Chapter 2, 3, and 4
Chapter 2, 3, and 4 PSY101
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alejandra Jaramillo on Friday September 25, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY101 at University at Buffalo taught by Quinton, W J in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at University at Buffalo.
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090915 Chapter 2 The amazing Randi Magician challenger of psychic phenomena No auraseer has passed randi s test of hisher abilities Randi exempli es skepticism key element of scienti c attitudes The Scienti c attitude How do you separate sense from nonsense Psychology uses science Curiosity Example horror lms Do people like to watch scary movies because they like the relief after being scared or because they are ok that it doesn t happen to them but to somebody else Skepticism example show me the evidence Humility example rejecting yourself when you get the wrong answer or have to repeat experiment or be patient to go through a lot of time or your idea have no evidence behind it The goals of psychology 1 Measurement and description a devise method for measuring psychological variable of interest b characterize thoughts feelings or behavior based on measurement Example facebook selfdisclosure 2 Understanding and prediction a Look for reasons why phenomenon occurs b Predict under what conditions phenomenon will occur and when it won t Example disclose because seeking support another Example disclose when help likely now when it isn t 3 Application and Control a See value of research in real world Example interventions in serious cases of distress b Understanding often leads to greater control Example help people make choices to decrease despair Psychology s Main research methods Case studies Naturalistic observation Surveys Experiments I Case studies analysis of the experiences of a particular person or group of people Who do we pick Those whose extraordinary experiences are dif cult or impossible to recreate in lab Example conjoint twins Example Phineas Cage Railroad foreman summer 1848 Iron went trough his head 43 1325 iron road Before the accident he was a nice good leader after he would screamed more and cry and more aggressive That brain region speci city Daguerreotype mystery ll Naturalistic observation observing and describing naturally occurring phenomena usually with little experimenter intervention Example Jane Goodall s work with chimpanzees Tool use affection brutality III Surveys asking people to respond to carefully worded questions Extremely common Likert and sematic differential type of questions Often correlate responses look for association Example test correlation between selfesteem and confidence in approaching romantic partners Best t line in the graph As one goes higher so does the other IV Experimentation investigation of causeeffect relationships through manipulation of variables Example one group of people gets new anti anxiety drug one group does not placebo inoiepenoient variaioie W what you manipulate drug epenoient variaioie DEV what you measure felt anxiety after taking drug Control over variables Can say cause but can t with correlation other types of research CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION Key issues in research methods 0 Limits of correlation Consider more time on cell phones more headaches More educated less sex REMEMBER CORRELATION DOES NOT EQUAL CAUSATION Bottomline If only correlational data 0 Limits on experimentation Necessity of Proper Design control execution Example Straight versus curly hair clip 0 Artificiality Example Generalization 0 Difficulty Impossibility Manipulate variable of interest 0 le like daily tv diet loneliness Brain injury toxic environment handedness It s hard to make someone feel lonely or make someone have a brain injury for research 1 How to write an acceptable research report a Choose article carefully b Read article c Fully answer the question type in 12 point font always do the max d Attach a printout of the rst page of the article to the worksheet of the PDF Turn in anytime last day of class is last day to turn in Research summaries will not be accepted over email Failure to meet all criteria will result in an Incomplete What are the criteria 2 How to avoid Plagiarism Plagiarism to pass of another s ideas or work as ThFD one s own a Research summaries must put what s written into your own words No quoting from article Do not use their words Don t change a few words in a sentence ZERO TOLERANCE POLICY 091415 1 The nervous system a Nervous system at work example watching a scary movie sweaty palms hear rate beating faster handles information just as circulatory system handles blood b Nervous system is living tissue composed of cells 2 Nervous tissue The basic hardware a Two categories Glia and Neurons i Glia mainly provide structure support and nourishment to neurons can communicate with each other ii Neurons individual cells in nervous system that receiver integrate and transmit information 3 Structure of neurons a Soma cell body contains nucleus Responsible for life of the cell b Dendrites branchlike pars of neuron receive information wait for signal or information c Axon Long thin ber that transmits signals can have multiple feet long or very short d Terminal buttons small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters squirt and absorb neurotransmitters e Myelin insulating material speeds up transmission of signals in humans many axons are myelinated It has multiple sclerosis f Nodes of Ranvier natural gaps in myelin g Synapse junction gap between neurons through which messages are transmitted 4 The neural impulse a Complex electrochemical reaction b Neuron at rest is like little battery store of energy It can be at rest or stimulated to make transmission c Action Potential brief shift in neuron s electrical charge that travels down axon From the soma down to the axon Sends message to the terminal buttons Terminal buttons release chemicals neurotransmitters into synapse d Neurotransmitters are received by dendrites or soma of next neuron e This MAY cause second neuron to re action potential f Basic process many exceptions some neurons have no or multiple axons g THE ALL OR NONE LAW either neuron res or it doesn t like a gun i Strength indicated by rate of ring lf stimulus is strong the action potential will happen rapidly Less often then weak stimulus 0 Some speci cs of neural impulse cont 0 Transmission takes place in synaptic cleft The gap between terminal button and cell membrane 0 Presynaptic neuron one sending signal 0 Postsynaptic neuron receiving the signal 0 Postsynaptic potential PSP voltage change at receptor site on postsynaptic cell membrane do not follow all or none law they can be Excitatory PSP or Inhibitory PSP 0 Ex is more likely to re and lnhi decreases it 0 Last only fraction of second Reuptake when neurotransmitters are soaked up by presynaptic membrane if neurotransmitters are not taken in and just oat there it will be sucked up or metabolize by the body 393 Neurotransmitters gt Acetylcholine links motor neurons and muscles involved in attention arousal and memory Alzheimer s undersupply of acetylcholine Curare a poison that blocks reception of acetylcholine prey freezes Black widow spider venom oods with acetylcholine body has lots of contraction These spiders are shy mostly don t kill people gt Dopamine Linked to muscle activity and pleasurable emotions Parkinson s shortage of dopamine voluntarily movement Schizophrenia excess receptors To much dopamine gt Norepinephrine increases arousal and modulates mood o Manic States they are hyperactive wildly optimistic Too much norepinephrine NE gt such as cocaine and amphetamines elevate activity 9 Depression too little NE gt drugs such as SNRls selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors 9 Serotonin lowers activity level and causes sleep related to positive emotions anxiety Such as gt drugs LSD hallucinations inhibit action of serotonin Serotonin inhibits dreaming Waking dreams o Depression to little serotonin SSRls 1 How is the nervous system organized NERVOUS SYSTEM CENTRAL NERVOUS PERIPHERAL NERVOURS SYSTEM CNS brain and spinal cord PNS all neurons outside brain and spinal cord 2 The central nervous system a Spinal cord connects the brain to the body through the PNS i Houses bundles of axons that carry brain s messages to body If you get an injury it wouldn t just affect the spinal cord it will also interrupt the message pathway to the brain 1 3 basic type of injury Hemiplegia Paraplegia Quadriplegia a Hemiplegia one side of the body stroke b Paraplegia lower extremities legs Impairment or no use at all c Quadriplegia no use of legs and arms or some use of arm and no legs b Brain roughly 100 billion neurons in human brain i Human brain vs other brains Might be bigger and more convoluted to others ii Human brain divided into three regions 1 Hindbrainface Have pons medulla and cerebellum a Cerebellum is involved with coordination and movement First to get affected when drinking alcohol Physical balance b Medulla involved with cardiovascular respiratory c connects different regions of the brain bridge Sleep and arousal 2 Midbrain have most important reticular activating system that is involved with sleep arousal breathing and pain perception Has many structure as vision and hearing Dopamine releasing neurons 3 Forebraintai Cerebral cortex hippocampus hypothalamus thalamus imbic system a Hypothalamus regulates biological drives Responsible for four F s ghting eeing feeding and mating D b Thalamus Relays and integrates sensory signals c The imbic system i Amygdala plays a role of emotions fear responses rage ii Hippocampus learning and memory d Cerebral cortex outer layer of cerebrum Neocortex outermost layer Responsible for complex mental activities learning remembering thinking More complex equals bigger more wrinkling e Cerebrum responsible for complex mental activities Two halves occipital lobe and parietal lobe f Corpus callosum connects L and R cerebral hemispheres LEFT HEMISPHERE Right hemisphere Language comprehension Language comprehension with only speech production Crude speech Mathematical ability judgments pattern recognitionfaces melodies of time and rhythm context humor ANALYTIC PROCESSING HOLISTIC PROCESSING I Traumatic Brain Injury TBI a Can be caused by any type of fall hit or object being thrown It can range from mild moderate and severe Recent focus on repeated mild TBlmTBl i Combat veterans ii Contact sports football hockey soccer boxing and professional wrestling 1618 million of sports head injury iii Victims of domestic violence b Possible long term effect of repeated mTBl i Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy CTE progressive degenerative disease Found in those with history of repetitive TBI 1 TBI necessary but not sufficient cause 2 Symptomatic concussion AND asymptomatic subconcussion 3 Seen as early as 1925 in quotpunch drunkquot boxers ii lnvolves abnormal buildup of tau protein c How is CTE diagnosed i Via postmortem looking for patterns of tau protein Normally they can detect if you have CTE after you re dead ii CTE looks like when brow areas are deposits of tau proteins iii Cognitive Memory impairment executive function impairment progressive dementia cognition and sociably decHne iv Mood Depression apathy irritability hopelessness suicidality v Behavior Poor impulse control disinhibition aggression increased violence Often substance abuse addiction 1 EXAMPLE DEREK BOOGAARD S BRAIN d FEW CTE unknowns and knowns i CTE vs Alzheimer s disease AD 1 CTE symptoms present earlier 2 Different typical clinical presentation a AD is memory problems b CTE as judgment impulse control aggression ii In boxers and football players duration of athlete career correlates with severity of pathology iii We don t know incidence prevalence risk factors besides head impacts How less severe head impacts relate or don t to CTE iv Examples The Crash Reel Kevin Pearce League of Denial NFL hide concussions e What s next for CTE i More research more TBI postmortems Developments of diagnostic screening 092115 SENSATION VS PERCEPTION o Sensation stimulation of sense organs Involves absorption of energy 0 Perception selection organization and interpretation of sensory input lnvolves categorizing and translating into meaning making sense of it all Sensation aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ED perception eent nuum Stimu ates energy agt sensery reeepters agt neuren mputses mgt brain 0 WHAT ARE WE SENSING Sense phys ea stinnu us Vision Electromagnetic radiation Hearing Oscillations in air pressure Smell Airborne chemicals Taste Contact with chemicals Touch Pressure Temperature Pain 0 Sensation Absolute Threshold minimum amount of stimulation that an organism can detect Sense minimum stimulus Vision a candle ame seen at 30 miles on a clear dark night Hearing the tick of a watch at 20 ft under quiet conditions Taste one teaspoon of sugar in 2 gallons of water Smell one drop of perfume diffused into the air of six rooms Touch feel of a y s wing falling on your cheek from 1cm 1 Vision human eye sensitive to only a narrow band of electromagnetic radiation a Visible wavelengths 2 Hearing auditory sensations surround and inform us a Sound detection 0 to 180 decibels b How loud is too loud Cilia gets shorter as you hear to loudness they are hair cells Normai cohversatioh 60dB No immediate damage Screamihg chiid 90dB Dahger with proiohged exposure ioss of 8 hours Subway traih at 20 ft 110dB 7 7 ioss after 2 hours Cohcert at ciose rahge 140dB immediate dahger ioss after 375 mih Noise ihduced hearihg ioss cah be permaheht hair ceiis break off ahd do hot grow back ih humahs c What about mobile device Max volume on lpodlphone with apple stock earbuds is 100115dB d Noise induced hearing loss is preventable 3 Taste a Four primary tastes Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami b Taste preferences largely learned c Only universal source of tasterelated disgust FECES 4 Smell a Humans can distinguish 10000 different odors b Doctors chefs and smell c Anosmia no sense of smell i Be born with it and it s genetic or head injury or toxic chemicals d Strong ties to memory On average Women have a better sense of smell but equal to end when they hit metapause 5 Touch a Pain no special pain receptors affected by exceptions personality mood culture i Gate control theory spinal cord can block incoming pain signals if overload with competing signalsrub the booboo 6 o PERCEPTION o Is organized and structured Gestalt principles of perceptual organization German school of Gestalt psychology Gestalt means whole pattern or shape Native perceptual tendencies that we are born to see thing in unique ways Figure Ground the principles of it Figure thing being looked at Ground background we naturally divide visual displays into gure and ground o Is in uenced by expectations Perceptualconstancies o Involves constancies Illusions false perceptual hypotheses o Ponzo illusion o The muller lyer illusion Ames room