization as an example Key trade institution now stuck in interminable negotiations Sets out basic rules of world trading system provides means to resolve disputes monitors members to see how well they are doing at maintaining open trade Rules of Trade WTO has detailed rules which are intended most of the time to remove barriers to trade lowers tariffs and import duties tries to prevent more subtle forms of protectionism Rules have been negotiated in successive rounds between states EU and US have predominated in the past Little progress in areas like agriculture problems of IP Many farmers in rich countries that don t want foreign competition Intellectual property Ensuring common rules Dispute Resolution Mechanism Disputes often arise over trade l Informal discussion between the governments 2 Creation of a panel which will judge the case 3 Possible appeal of decisions to Appellate Body of WTO in Geneva Compensation or permission to retaliate Monitoring WTO monitors members to see how well they are doing in lowering barriers to trade May issue recommendations but no binding authority Much weaker than IAEA But settlement and dispute resolution process provide an informal means of monitoring and sanctioning Interestsgt Government casesgt penalties Institutions The Liberal Order and China This is a US centric viewpoint Institutions and States Many liberals and constructivists believe that institutions don t just solve technical problems Can also change the states that participate in them Concept of liberal order re ected in a variety of institutions that states adhere to Relationship between liberal order and states Questions regarding China Liberal Order and the US Post WWII US was the most important power Worried by previous war wanted to avoid it from happening again Worried by prospect of USSR and Communism wanted to create a bulwark against it Hence started thinking about how to create better international structures Diagnosis of Nazi problem Many aspects of Nazism inherent to German history But also argument that hitler had found it easier to make wa y 0 power because of two factors War reparations hurt German International nancial and economic Bretton Woods bretton Woods institutions IMF World Bank IBRD Aimed at creating greater international nancial stability avoiding currency collapses and international crises Provided help to tates that got into trouble Post WWII Liberal Order Bretton Woods institutions plus GATTWTO and Marshall Plan embedded ideas about how to embed liberalism at international level Prevent Financial crises Support economic development in europe and elsewhere Provide clear rules to promote trade and exchange all intended to support global liberalism greatest liberal states and perhaps spread liberalism Liberal Order Created by US Clear from texts that US with some input from the UK played the crucial role in desiging these institutions Re ect US Priorities and values watered down Bind the US as well as its allies Complex mixture of nominal equality and power Consequences for states Liberal Order changed in meaning embedded liberalism to neoliberalism But has clearly changed states as well as protecting them Membership requirements push states towards liberalism WTO membership direct intervention can also have liberalneoliberal consequences IMF
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