BIOL 160 Pinnaduwage- Carbohydrates Notes
BIOL 160 Pinnaduwage- Carbohydrates Notes BIOL 160 - 021
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BIOL 160 - 021
Mary Alison Bennett
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mary Alison Bennett on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 160 - 021 at University of Tennessee - Knoxville taught by Purnima D Pinnaduwage in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Cellular and Molecular Biology in Biology at University of Tennessee - Knoxville.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Carbohvd rates Structure Monosaccharides O O O O O the building blocks of carbohydrates Can vary in Location of carbonyl aldose or ketose Arrangement and number of hydroxyls Number of Carbon atoms triose pentose hexose etc Spatial arrangement of atoms Shape and form linear and ring Rings form in aqueous solutions Monosaccharides are unique in structure and function Of the formula CH20n Exist in alpha and beta forms depends on the C1 hydroxyl alpha down beta up Glycosidic Linkaqe 0 Links monosaccharides o Condensation reaction 0 Alpha and beta linkages depend on the plane certain atoms land on 0 Alpha points down in pictures beta points up Func on m o The sugarenergy storage in plants 0 Alpha 14 and alpha 16 glycosidic linkage 1 4 is usual so when 16 occurs it causes branching in the molecule 0 Unbranched helices are called amylose branched are amylopectin Glycogen o The energy storage in animals ex In the liver and muscles 0 Alpha 14 and 16 glycosidic linkage 0 Much more branched than starch to hold more energy Cellulose 0 Structural support of cell walls in plants and algae 0 Beta 1 4glycosidic linkages form parallel strands of monomers that hydrogen bond with the strands around it Chitin 0 Structural support in cell walls of fungi and exoskeleton of insects and crustaceans 0 Beta 1 4 glycosidic linkage o Monosaccharide monomers have a NHCOCH3 group on one carbon 0 Parallel strands lined up with hydrogen bonds Peptidoqlvcan 0 Structural support in bacterial cell walls 0 Beta 1 4 glycosidic linkage o Monosaccharide monomers have a NHCOCH3 group on one carbon 0 Monomers also have 4 amino acids on another carbon 0 The amino acid chains react with each other to provide parallel structure through peptide bonds 0 Lysozyme an enzyme that can break down peptidoglycan Overview 0 Energy storing carbohydrates ESC utilize alpha linkage while structural carbohydrates SC utilize beta linkage o ESCs are helical and often branched o SCs form straight chains that make parallel lines with other chains through hydrogen bonds 0 SCs are very difficult to hydrolyze break apart while ESCs are easier Within the Cell 0 Carbohydrates have NO catalytic activity 0 But they do have many diverse functions Glycoproteins o Aid in cell identity o Cellcell recognition and cellcell signaling 0 Display information on the outer surface of the cell 0 Example helps sperm cells locate and bind to egg cells 0 Example Glycoproteins denote your blood type Energy Storage 0 The multitude of C H and C C bonds in carbohydrates are prime for energy storage 0 The bonds are shared very equally and therefore easy to break to obtain energy unlike C O bonds for example 0 To obtain energy 0 GlycogenStarch is hydrolyzed o The glucose from the polymers in broken down 0 The released energy is captured in the synthesis of ATP cellular energy source