this weeks notes
this weeks notes GEOG 103 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 103 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Larianne Collins (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
92215 Exogenic Processes 1 Weathering 2 Mass Wasting mass movement 3 Erosion Weathering breakdown of rocks at the surface into pieces ranging from boulders to pebbles to sand to microscopic silt particles rocks begin to breakdown the moment they are exposed to weather attacked by water oxygen carbon dioxide amp temp fluctuations 1st step in soil formation 2 types of weathering mechanical amp chemical Mechanical physical breakdown of rocks only changes size of rock not composition caused by frost roots salt crystals Chemical chemical alteration of minerals changes composition of rock occurs in warm moist areas oxidation rock rusting carbonation H20 002 generally occurs in warmer or moist climates w a lot of humidity ex of bike rusting if you ve left it outside for a while Mass Wastino Mass Movement downslope movement of materiallandscapes due to gravity results from gravity weight moisture amp lack of cohesion in material soil creep most common slump mudflow earthflow solifluction lots of water lack of cohesion in soil landslide rockfall are all landscapes effects of mass wastingmovement Erosion movement of weathered material by water wind or glaciers fast moving agents carry debris slow moving agents deposit debris Erosion agents amp deposition form distinctive landforms running water fluvial landscape most impactful erosional agent nothing erodes more groundwater groundwater landscape glaciers glacial landscapes wind wind landscapes wavescurrents coastal landscape Running Water precipitation gt runoff gt river gt ocean river running water fluvial river landscapes that are created by rivers alluvium sediments deposited by running water Effectiveness depends on 0 amount of precipitation o slopelength 0 nature of soilrock amp vegetation cover Fluvial Landscapes Humid delta the end of a river where it dumps out oxbow lake silting occurs in a delta landscape Fluvial Landscapes Arid lack of vegetation greatly increases erosional force but due to temporary existence of running water erosional power is much less consistent landscapes can be created in dry areas such as mesa butte arroyo alluvial fan Groundwater Landscapes Aquifer rock body that holds groundwater Water table top of saturated zone Karst Topography sinkhole type landscape you can see the soil content is not very strong because sedimentary rock can easily crumblepockets of air are created because the limestone has been eroded away by the groundwater Glacial Landscapes Glacier large body of ice moving slowly down a slow Weight amp pressure of snow compact into ice amp constantly move Fjord main landscape that we see as a result of glaciated areas glaciers melt and it turns into an armextension of the sea Wind Landscapes Winddriven sand soil amp dust sculpts landscape Humid areas vegetation cover confines effect of wind to mainly beach areas Arid areas wind is a powerful agent of erosion amp deposition sand dunes massive or simply beach like loess silk deposition Coastal Landscapes waves the forcing agent for most coastal processes and landform development and change gt wind generates most waves erosional beaches large seastacks depositional beaches beaches where stuff sand is deposited flatwhite sanded basic beaches 92415 Weather short term conditions in the atmosphere temp moisture wind hourly daily weekly meteorology caused by the unequal heating of Earth s surface Climate long term changes in atmospheric conditions temp wind moisture years seasonal average climatology lnsolation amp Reflection land will absorb more radiation than waterclouds albedo degree of reflectivity of a surface Unequal Surface Heating continentally temp conditions more extreme land warms and cools rapidly marine temp conditions more moderate southern winter fewer daylight hours less direct light amp less heat southern summer more daylight hours more direct heat amp light angle of incidence based on the earth s rotation Layers of Atmosphere Troposphere lowest level of our atmosphere where all weather occurs highest pressures temp cools w altitude temp inversion at tropopause ceiling of the troposphere Atmospheric Pressure air pressure avg pressure at sea level 10133 mb not always constant varies w altitude amp temp What is weather Vertical movement of air caused by the unequal heating of the earth Rising air creates low pressure creates clouds precipitation Sinking air creates high pressure disperses clouds amp creates clear air Wind Speed Pressure gradient force 0 Air moves from high to low pressure Wind Direction Coriolis forceeffect earths rotation turns wind right in Northern Hemisphere Earths rotation turns wind left in southern hemisphere Wind Characteristics speed direction temp moisture Wind takes on the characteristics of the terrain over which it blows Wind Temp amp Moisture Warm air can hold more water vapor than cool air Humid air is lighter than dry air Relative humidity amount of water vapor in air compared to airs water vapor capacity at a given temp Dew point temp to which air must be cooled to form condensation Air mass a region of air with uniform temp and moisture characteristics 4 Lifting Mechanisms of weather Convergent lifting air comes together must go up the tropics Convectional lifting air rises from surface heating convectional thunderstorms are the popcorn ones that only last about an hour in SC early afternoon Orographic lifting mountains force air to rise rainshadow effect Frontal lifting warmer less dense air rises when air masses meet ITCZ InterTropical Convergence Zone storm gaining momentum looks like cauliflower when its weakening looks like cotton candy cold front cold air is dominant generally create violent thunderstorms warm front warm air is dominant not causing vast or violent thunderstorms
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