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Date Created: 09/20/14
828 Latent heat energy required to change matter from one state to other Know cooling and warming processes of water on second slide Latent heat of fusion is 335 joules per gram gt solid to liquid transition Latent heat of vaporization is 2500 joules per gram gt liquid to gas transition It is more efficient to change solid to liquid than it is liquid to gas Latent heat of sublimation is 2850 joules per gram gt solid to gas transition When water reaches vaporization and escapes into the air it is taking away energy from environment Latent heating takes place within the cloud as water vapor condenses drops or deposits ice This releases energy into the environment Radiation All objects above the temperature of absolute zero give off emit energy in the form of electromagnetic waves to their surrounding environment Only heat transfer that does not require medium ie molecules Travels at speed of light in all directions away from object Matters because this is how we get heat from sun there is no other medium Wavelength distance from a specified position on one wave to the same location on the next successive wave Frequency is number of wavelengths per unit time seconds Shorter wavelengths have more intense energy than longer wavelengths Laws of Radiation StefanBoltzman Law the higher the temperature of an object the greater the amount of total energy emitted by that object EthetaTquot4 o Theta56710quot 8 watts per meters squared K to the fourth Wein s Law the higher the temperature of an object the shorter the wavelength of maximum emission of that object o Lambda wavelength maximum CTK where C2898 micrometers K Radiative Equilibrium Radiation absorbed by an object increases the energy of the object 0 increased energy causes temperature to increase warming Radiation emitted by an object decreases the energy of the object o Decreased energy causes temperature to decrease cooling When the energy absorbed equals energy emitted this is called radiative equilibrium The corresponding temperature is the radiative equilibrium temperature Intensity of energy that we get from sun isn t that much see slide for intensity formula Solar constant the amount of incoming solar electromagnetic radiation per unit area that would be incident on a plane perpendicular to the rays at the mean distance from the sun to the earth if you consistently have a flat circle perpendicular to the sun s rays that s how much energy we can get we have fluctuations in solar constant Specular vs diffuse reflection Specular is neat diffuse goes everywhere Diffuse is what trees do Albedo reflection coefficient is the reflecting power of a surface It is defined as the ratio of reflected radiation from the surface to incident radiation upon it The earth is 33 degrees celsius warmer than expected based on equilibrium because of greenhouse gases