The Iliad Notes, Books 17-20
The Iliad Notes, Books 17-20 Classics 320
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah James on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Classics 320 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Laura McClure in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see The Greeks in Classical Studies at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
The Iliad Books 1720 Book 17 0 A fight breaks out over Patroclus s body 0 Euphorbus the Trojan who speared him tries to take Achilles armor but is killed by Menelaus O Hector encouraged by Apollo sees Euphorbus s fall and comes to help 0 Menelaus enlists the help of Great Aj aX who forces Hector back and prevents the body from being removed or desecrated I He arrives too late to save the armor however which Hector dons himself 0 Glaucus rebukes Hector for leaving Patroclus s body they might have traded it for Sarpedon s 0 Hector reenters battle promising to give half the war s spoils to the Trojan who drags Patroclus s corpse away 0 Aware of Hector s impending doom perhaps pitying it Zeus gives Hector great power 0 Aj ac and Menelaus summon more Greeks and they soon force the Trojans back 0 Aeneas strengthened by Apollo rallies the Trojans to fight but they still take the corpse O Achilles charioteer Automedon begins to fight as Zeus gives him fresh strength 0 Hector tries to kill Automedon but he dodges Hector s spear and kills a Trojan 0 He takes the Troj an s armor claiming that it eases the grief of Patroclus s spirit 0 Athena disguised as PhoeniX gives fresh strength to Menelaus while Apollo disguised as a Trojan encourages Hector 0 Menelaus sends Antilochus for help from Achilles who doesn t know of Patroclus s death 0 Zeus begins moving the battle in the Trojans favor but relents long enough for Menelaus and Meriones to carry away Patroclus s body Book 18 0 When Antilochus brings word to Achilles of Patroclus s death Achilles loses control 0 He weeps beats the ground with his fists covers his face with dirt 0 He utters a cry so loud that Thetis hears and comes to learn what troubles her son 0 Achilles tells Thetis of the tragedy and insists that he shall avenge Patroklus despite the fact should he choose to live the life of a warrior he is fated to die young 0 Thetis says that since Hector has Achilles armor Hephaestus will make him a new set 0 Thetis departs and Iris sent by Hera comes to tell Achilles that he must make an appearance on the battlefield 0 The appearance will scare the Trojans into stopping the fight for Patroclus s body 0 Achilles leaves his tent accompanied by Athena and lets loose an enormous cry that sends the Trojans eeing 0 That night each army holds an assembly to plan its next move 0 In the Trojan camp Polydamas urges his comrades to retreat to the city now that Achilles will to return to battle I Hector dismisses the idea as cowardly and insists on repeating the previous day s assault 0 His foolhardy plan wins the support of the Trojans for Athena has robbed them of their wits O In the Achaean camp the men mourn for Patroclus I Achilles has men clean Patroclus s wounds to prepare him for burial though he vows not to bury him until he has slain Hector 0 Thetis goes to Hephaestus s mansion and begs him to make Achilles a new set of armor O Hephaestus forges a breastplate a helmet and an extraordinary shield that has images of constellations pastures dancing children and cities of men Book 19 0 Thetis presents Achilles with the armor that Hephaestus has forged for him 0 She promises to look after Patroclus s body and keep it from rotting while Achilles goes to battle 0 Achilles walks along the shore calling his men to an assembly 0 At the meeting Agamemnon and Achilles reconcile with each other and Agamemnon gives Achilles the gifts that he promised I He also returns Briseis 0 Achilles announces his intention to go to war at once 0 Odysseus persuades him to let the army eat but Achilles himself refuses to eat until he has killed Hector 0 All through breakfast he sits mourning his dear friend Patroclus and reminiscing 0 Even Briseis mourns for Patroclus treated her kindly when she was first captured 0 Zeus finds the scene emotionally moving and sends Athena down to fill Achilles stomach with nectar and ambrosia keeping his hunger at bay Achilles then dons his armor and mounts his chariot He also chastises his horses Roan Beauty and Charger for leaving Patroclus to die 0 Roan Beauty replies that it was a god who let Patroclus die and that the same is fated for Achilles O Achilles needs no reminders he knows that by fighting for his friend he seals his destiny Book 20 0 While the Achaeans and Trojans prepare Zeus summons the gods to Mount Olympus 0 He knows that if Achilles enters the battlefield unchecked he will decimate the Trojans and maybe even bring the city down before its fated time 0 He thus removes his previous injunction against divine interference in the battle The gods decide to watch the fighting rather than be involved and they take seats on opposite hills interested to see how their teams will fare on their own Before he resumes a passive role Apollo encourages Aeneas to challenge Achilles The two heroes meet on the battlefield and exchange insults O Achilles is about to stab Aeneas when Poseidon in sympathy for the Trojan and much to the chagrin of the other pro Greek gods whisks Aeneas away Hector approaches but Apollo persuades him not to duel in front of the ranks but rather to wait with the other soldiers until Achilles comes to him 0 Hector initially obeys but when he sees Achilles so smoothly slaughtering the Trojans among them one of Hector s brothers he again challenges Achilles I The fight goes poorly for Hector and Apollo is saves him a second time