Ch. 17 notes
Ch. 17 notes history 102 010
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Makenzie Strand on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to history 102 010 at Western Kentucky University taught by Chunmei Du in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see world history II in History at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
Chapter. 17 Revolutions of Industrialization 1750- 1914 1. Explaining the Industrial Revolution *Why Europe? -Competition within Europe-Smaller states’ competition in Europe versus large, unified Asian & *Middle Eastern empires State-merchant alliances -state support for innovation & merchant groups *Competition with Asian Imports -Threats of less –expensive & superior-quality Asian goods -experiment with labor and cost saving devices *Geography: The American Windfall -easy access to silver, sugar, slaves -essential boost for Europe’s competition with Asia *Why Britain? 1. Colonies, commercial society, and political security -Aristocrats engaged in money making entrepreneurial enterprises (unlike the French & Spansh nobility who loathed merchant culture) 2. Practical, not theoretical, science 3. Lucky Geography -Plentiful supplies of coal and iron, near each other -more stable: island location, freed from military campaigns of the French Revolution and Napoleonic era. The industrial Revolution in Britain 1760-1850 *Steam engine-James Watt 1760-1780 Revolutionized British industry -Mobile -versatile -potentially unlimited power Railroads -economic/ social/ environmental/ cultural changes -Requires huge capital outlaws/ promotes public & private credit & investment Industrialization and Urbanization of England 1850 **The first Industrial society -the British aristocracy -middle classes -the laboring (working) classes *The British Aristocracy 1. Landowners remained wealthy -as only a few thousands families owned half the cultivated land in Britain, this class remained wealthy & exerted power in Parliament 2. Overall decline in class power -new sources of urban wealth from entrepreneurs, industrialists, and bankers began to challenge to old wealth of land The Middle Classes 1. At the upper end: wealth industrialists, bankers, & entrepreneurs; gaining power 2. The lower middle class -clerks, salespeople, and teachers grew -did not pay all that well, nut distinguished the workers from the laboring classes 3. The laboring classes -70% of Britain -suffered the most and gained the least from industrialization -Rapid urbanization: by 1851 the majority of Britain’s lived in cities -New working conditions: cramped, dirty with epidemic diseases -women and girls in the factory -early 19 century, preferred labor -later pushed out of factories or into least prestigious unskilled jobs Classical Liberalism -a belief in small government, education, and the law as guaranteed by constitutions. -Samuel Smiles “Self-Help” *stressed hard work & self-reliance, arguing that poverty was due to a lack of trying and thrift. Women: paragons of “respectability” -“respectability”: “respectable” women should not work and should concern themselves with the domestic sphere D. Social Protest *Robert Owen (1771-1858) -An early experimenter in a form of socialism -promoted decent and spacious housing, higher wages, and education for all children. *Karl Marx’s (1818-1883) “scientific socialism” -argue that capitalism was inherently unstable and would **Luddites and the impacts of technology on labor—they smashed machines because they replaced their jobs E. Europeans in Motion *Migration to cities and other continents -over half to cities in the 19century -20%, 50-55 million people, for overseas destinations during 1815-1939. *Settler colonies in Australia and New Zealand *The United States -30 million Europeans arrived between 1820-1930 -Protestants from Britain and Germany looked down upon later arriving Catholics and Jews from southern and eastern Europe. *Russians and Ukrainians to Siberia.
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