Criminology ADMJ 0600 - 1030
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ADMJ 0600 - 1030
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mora Lucero on Thursday September 24, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ADMJ 0600 - 1030 at University of Pittsburgh taught by Louis Gentile in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminology in Law and Legal Studies at University of Pittsburgh.
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Date Created: 09/24/15
Criminology Lecture 1 A Criminology a Purpose to control behavior in order to live in a civilized society B How to Control Criminal Behavior a Code of Hammurabi an eye for an eye a tooth for a toot i Gave normalcy to punishment b Cesare Beccaria Classical Criminology i Punishment should fit the crime ii Determinate sentence no minimum no maximum iii Believed people want to achieve pleasure and avoid pain c August Comte Father of Sociology Positivism i Used the Scientific Method to conduct research power of observation ii Empirical verification d Cesare Lombroso Criminal Traits i born criminals suffer from atavistic anomalies facial features represent prehistoric men ii Punishment should fit the criminal iii Indeterminate sentence gives reason for criminals to behave Rehabilitation e Emile Durkheim Sociological Criminology i Anomie normlessness f Probation under government authority g Parole temporary release of prisoner i Direct violation goes against rules of parole that may send offender back to prison C Why Do People Commit Crime a Social Structure Theories suggest one s place in socioeconomic structure Poverty and Disadvantages in uence chances of becoming criminal i Cultural Deviance Theory sees strain and social disorganization together resulting in a unique lowerclass culture that con icts with conventional social norms ii Strain Theory sees crime as a function of the con ict between people s goals and the means available to obtain them Accept Means Reject Means Accept CONFORMIT INNOVATION Goals Y Reject RITUALISM RETREATIS New Means Goals M New REBELLIO Goal N s b iii Social Disorganization Theory focuses on the breakdown in innercity neighborhoods of institutions such as family school and employment iv Concentric CirclesZones Theory Shawn and McKay stated that the most crime rates were located closer to the center whereas the least crime rates were located farthest from the center Social Control everyone has the potential to become a criminal but most are controlled by bonds to society i Informal Social Control operate on private level and involve peersfamilies by awarding or withholding approval and respect 1 Key virtue is family ii Institutional Social Control social institutions such as schools churches and recreation centers decrease crime rates and exert positive effect 1 Key virtue is community involvement iii Public Social Control stable neighborhoods that can draw on outside help and secure external resources in order to reduce effects of disorganization or crime rates 1 Key virtue is police presence Relative Deprivation con ict within us such as mistrust envy aggression resulting from perceptions of economic or social inequality compared to others i Felt most by African American youth ii Form negative selffeelings or hostility Differential Opportunity view that lowerclass youths whose legitimate opportunities are limited join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals D Criminal Justice System a b totmen Preliminary Arraignment held in front of district justice discuss bond complaint and date for preliminary hearing Preliminary Hearing held 310 days from Preliminary Arraignment i Up to government to establish prima facie 1 Sufficient evidence to prove case but not quite enough to convict Pretrial Conference meeting with lawyer and or prosecutor Formal Arraignment held in front of a judge 365 days from the complaint Suppression Hearing attack legitimacy or legality of evidence for defendant TRIAL Discovery defendant has the right to discover any evidence that may be used against himher
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