Gen Chem Ch. 2 Sec. 5
Gen Chem Ch. 2 Sec. 5 CHEM 10060-001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sabrina Stephens on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 10060-001 at Kent State University taught by David J. Bowers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
General Chemistry Dr David Bowers 10060003 9315 Radioactivity the spontaneous emission of radiation from certain unstable elements Ex Po Ra Ur Rn 25 Atomic Theory Today Macro observations after Dalton O O 0 Atom is spherical An atom is composed of a positively charged central nucleus which contains most of the mass The nucleus contains positive charged protons and neutral neutrons An atom contains one or more negatively charged e that are located mostly away from the nucleus Particle Mass amu Charge Electron e 11800 1 Proton p 1 actually 1007 1 Neutron n0 1 actually 1009 0 1 amu 167x10 3924g In an atom 0 Number of p equals number of e39 l electrically neutral no charge 0 Atomic numberZ number of p 0 Z determines identity of element If in a nuclear process an Si atom gainsloses p it is NO LONGER Si In a chemical process the number of p does not change Number of n0 can vary within limits because they have no charge l isotopes Isotopes atoms of an element that have different masses because of different numbers of n0 Atomic weightmass is average of all naturally occurring isotopes Element Mass Protons Neutrons Cobalt 60 27 33 Fluorine 19 9 10 Uranium 235 92 143 I Lead I 206 82 124 The existence of isotopes indicated Dalton s rule number 2 is not completely valid 0 Various isotopes of an element react similarly enough that most of the time this is a very good ROT rule of thumb Some types of chemical archeological and environmental research look at the differences in reactivity of isotopes 68 neutrons 115 Mass 197 197 Atomic 86 222 Ag Au Rn 47 electrons 47 79 electrons 79 136 neutrons 86 Ionic bonds result from the transfer of electrons of electrons from one element to another Molecules are discrete group of atoms that are held by covalent bonds Anions are negatively charged ions with more electrons that protons Ammonium ion is an example of a polyatomic cation Polyatomic ions are cations or anions that contains more than one atom 25 Atomic Theory Today Atomic weight AW of an element average weight of all isotopes 25 Calculating the Atomic Mass Silver has 2 naturally occurring isotopes 107Ag and 109Ag From the data provided calculate the atomic mass Isotope Mass lamu Abundance 107Ag 10690509 5184 1 9Ag 10890476 4816 Solution Mass portion from 107Ag 10690509amu x 05184 5542amu Mass portion from 109Ag 10890476amu x 04816 5545amu Atomic mass of Ag 5542amu 5545amu 10787amu
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